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Cornell University Library 
DS 458.M95 1858 



The KJtab-i-yamini :historical memoirs 




3 1924 024 066 833 



THE 



KITAB-I-YAMINI. 



»*••'.# .. • 



Perque Asise populos, fatis urgentibus actus, 
Humana cum strage ruit, gladiumque per omnes 
Exegit gentes, ignotos miscuit amnes, 
Persarum Euphratem, Indorum sanguine Q-angem. 

LiroAJr, Phaesalia, L. x. 30. 



:*'•» • ;. #■• ■••#!# # 



THE 



KITAB-I-YAMINI, 



HISTORICAL MRMOIRS 



THE AMIR SABAKTAGIN, AND THE SULTAN 
MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 

EARLY OONQUEBOBS OF HINBTTSTAIT, AND POtTMDEES 0! THE GHAZNATIDE 

DTNASTT. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE PERSIAN VERSION OF THE CONTEMFORAIiY 
ARABIC CHRONICLE OF 

AL UTBI, 

BY THE 

Rev. JAMES REYNOLDS, B.A., 

OF ST. CATHAETNE'S HALL, CAMBBIDGE, INCUMBENT OP ST MAE,Y'S HOSPITAL, ILFOKD, 
ESSEX, SECBETAtlT TO THE COMMITTEE OF THE OKIENTAL TRANSLATION FUND, <fec 




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CONTENTS. 



PAQE 
TkANSI/A-TOB's iNTEODrCTION . . ... . . . . xiii 

Persian Translator's Preface . . . . . . . . 1 

Chaptee I. 

Annals of tbe Life of the Amir Nasir-ad-din Sabaktagin, 

and its events . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 

Chaptee II. 
Account of the Capture of the Province of Best . . . . 26 

Chaptee III. 
Account of the Decease of Mansur-'bn-Nuh . . . . 43 

Chaptee IV. 
History of Khalaf-'bn- Ahmad, King of Sistan . . . . 51 

Chaptee V. 

History of Hisam-Addoulat-Tash, the Chamberlain, and 

the transference of the Government . . . . . . 60 

Chaptee VI. 

Account of the Departure of Tash from Jurjan to Buk- 
hara .. .. .. 84 



11 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Chaptee VII. 

Account of the Arrival of Tash at Jurj^n, and the ap- 
pointment of Abul-Hasan-Simjur to be General over 
the Army of Khurasan . . . . . . . . 95 

Chaptee VIII. 

History of the Conduct of Abul-Hasan-Simjur, as General 
of the Army of Khurasfei, uato the end of his Life, 
and the Transference of tjiat office unto his Son . . 110 

Chaptee IX. 

Account of Faik and his History, after the Events which 

have been recorded . . . . . . . . . . 119 

Chaptee X. 

Account of the Arrival of Baghrakhan at Bukhara, and 
the Might of Eidha from that place, and his return a 
second time to Bukhara after his Eemoval, and the 
Migration of Bagrakhan, . . . . . . . . 123 

Chaptee XI. 

Account of the Eeturn of the Prince Eidha to Bukhara, 

after the Departure of Baghrakhdn from thence . . 128 

Chaptee XII. 

Account of Abfil-Kasim-Simjur, Brother of Abu-Alf^ and 
his Circumstances, after his secession from his 
Brother 189 

Chaptee XIII. 

Account of that which passed between the Amir Saif- 
Addoulat and his Brother, IsmaSl, after the Death of 
their Pather . . . . . . . . . . 207 



COiNTBlNTS. ijli 



PAGE 

Chaptie XIV. 



History of Abul-Easim-Simjiir, and of what fell out 

between him and Begtuzum . . . . . . . . 218 

Chaptee XV. 

Account of the Conveyance of the Amir Ismail Irom the 
Citadel of Grhazna . . . . , . . . . . 234 

Chaptee XVI. 

Account of the Robe of Honoui? -wihich the Commander of 
the Faithful, Al-Kadir-Billah, sent to the Sultan 
Tamin-Addoulah . . . . 243 

Chaptee XVII. 

Account of the Eeturn of Abdul-Malik-Ibn-Nuh unto 

Bukhard 24.5 

Chaptee XVIII. 

Account of the Expedition of Abu-Ibrahim-IamaU-'bn- 
Nlih, and of the Transactions which took place with 
him and Ilek-Khdn, in Mawaralnahrr, and with the 
General of the Army, Abul-Muzaffar-Nasr-'bn-Nasir- 
addin-Sabaktagin, in Khurasan . . . . . . 247 

Chaptee XIX. 

Account of the Family of the Samanides and the Duration 
of their Government, until the Kingdom reverted to 
the Sultdn Yamin-Addoulat 269 

Chaptee XX. 

Account of that which happened between Nasir-addin- 
Sabaktagln and Khalaf- Ahmad, both as regards their 
differences and their friendships, up to the time when 
the Sultan Tamin-Addoulat wrested the Kingdom 
from his hands, and an account of the warlike inroads 
upon India which ensued . . . . . . . . 271 



IV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
CHArTEE XXI, 

Account of Shams-al-MuaH-Kablis-Iljn-Washaingir and 
his return to the Throne, after a long absence and 
severe endurance . . . . . . . . • ■ 296 

Cttapteb XXn. 

Account of the Alliance of the Sultan with Ilek-Khan and 

their subsequent estrangement .. .. ..315 

Chaftbb XXIII. 

Account of Ab6-Nasr-'bn-Ahmad-Ibn-Ali-Ibn-Begayeli, 

one of the principal subjects of the Sultan . . . . 318 

Chaptee XXIV. 

Account of Said-Abuzakat-Abfi-Jaafar-'bn-Mousa, Abul- 
Kasim - Hamza - 'bn - Muhammad - 'bn - Ali - 'bn - Al- 
Husain-'bn-Aii-'bn-Abu-Tdlib. (May Heaven be 
satisfied with them) . . . . . . . . . . 326 

Chaptee XXV. 
Account of the Conquest of Bahatih . . . . . . 322 

Chaptee XXVI. 
Account of the Capture of Multan. . , . . . . . 320 

Chaptee XXVII. 
Account of the Passage of the Jihun by Ilek-Khan . . 380 

Chaptee XXVIII. 
Account of the Capture of the Port of Bahim, by Storm 339 

Chaptee XXIX. 
Account of the Family of Perigun 343 



CONTENTS. 



PAftE 
Chapteb XXX. 



Account of the Commander of the Paithful, Al-Kadir- 
Billah, and his Khilafat after Tai, and his Inaugu- 
ration, and the Transactions that occurred with him 
and the Sultan Tamin-Addoulah, and Bilia-Addoulah 346 

Chapteb XXXI. 
Account of the Storming of Nardin . . . . . . 360 

Chaptee XXXII. 
History of the Capture of Giir . . . . . . . . 362 

Chaptee XXXIII. 
Account of the Pamine at Nisapur . . . . . . 365 

Chapteb XXXIV. 

Account of the two Khans, after their Eetum from 
Mawarannahr, and the Ambassadors whom they sent 
to the Sultan . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 

Chapteb XXXV. 
Account of the Capture of Kasdar. . .. .. .. 375 

Chapteb XXXVI. 

Account of the Shar Abu-Nasr-Muhammad-'bn-Asad and 

his Son, the Shar Abu-Muhammad 377 

Chapteb XXXVII. 
Account of the Event at Nazin 388 

Chapteb XXXVni. 
Account of the AiFairs of Tanishar 393 



Vl CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Chaptee XXXIX. 
Account of the Vizir Abiil-Abbas-'bn-razl-'bn-Ahmad . . 396 

Chaptee XL. 

Account of the Shaikh Khalil-Abul-Kasim-Ahmad-'bn- 

Husain 402 

Chaptee XLI. 

Account of Shams-Al-Muali-Kabus-'bn-Washamgir and 
the remaining portion of his Affairs, and of the acces- 
sion to the Throne of his Son, Palk-Al-Muali . . 407 

Crapteb XLII. 
Account of Dara, Son of Shams-Al-Muali-Kabua . . 419 

Chaptee XLIII. 
Account of Majduddoulah-Abu-Talib-'bn-Pakraddoulah . . 422 

Chaptee XLIV. 

Account of Biha-Addoulah-'bn-Azduddoulah and his 

Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 

Chaptee XLV. 
Account of Hek-Khan and Conclusion of his Affairs . . 431 

CBA.PTEE XL VI. 
Account of the Amir Abfi-Ahmad-'bn-Tamin-Addoulah . . 436 

Chaptee XLVII. 
Account of the Tahirite Envoy . . 43g 



CONTENTS. Vll 

PAGE 
Chaptee XL VIII. 

Account of the Amir Abul-Abbas-Mam<ia-Khwarism-8hah 
and the Conclusion of his History, and how his 
Kingdom devolved upon his Son . . . . . , 444 

Chaptee XLIX. 
Account of the Conquest of Mahrah and Kanuj . . . . 449 

Chaptee L. 

Account of the Construction of the Jama Masjid of 

Grhazna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 

Chaptee LI. 
Account of the Affair of the Afghans . . . . . . 467 

Chaptee LII. 

Account of the Kadhi Ablil-Ula-Said-'bn-Muhammad and 
the Master Abti-Bakr-'bn-Muhammad-Mamshad. 
(Heaven be merciful to him) . . . . . . . . 471 

Chaptee LIII. 
Account of Nasr-'bn-Ifasir- Addin-Sabaktagln . . . . 484 

Persian Translator's Peroration . . . . . . . . 489 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION. 



The following Memoirs are translated from 
the Persian version of the Arabic work composed 
by Ahlil- Nasr- Muhammad' -hn- Muhammad - Al- 
Jahhar-Al- Uthi. He was descended from the family 
of Utba, which had occupied important dignities 
and offices under the Princes of the house of Sdmdn 
(Kings of Khurasdn, and nominally feudatories of 
the Kh^lifs of Bagdad). Of this family two are 
mentioned in the present Memoir, one, Abill-Hasanr 
Utbi, was Grand Vizier of the Samanide Amir 
Mansiir-'bn-Niih, and the other, Abu-Jaafar-al- 
Utbi, was the nobleman to whom the Chamberlain 
Abiil-Abhds-Tdsh was originally a slave; our 
author himself, as he was evidently attached to 
the person of Sabaktagin and his son, doubtless 
filled some eminent post at Court, he possessed, 
therefore, the best facilities and opportunities for 
the compilation of these historical Memoirs, which 



XIV TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. 

comprise the whole of the reign of Sabaktagin, 
and are carried on to the 14th year, at least* of 
the reign of the Sultan Mahmdd. It is probable, 
therefore, that Utbi did not long survive the date 
at which his Memoirs terminate. It is to be 
regretted that this history, being thus cotemporary 
and personal, does not extend to the whole of that 
remarkable reign ; it, however, comprises that 
portion of it which was most stirring and eventful. 
It must be observed, however, that if the dates 
given by Dow, in his History of India, and pro- 
bably taken from Ferishta, be correct, Utbl must 
have survived to a very late period of Mahmiid's 
reign, as some of the transactions recorded by him 
appear to coincide with those mentioned by the 
above author. There are difficulties, however, 
attending the hypothesis of Dow's correctness, and 
possibly the authority of a contemporary writer 
may be more appropriately preferred, at least by 
his translator. 

The translation of this work into Persian was 
undertaken by Abiil Sharaf of Jabardicdn, under 
the circumstances which he mentions in his preface, 
that is, in order to amuse the faithful UMgh- 
Barik, a feudatory prince of the Atdbegs, and at 
the same time to instruct and warn him by the 

* Perhaps to the twentieth year. 



TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. XV 

example of Sabaktagin and Mahmiid, upon the 
subject of the advantages of righteous government, 
and of the ruin inevitably consequent upon oppres- 
sion on the one side and disloyalty on the other. 
The Translator derived the name JarhaMcdni from 
his birth-place, the town of Jabardican, between 
Hamadan and Isfahan, in Persia. His work was 
executed in the year a.h. 582, corresponding with 
A.D. 1186, the very period when the dynasty of 
Mahmild Sabaktagin was expelled from the throne 
of Ghazna, and succeeded by the family of Giir. 
The Persian MS- from which the present EngUsh 
version is rendered is a copy of one deposited in 
the Biblioth^que Imperiale at Paris. It was beau- 
tifully, and the Translator is convinced, accurately 
taken by Monsieur Kasimirski, lately Imperial 
Interpreter to the Persian Envoy at the Court of 
the Emperor of the French. 

It may reasonably be demanded, why the 
Translator did not elect to render this history 
from the Arabic original text rather than from 
the Persian version? In replying to this question, 
the Translator will not only allege the greater 
difficulty of the Arabic language as the ground of 
his selection ; for the Persian easy indefiniteness 
possesses its own occasional perplexities, especially 
in the finer turns and phrases, and he would not 

c2 



XVI TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. 

have grudged the labour that would have been 
involved in translating from the Arabic M.S., 
since he would have thereby augmented his ac- 
quaintance with that most interesting language. 
Arabic is the only classical dialect which still sur- 
vives and is spoken ; it appears to have nearly 
absorbed and replaced all its kindred tongues. 
Hebrew exists but in the sacred volume, Syriac 
almost entirely in ecclesiastical documents alone ; 
but Arabic still exists in all its fullness, and sup- 
plies us with an immense copia verborum whereby 
to illustrate and explain any obscurities that must 
necessarily arise in languages of a restricted and 
limited character. The highest truths are pre- 
sented to us in words which have been chosen by 
the sacred writers out of the whole mass of secular 
utterances as best adapted to represent the ideas 
which they designed to express. That mass or 
body still survives in the Arabic, and it is evi- 
dent that the nicer and finer hues, shades, and 
synonyms of the sacred tongues must be mainly 
sought in that mass. It is vain, also, to expect the 
attainment of a scientific, satisfactory and sound 
acquaintance with the Persian, Turkish, or perhaps 
of the Hindustani languages, without some know- 
ledge of Arabic. Yet, notwithstanding these 
great and obvious advantages, the study of Arabic 



TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION, XVU 

generally tasks the patience of all except sincere 
lovers of labour ; and the study of some Arabic 
compositions would deter many who are un- 
willing to devote a large portion of life and 
exertion to that pursuit. The difficulty of the 
grammatical rules, so precise and numerous, the 
copiousness of the epithets, the minute shades of 
sigliification which distinguish different words, 
the forms and conjugations of the same word, 
and, above all, the extensive degree in which 
logical and rhetorical constructions are admitted 
into the laws of syntax, afford an agreeable exer- 
cise for ingenuity and reflexion in tracing out these 
intricate windings, and arresting the thoughts of 
any author, unless his subject and his style be 
obvious and simple. But in translating from such 
a language into another so dissimilar as our own, 
there is some danger, with most, of falling into 
obscurity and harshness. Not that the language 
is itself at all obscure ; on the contrary, if the 
numerous laws of grammar be rightly used, all is 
clear ; the treasures are soon found by those who 
possess the keys of the various recesses in which 
they are deposited. The opinion attributed to 
Bishop Warburton, " that the translators of the 
Old Testament would not have been able to ascer- 
tain a definite sense from the Hebrew, if they had 



xviii teansla.toe's introduction. 

act ascertained it from the Septuagint version," 
would not, at the present time, be well founded ; 
for the labours of the last century have now, 
chiefly by reason of the Arabic, rescued- the 
Hebrew from all cloudiness, and perplexity, and 
placed the laws of its construction upon as firm 
and evident a foundation as those of Greek. 

It was not therefore only on account of the 
general abstruseness of the language, that the 
Translator of the present work, having proceeded 
some distance on his labours, resolved to transfer 
them to the Persian version. It was because the 
original work of Utbi is designedly and unusu- 
ally difficult, and would have occupied far more 
time than the Persian. It is a misfortune, that 
several of the most esteemed Arabic authors have 
sought fame and reputation in exaggerating the 
peculiarities of their language, and have exercised 
their ingenuity by the employment of far-fetched 
terms and words with uncommon, involved me- 
thods of grammatical construction, so as to render 
it necessary, even for their own co-linguists to use 
some research before they could fuUy ascertain the 
due meaning of the composition. The Kitdb-al- 
Yamini-al-Utbi,'* was said to be one of these 

* Was said to he, for the Translator is now inclined to 
believe that the alleged abstruseness of TJtbi referred rather to 



translator's introduction. xix 

productions of exceptional difficulty, and various 
commentators have found it adAdsable to explain 
it, in order to facilitate its perusal by native stu- 
dents. The Translator, therefore, under these cir- 
cumstances, after some hesitation and with some 
regret, unwilling to incur additional delay, decided 
to render the whole work from the Persic version. 
The Translator, moreover, deemed it requisite to 
abridge time and labour also with respect to the 
Arabic verses of various authors quoted and inter- 
spersed throughout the work.* There is here 
another difficulty to contend with, the difficulty 
that is of always obtaining a correct reading, on 
account of the paucity of MSS. and the im- 
possibility of collation. To those who are aware 
how long and carefully Arabic verses must be 
examined and pondered before the sense and scope 
of the poet appears plainly — can be disentangled, 
seized, and embodied in English words — this diffi- 
culty wiU be allowed to be formidable. The 
Persian Translator also, by no means adheres to 
the original in transferring the verses before him, 
but frequently and avowedly substitutes others for 

the poetry interwoven throughout the work, than to the prose 
composition. A few years' additional study and experience 
have removed many difficulties. 

* Some of the merely encomiastic and rhetorical prose is 
also occasionally abridged or omitted. 



XX TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. 

those cited by Al-Utbl. The Translator has 
therefore contented himself with giving all the 
Persian verses, all the short Arabic verses, and a 
specimen of each of the longer poems. It is im- 
possible to transpose Arabic poetry perfectly into 
English, and he imagined that the above propor- 
tion would suffice to afford the Enghsh reader 
some idea of the nature of these curious produc- 
tions. The Translator having rendered several 
chapters of the work from the Arabic original text, 
is enabled to believe that the Persian version is 
generally faithful, and occasionally verbally so. It 
appears to have been collated with the Arabic by 
the learned transcriber, M. Kasimirski, of Paris, 
for whose usefiil little notices in the margin, and 
suggestions of emendations in the text, the writer 
offers his sincere acknowledgments,* 

A summary of this historical memoir (from the 
Persian), by the late eminent orientalist, M, Sil- 
vestre de Sacy, appeared in the 4th Volume of the 
" Notices et Extraits," published in the year 7 of 
the Republic. 

It omitted a portion, as not immediately refer- 
ring to the Ghaznevide history, and was so much 

* Acknowledgments are also due to Dr. Aloys Sprenger, 
late Government Professor at Delhi, who transcribed the 
Arabic original. 



TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. XXI 

abridged, as to afford but little assistance in the 
labour of translation. But from the remarks and 
notes of this illustrious scholar, the Translator 
received great benefit, and it is from the latter 
that he has chiefly borrowed the short geographical 
explanations which are occasionally subjoined.* 

In estimating the value of the present contri- 
bution to Eastern history, as it must be allowed 
that many of the incidents herein comprised are 
already to be found in Ferishta and other authors, 
so others appear to be unknown or attended with 
varying particulars and circumstances : the per- 
sonal narrative also of a contemporary probably 
conveys a more correct impression of events, even 
because it is somewhat diffuse, since character and 
motives are obtained from details. Dow, one of 
the earliest English authors who treated of the 
history of Hindustan, complains of the dry bre- 
vity and conciseness of Ferishta ; Al-Utbi may 
occasionally overlay his facts with too much that 
is extraneous, but as he more frequently prefers a 
plain recitaljf the Translator resolved not to 

* De Sacy was confined to the use of Dew's Ferishta, now 
superseded by the edition of General "Briggs. 

t Perhaps Al-TJtbi gives the original simple statement, 
which has been subsequently exaggerated by Muhammadan 
writers. If, as is probable, one of the victories recorded in 
the history be identical with that in which the celebrated 



XXU TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. 

abridge any part of the prose narrative. He is 
supported in this resolution by the high authority 
of the Asiatic Society of Paris, who in their 
Keport for 1841, drawn up by M. Mohl, remark, 
with reference to the question of curtailments and 
abridgments in oriental translations, " En y re- 
fl^chissant serieusement, on se convaincra pent 
etre que le systfeme des traductions integrales offre 
neanmoins des inconv^nients moindres que celui 
des traductions incompletes. On produit par cette 
dernifere methode un ouvrage plus agreable k lire," 
(with our present author this would not be the 
case, the translation reads more smoothly if it 
flow on uninterruptedly,) " mais ceux qui veulcnt 
fairs des recherches ne s'en serviront jamais qu'avec 
defiance, parce qu'ils ne peuvent pas savoir si le 
traducteur n'k pas omis les faits qui dans leurs re- 
cherches particuliers leur importent le plus." 

The value, then, of Al-Utbfs memoirs consists 
partly in that character of special authenticity 
which their occasional diffuseness and digressions 
tends rather to develope than to impair ; but this 
historical fragment is also very interesting in 

temple and idol of Somnath were captured, Al-Utbi's may- 
be the real statement of facts, although he does not mention 
the idol Somnath, which, in truth, was not an idol, but a simple 
cylinder of stone. — See Prof. Wilson, Asiatic Researches, vol. 
xvii., p. 194, quoted in Elphinstone's India, vol. i , p., 555. 



TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. XXlll 

itself; it exhibits the identity of the Oriental 
mind, especially as developed in the tribes of 
Affghan or Turkoman, or Bukharian blood. Their 
shrewdness and acumen, the readiness with which 
they yield to impulses, and their unaccountable 
spirit of fickleness, appear to have Remained un- 
changed during eight or nine centuries, so that 
some of the events recorded by Utbi find their 
parallel in those of the recent mutiny in India. 

But this chronicle is also highly interesting as 
an historical notice of one of the most remarkable 
empires ever founded on earth, and which, if it 
had been permanent, consolidated and extended, 
would have turned the current of the world's his- 
tory into a direction different from that in which 
it has flowed, for this empire was formed in Central 
Asia — in a land for the most part fruitful and tem- 
perate, the native country of the vine — possibly 
the cradle of the human race. A right line drawn 
from the mouths of the Indus, through Almora 
to Tibet, may express the boundary of this empire 
towards the south ; but the territory, from this 
limit towards the north and north-west, including 
the provinces on two sides of the Caspian, Aff- 
ghanistan, KJiurasdn, Bukhdri, and the greater 
part of modern Persia, &c., passed by degrees to 



XXIV TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. 

Mahmiid's immediate and direct sovereignty, and 
his power as Emperor Suzerain extended beyond 
these boundaries. He appears to have included 
amongst his vassals the princes of the family of 
Bolah, or Boyah, who, in addition to various pro- 
vinces of Persia, including Kirman on the Persian 
Gulph, and others bordering on the Caspian and 
Oxus, enjoyed thS office of hereditary Vizir of the 
Khalifs of Bagdad, and Amir of Mesopotamia, 
Sec, and who, in fact, disposed of the Khalifat, 
and nominated and deposed those ecclesiastical 
rulers at their pleasure; so that Mahmiid in this, 
his extended sway, may well be said to have 
mingled the Euphrates with the Ganges. His 
empire was nearly placed at the point of junction 
of Europe and Asia ; it nearly possessed the ad- 
vantages of position which adapted Byzantium to 
become New Rome, and, moreover, included India 
within the sphere of its influence. Such an empire 
might have become powerful and enduring — ^might 
have reached the shores of the Mediterranean, and 
have been thus connected with Europe. It really 
did gain a wide authority and renown, and its real 
strength existed at least as long as that of any 
other dynasty which has been supreme in Hin- 
dustan. Perhaps one cause of its stability may 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION. XXV 

have been the sagacity of Mahmdd in not estab- 
lishing * his capital in India, in not withdrawing 
from Ghazna, and not remaining isolated amidst 
conquered and hostile nations, at a distance from 
his resources. The supreme power was thus 
external, any check was retrievable, and the pride 
and zeal of Muhammadan fanaticism was soon 
aroused to suppress any revolts amongst the 
Hindiis, with whom the Ghaznevide subjects were 
not as yet blended. 

It is interesting to observe how rapidly, and 
yet how readily, this empire grew on, how all 
events fell out to advance it, how aU contingencies 
coincided to effect its augmentation. Sabaktagin 
and Mahmiid are led into war, or take up arms, 
sometimes being in the right, sometimes in the 
wrong, but they always succeed ; they capture 
Bost and Kasdar, they overcome Dilam, they in- 
trigue in Bukhdr4, and so manage that upon the 
extinction of the Sd,m^nides the possessions of that 
family accrue to their own, and they had very 
early become feudal lords over the princes of 
Boyah.f It is not surprising that Mahmiid should 
have regarded those who opposed him as not only 

* But see Blphinstone's India, vol. i., pp. 534, 535. 

t See note. — The family of Boyah appear to have invari- 
ably assumed the surname " ad-doulat" as Majd-ad-doulat 
(Grlory of the Empire), Fakhr-addoulat (Pride of the Empire), 



XXVI TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. 

rebellious, but impious ; he saw events around 
him so wonderfully controlled and directed by Pro- 
vidence to concur towards the aggrandizement of 
his empire and the furtherance of his projects, that 
he may almost be pardoned for regarding himself 
not only as the instrument and agent, but also as 
the favorite of Heaven. 

It appears, indeed, that Mahmiid of Ghazna 
was respected as an eminent theologian as well as 
an illustrious warrior, and he flourished at a time 
when there existed ample opportunity for the 
exercise of his ingenuity as a Muhammadan divine. 
He was a contemporary of the eccentric Egyptian 
Khalif Hakim-biamr-IUah, during whose reign 
the whole Muhammadan world was in a ferment, 
through the pretensions of the Sayyads, or de- 
scendants of Muhammad, and the doctrines of the 
Batenians, the maintainers of the TaMjiah, and 
the followers of the remarkable tenets ofAli-Ilahia; 
the coalesceing fusion of all which peculiar notions 
at last formed the grand sefction of Muhammad- 
an ism — the Shiites, and the philosophical school 
of the S4fis, — and also established a ground for that 
curious fact, the blending or partial reconciliation 

&c. This is analogous to the titles of the Eoraaa emperors, 
Forttma Augusti, Pietas Augusti, &c., only in the former 
instance the title was assumed by a nominal vassal. 



TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTIGN. XXVU 

of Isldm with Hindilism. The Sayyads or Saids 
caused some trouble to Mahmdd. It was wisely 
ordered that all traces of the kindred of the 
Messiah should soon disappear from Christian 
history, and indeed the discussions and dissensions 
which arose respecting His divinity might tend 
to discountenance much regard to all that was 
associated with His humanity. 

But numberless descendants, real or pretended, 
of Muhammad, through his daughter Fatima, and 
his cousin Ali, have been the source of continual 
trouble and weakness to his religion, not only 
through the disgrace which an hereditary race of 
arrogant, ignorant, and prejudiced idlers, would 
naturally often produce, but also because they 
would, as might be supposed, be inclined to main- 
tain and encourage those doctrines which tended 
most to promote their own importance and dig- 
nity. They therefore possessed most influence 
amongst the Shiites, and they supported more or 
less the doctrines which possessed most affinity 
with those of that great sect. These doctrines 
were such as were professed, in various degrees, by 
the adherents of the Tashbiah, and of the Ali- 
Ilahia, doctrines which have always been deeply 
offensive to the Sunnite Muhammadans, and not 
without good cause, for, if tolerated and carried 



XXVm TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. 

out, they might found a Preparatio Evangelica, a 
platform for Christianity. They were probably 
originally Christian doctrines, deeply disguised. 
It is not likely that the Christians of the Greek 
Empire, of Armenia, of Parthia, of Chaldea, and 
of Egypt, so forcibly converted to Muham- 
madanism, would lose all Christian persuasion and 
habit of thought in that cold and barren phase 
of unsympathizing monotheism.* They still re- 
tained much of the geniality of Christian doctrine, 
as regards the relation of Deity to man. But as 
they dared not hint at any point directly Chris- 
tian, they were compelled to disguise their feelings 
under a dark esoteric veil. Those who adhered 

* Sir John Ohardin, in his Travels, mentions that the Prince 
(in the Kitab-Tamini termed the STiar) of Georgia, was but 
nominally a Muhammadan, that he renounced the Christian 
religion in order to obtain the appointment, that the Catholicos 
or Patriarch in his (Chardin's) time, was brother of the Prince, 
and that with his connivance the people would never permit 
mosques to be erected in Georgia. May not this juxtaposition 
of Christianity and Muhammadanism have influenced the 
latter, and added force to any tendencies of Muhammadan 
sects in the Christian direction ? The Shar of Mahmud's time 
does not appear to have been a very zealous Muhammadan ; 
moreover, the Georgians were probably Eutychians, who con- 
fused the divine and human natures in our Saviour, and whose 
tenets therefore possessed a marked analogy with those of the 
Shiites. It is to be noted, however, that Mr. Elphinstone, 
following Ibn-Haukal (by Ouseley), thinks that this province, 
conquered by Mahmud, is not identical with Georgia, com- 
monly so called. 



TEANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTTON. XXIX 

to these suspected notions were termed generally 
Batenians, or interiors. "These are so called," 
remarks M. de Sacy, "because they establish an 
interior sense of the Scripture besides the exterior; 
they say, whoever attaches himself to the exterior 
fatigues himself with vain practices, whilst he who 
follows the interior may dispense with all actions — 
they give to faith a preference over Islamism." 

A specific branch of these Batenians is the 
sect of Tashbiah, Assimilation, who (besides a kind 
of Platonism), assert theologically, "that there is 
a connexion between God and the other beings ; 
that the age is never destitute of a prophet or of 
law, that it is never destitute of an Im4m, or his 
authority, and that the existence of an Im^m 
through all times is necessary, whether manifest 
or concealed." AU this would greatly infringe 
upon various positions and organic maxims of 
the Kuran. But the maintainers of the Ali- 
Ilahia advance far beyond these assertions. These 
sectaries are numerous in India, but they seem 
to have abounded also in Syria, Egypt, &c., during 
the first six or seven centuries of the Hejira ; they 
teach, "that it is necessary to the Almighty God 
and eternal Lord, that He should descend from the 
dignity of purity and from the station of unity 
and absoluteness, and that according to the 

d 



XXX TEANSLATOES ITfTEODUOTION. 

abundance of His clemency, He should, in every 
period and revolution of time unite His spirit with 
a bodily frame, in order that his creatures may 
behold this glorious and exalted Lord ; and in 
whatever manner He ordains, acknowledge and 
reverence Him." "That it is determined that a 
pure spirit may assume a bodily liheness."-^(^Q& 
Dahistan, vol. 2, by Shea and Troyer.) 

Opinions like these would at once set aside the 
exclusiveness of Muhammadanism, and with its 
exclusiveness its main column, and doubtless Mah- 
mud regarded a deadly onset against them to be 
as meritorious as the sacred war upon infidels. 
What would he have said, if he had beheld such 
doctrines so permeate and so prevail throughout 
India, that there are now saints whom all parties 
claim and reverence, that the cries of Rama and 
Allah Akbar have been blended, and that Muham- 
madans have enjoined the idolatrous reverence for 
the cow ? 

The Translator has been unable to discover 
any distinct allusion to artillery and fire-arms, 
which are, however, supposed to have been in some 
form not entirely unknown in those early times. It 
appears certain that Greek fire and rockets were 
employed, as well as slinging and stoning machines, 
and the aUusion in one of the poems to the " fire- 



TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

eyed rocket " is plain. The use of sucli projectiles 
aproximates to that of artillery. But the beseiged 
in the citadel of Ark cast on the besiegers pots full 
of scorpions and serpents, and the gates of a for- 
tress were forced open by means of elephants. 
However, if these engines of war were at all known, 
they would scarcely have been acceptable. Inven- 
tors must meet with men and times ready to receive 
and value their discoveries, as well as produce new 
facts and combinations. It was probably not so 
much bards who were wanting in the earliest age 
to sing the praises of heroes, as heroes who would 
delight in their strains, and if such machines be- 
came universal, who could hope to be a Ilust^m, 
or rise to royalty by the sword ? 

The Translator connot discover any allusion to 
Ferdusi, or to the envious Vizir who injured him. 
He cannot find the word Somnath, or the story 
respecting the idol broken by Mahmud, although 
the expedition in which this event is alleged to 
have occurred, appears to be included in this Chro- 
nicle of Utbi. It is not however, possible, to 
decide with regard to omissions, without the assist- 
ance of additional manuscripts.* 

* In the Arabic queries published by the late Lord Munster, 
several treatises are mentioned bearing upon warlike machines, 
and a slinging engine is engraved, taken from the Jama at 
Tuwarikh of Eashid-addin. But if these machines cast fiery 

d 2 



xxxii translator's introduction. 

There is another point to which it is desired to 
advert : the order and arrangement of early Eastern 
Histories or Chronicles is but rough and imperfect. 
Like those of the middle ages in Europe, they are 
often composed of chapters containing facts, with- 
out any intimation of the bearing or relation of 
these chapters to one another, or to the whole 
narrative. Thus, in the present work, various 
chapters contain the history of the several pro- 
vinces from which the Ghaznevide Empire was 
ultimately made up, but no intimation is afforded 
with regard to the point where the thread of these 
episodical, yet essential accounts joins that of the 
main narration ; how, for example, the affairs of 
Dilam or of Bukhara became involved with those 
of Ghazna. The Translator has occasionally sup- 
plied this information, but in general the reader 
must be left to judge what portion belongs to reca- 
pitulation, what to explanatory anticipation, and 
what to the grand current of the story. There is 
also a confusion and obscurity in literal translation, 
which arises from too loose and liberal employment 
of pronouns, or even their entire omission. The 
Translator has in these instances been contented 
to offer a close rendering to the reader, without 

matter, it seems to have been only the Greek fire, naphtha, 
&c. And see Briggs' Ferishta. 



TRANSLATOES INTRODUCTION. XXXUl 

adding an explanation which is sometimes as em- 
barrassing as the text. 

Whilst this work was passing through the 
press, the attention of the Translator was invited, 
by the obliging courtesy of Professor G. Fluegel, 
of Dresden, to a Paper read in January, 1850, 
before the Imperial Academy of Sciences, at 
Vienna, upon the subject of the JKitab-i-Yamini, 
by Dr. T. Noldecke. The learned author of this 
Paper communicates his discovery in the Imperial 
Library of two MSS. of the Arabic original, and 
of two MSS. of the Persian Translation, as well 
as of a Commentary. If this discovery had been 
made at an earlier period, the Translator might 
possibly have endeavoured to obtain a copy of the 
best of the two Arabic MSS. in order to translate 
from it, yet he doubts whether this communication 
would have altered his resolution to adopt the 
Persian: the Arabic MSS. of Dr. Noldecke's 
notice are, both of them modern, one dated a.d. 
1772, the other 1747, whereas the two copies of 
the MSS. of the Persian version are dated, the 
one A.D. 1316, the other 1321, about J 50 years, 
that is, from the publication. li^ therefore, the 
Translator had possessed the advantage of an 
acquaintance with these MSS., he would probably 



XXXIV TRANSLATORS INTEODUOTION. 

still have availed himself of the assistance of the 
ancient Persian, whereupon to ground an English 
version, rather than have adopted MSS. which 
may possibly prove to be of minor authority. 

If, however, the Arabic original text and that 
of the Persian version should ever be published, 
and the publication by authority appears to be 
almost a duty, these four MSS., and the critical 
remarks of Dr. Noldecke, will be most valuable, 
and will doubtless be duly consulted. 

This learned dissertation comprises two extracts 
frond the Arabic, one from the Persian version, 
and a specimen of the Comment, &c. 

The Translator feels it incumbent upon him to 
offer his best acknowledgements to the Committee 
of the Oriental Translation Fund, for their libe- 
rality in publishing the present volumes. He has 
felt much interest in pursuing a subject so con- 
genial to a profession which is bound so especially 
to trace out and diffuse every ray of " Light from 
the Bast," — light now so sadly obscured and 
divided in its original glorious abode from its 
primeval sources. The credit 'obtained by these 
studies is not general, but that disadvantage will 
be fully compensated if they be in any degree 
useful, and the Translator will be rewarded if he 



translator's introduction. XXXV 

win the approbation of those who are so well 
qualified to judge upon points of Oriental litera- 
ture, with whom he has had the honour and 
pleasure of being so long officially connected, and 
to whom he is bound by so much kindness and 
attention. 



NOTES. 

Page xxiv. — Extract from Abul Earajius, Sistory of Dynas- 
ties, p. 195. Ed. Pococke (from the Latin translation). " In 
the days of (the Khalif ) Al-Kahir, began the dynasty of the 
sons of (Buwwaya) Bowaia, who were tliree, Ahmad-ad-doulat 
Ali, Rukn-ad-doulat Al Hasan, and Moez-ad-doulat Ahmad, 
sons of Abu-Shaja-Bowaia, son of Phanachosrawi, one of the 
sons of Tazdegird, son of Shahriar, last King of the Persians. 
This family is very noble amongst the Persians, and they are 
doubtless regarded as having sprung from the Dilamites, 
because they had been long established in that country ; Abii- 
Shaja-Bowaia is said to have been a man in slender circum- 
stances, who dreamed that a fire proceeded from his body, which 
extended and rose up, until it almost reached the sky, then 
clea-ring itself, was divided into three portions, whence many 
other portions arose, so that the whole world was illuminated 
by those fires, and many regions and men bowed down them- 
selves to them ; Bowaia went to an astrologer and related his 
dream. He observed, " this is an important dream, which I 
will not interpret unless you give me a dress and a horse ;" 
" I have," replied Bowaia, " only the dress which I wear ;" 
" Give me, then, ten pieces of gold," said the astrologer ;" "I 
have not even two pieces," he rejoined. However, he gave 
something, and the astrologer then said, "Know that three 
sons of thine shall rule the earth, whose renown shall be 
resplendent in the countries thereof, and from them shall be 



XXXVl NOTES. 

born a multitude of kings, according as thou didst behold in 
the subdivision of the fires ;" the three sons of Bowaia sub- 
sequently went to Tabaristan, where Mardawij, or Marduanj, 
received them kindly, and gave Karaj to Imad-ad-doulat-Ali- 
'bn-Bowaia ; he so ingratiated himself there, that the inhabi- 
tants made him king. Becoming more powerful, he seized 
Isfahan, he also possessed Ariana. His brother Eukn-ad- 
doulat, was sent to Oazrun, whence he obtained great booty, 
and returned safe. The son of Imad-ad-doulat Bowaia obtained 
possession of Shiraz, a.h. 322." 

It is not surprizing that so eminent a family, the heredi- 
tary vizirs and controllers of the Khalifs, should have endured 
impatiently the virtual supremacy of Mahmiid. But the sultan 
retained it, and would not allow them the honours of the 
khutbah, or coinage, the ensigns of independent sovereignty. 

Page xxix. — The author of the Dahistan, saw a man of this 
sect, Ali-Ilahia, who asserted that the Kuran, which is 
amongst them, does not deserve confidence, as it is not the 
book which Ali-Alah had given to Muhammad, but is the com- 
position of Abu-Bakr, of Omar, and of Othman; He saw also 
another, who said, " Certainly the Kuran is the work of Ali- 
Alah, but having been collected by Othman, it ought not to be 
read." Some were seen among them who asserted, that the 
verse and prose attributed to Omar, were collected by Ali, and 
inserted in the Kuran. They value these beyond thela tter, 
as having proceeded directly from Ali-Alah. 

Page xxxi. — The following account of the cause of the 
destruction by fire, .of the monastery of Lauresheim, is quoted 
in Maitland's Dark Ages, p. 235. "Inter cetera ludorum 
exercitia., discus in extrema marginis ora (ut solet), accensus, 
militari manu per aera vibrabatur, qui acriori impulsu circum- 
actus, orbicularem flamma speciem reddens, spectaculi gratiam 
exhibet." A disc, set on fire in the usual way, was whirled in 
the air by a soldier, and set fire to the place. Such a disc, 
whatever be its precise description, might, when mentioned in 
Persian, appear to resemble the flight of a cannon ball. 



PEEFACE 

OF 

PERSIAN TRANSLATOR. 



This Book is the composition of Abii 'Sharaf 
Mauldnd Ndsih 'bn Zafar 'bn Saad Almunshi 
al-Jarbadkani. 

The most fitting thing which the speaking tongue 
should love, and towards which the reins of the 
will should be turned, is the praise and celebration 
of the Creator. May His might be glorified and 
His word be exalted ! It was He who distin- 
guished man by the garment of intellect and 
superiority, who adorned his exterior with splendid 
form, and perfect figure, and who distinguished 
and illuminated his interior with the light of 
knowledge. Man hath thus received the happy 
gift of being enabled, with clear view and pene- 
trating reflection, to contemplate the wonders 
of Omnipotence and the mysteries of creation, 
and to know that this brocaded surface, coloured 
with brilliant groupings, and this variegated 
curtain decorated with the lights of the stars, 
received not visible form without a wise Ordainer 
and a preventing Framer; that this green expanse, 
set with jewels of flowers^ and this carpet of dust„ 



2 PREFACK. 

strealced with flowing streams, became possible 
only through an Omniscient Creator and a power- 
ful Disposer: and with respect to man's being, 
which is a little world, the Creator carefully pro- 
vided that this stamp of nature which He deli- 
neated and brought from nothing unto the basis 
of being, should, in the darkness of the womb be 
ordered and arranged into different members and 
parts, and He enlightened this his darkened form 
with the flame of life, and sent forth a glance 
from His useful light to guard the basis of his 
existence, and to protect the line of his being. 

And when the leavening of his clay, and the 
arrangement of his beauty was completed, and 
the time for marching forth and the period for 
advancing unto the plain and field of battle drew 
near, He sent many divine endowments attached 
to his being, and many delights corresponding 
with his construction, into the conduit of the 
garden of his special (frame), and bound by a 
strong link every one of the comforts and grati- 
fications of the world to his several members, and 
framed his various limbs into causes of utility and 
profit, so that by the force of sight he receives 
enjoyment from colour and from pleasing and 
charming objects, and by the sense of hearing 
might derive intelligence from the voices and cries 
of animals, and by the intensity of taste might 
relish different kinds of meats and drinks, and by 



PREFACE. 



the strength of articulate speech, his secrets and 
his will might be declared, so that his Vizir, the 
Sight, and his General, Apprehension, received all 
that was sufficient in the world of intelligence for 
his consideration and for the regulation of his 
comforts and conduct, in order that the highway 
of profit or of harm, might be enlightened before 
his eyes, and that he might write the lesson of 
good or evil upon the tablet of his thought 
(Kurdn, xxxi. 10), "This is the creation of God, 
show me what they have created, who are wor- 
shipped besides him." 

Next, salutation to the Sacred Spirit, to the 
flowery garden, to the pure earth of Muhammad 
Mustafd, the Elect, the Seal of Prophets, and 
Chief of the Mighty Saints, the blessing and 
peace of God be upon him, the dawn of whose 
apostleship purified the court of the world from 
the darkness of error, and by the polish of his 
guidance gave brilliancy to the sullied mirror 
of hearts, and freed mankind from the participa- 
tion of idolatry. A hundred thousand invocations 
of mercy, and rest, and salutation and peace be 
upon his glorious caste, and pure progeny and 
family, the source of the morning light, and the 
keys of mysteries. Unto his companions and 
followers, and comrades and associates, be respect, 
may their stock be perfumed with the gale of the 
breeze of eternity, and their stability affixed by 

ij2 



PREFACE. 



the nails of everlasting joists, for with God is 
protection and grace. 

Thus saith the servant of the preserver, and 
orator of the everlasting, Abii Ashsharaf Nasih 'bn 
Zafar 'bn Saad Almunshi Aljarbddakani. When 
the Almighty" adorned with the region of Irdk, or 
indeed with the whole extent of the horizon, him 
the fortunate in counsel and in judgment, the 
splendour of the zenith of empire, and gave lofty 
rank, heavenly expansion, and penetration for his 
commands and prohibitions (to distant regions), 
apd all that pertains to perfect empire, unto the 
Just Sovereign, the Wise, the Maintainor, the 
Successful, the Victorious, the Warrior for Reli- 
gion, the Consolidator of the Glory of the State 
and Religion, he who gave victory to IsMm and 
to Muslims, Supreme Prince over both Worlds, 
Pacificator of the_ Earth, UMgh Barlk UlMh, 
(God exalt his power, and raise his might and 
magnify his victories), and when God distinguished 
him with special qualities — with justice, with 
expansion of the wings of liberality and mercy, 
with bounteous benefits and advantages unto high 
and low, with overflowing generous kindnesses 
and volumes of good actions, in a glorious station, 
then his happy days became a pledge for the firm 
establishment of good things, and for strengthen- 
ing the bonds of neighbourhood, and caused the 
eager and generous expenditure of wealth and 



PEEPACE. 



jewels upon objects of piety and charity, and upon 
the construction of foundations and bridges, and 
mosques and minarets, and in an age which was a 
season of violence and a time of tyranny ; the 
plain of his guardianship and the veil of his 
government and aid became the asylum of the 
weak, the resource of the poor, the refuge of the 
injured, and the retreat of the oppressed ; so that 
when any where the foot of any one failed through 
the slippery vibration of affairs, he laid his hand 
upon the handle of the solid judgment of his 
majestic court, and sought to hold firmly by his 
assuring neighbourhood and his protecting patron- 
age, and whenever any one was wounded by the 
arrow of adversity from the bow of the times, he 
sought to heal the scar of his wound with the 
plaister of his liberal and compassionate govern- 
ment ; and whosoever, through the vicissitudes 
of change became ailing from the poison of care, 
obtained a remedy from the antidote of his pity. 

Now in the second month of the year 582, 
when the Nabob-Sultanat of the family of Seljiik 
came to an end, and the great Atiheg Azim 
Muhammad, son of the Atabeg Assald Shams 
Addoula wa Addln Ildegiz (Allah sanctify his 
mighty spirit), who was the pillar of that king- 
dom, and the regulator of that empire, and the 
shepherd of that flock and the protector of all, had 
been caught in the snare of fate, and the govern- 



6 PREFACE. 

ment had thus passed away from his decorated 
mind and experience, and strength and power, and 
dread mastership, and the affairs of Irdk were all 
in disturbance and confusion, and the devils of 
Turks came forth from the bottle of coercion, and 
nearly one hundred chiefs of his principal subjects, 
every one of whom was a demon of demon race, 
and a Pharaoh of rebels in the flesh, quitted the 
high road of right, and every one fixed his craving 
upon the kingdom of Irdk, and fortified themselves 
in every side in castles, and left the road firee for 
criminals and corrupted men, so that the impress 
of the force of these verses were written upon the 
page of its condition (Verses) 

" There is a flowing wound in my head, * * * 

* * I fear that I shall suffer from vertigo." 

" As to sovereignty, why art thou on the head of him who 
wears a crown ? May est thou be on the head of him in whom 
is sovereignty." 

And several of the household of the Prince went 
forth and sought refuge with the disobedient ones 
of the State, and used words of tumult, and confu- 
sion, and division, and for nearly twenty years the 
extension of this strife and the source of this 
wretchedness increased, so that ancient houses 
departed and nothing remained on the right or 
left, and people of substance became distressed 
with poverty and want, the poor were in straits, 
and the slaves perished, so that labourers came to 



PREFACE. 7 

destruction, and cultivators and sowers were dis- 
persed, and their dwellings and abodes became the 
dens of wild beasts and tigers. But this king 
(long may he Uve !) in these days of their butting 
violence, drew his foot into the skirt of honour 
and remained dwelling quietly in the protected 
city of Kaswln, which is the splendour of the 
world, and, with firm foot and unshaken greatness, 
exhibited his inclination to be well affected towards 
and to preserve the sovereign Atabegs (Heaven 
support them!) and paid his due tribute, and 
attempted to be master in nothing, and was 
content with certain duties assigned by the diriia.,4 
and knew that they would all be bound by their 
errors and wounded by punishment. Until the time 
approached that the State became freed from their 
injuries, and some, caught in the snare of. jthejr 
covetousness, were ruined and destroyed ^-j; man) 
became a mark for the arrow of the plaint of "^.e 
oppressed, and a portion remained humiliated and 
lost captives in the desert of infidels, and the hell 
of those who are disobedient to the Lord of 
Favours, until the very great Prince, the magnified 
King, Shums-addoulah waaddin. Victory of IsMm 
and of Mushms, King of kings, Chief of the East 
and West, Itagmash (may God guard his 
splendour and double his prosperity !) who was 
the very unsurpassed strength and mighty column 
of the state, and pillar and prop of the kingdom, 



PREFACE. 



by alliance with the noble ones of that king who 
was the cream of Turks and flower of dominion, 
happily gave help, and by his support the joining 
of the ropes of his fortune and empire proceeded, 
and by the right hand of affinity and alliance, and 
by the support of his advice and judgment, an 
answer was given to all those who wounded and 
disputed in the kingdom, and by their associating 
and interweaving with one another the house of 
the master-son, the. Lord Alim, Sultan Azim, 
Victory both in worldly and religious matters, 
refuge of Islam and of Muslims, the Sultan of 
Sultans, AbnBakr, son of Aldtdbeg Alazim, son 
of Abn laafar Muhammad, son of the Atdbeg 
Abu Sair Ildagiz (Heaven eternize his rule !) 
became settled by them, and they drove back the 
'eoyet%y necks and gaping beaks of the armies of 
5yria, /and Armenia, and Diarbeker, and Khur- 
asan, and Khawarizm, and other places, who had 
placed their hosts in the cities and provinces of 
Irdk, and cleansed the laws of the kingdom from 
the intermixture of malice by the dread of 
the swords of these two eminent kings, from the 
utmost to the nearest parts of the world. The 
wolf was prevented from attacking the deer, and 
the partridge sought aid in the patronage of the 
falcon, the eyes of confusion were in sweet sleep, 
and justice was awake, and the carpet of confidence 
and trust was spread (Verse) 



PREFACE. 9 

" In thy time the lion sought not to hurt the hind, against 
the poor mouse the snake exerted not his strength. In thy 
age the falcon even if he were sick, from dread of thee, 
expressed no desire for a partridge." 

And at this day, praise be to God, .from the 
fortune of these two will-effecting princes and 
these two command-issuing kings the foundation 
of justice and , equity hath been laid, and the rule 
of innovation, and oppression and violence, rejected 
and put away. May the Almighty establish for 
unnumbered years, through their empire and 
royalty this common gain, this shade of their 
justice and compassion over weak subjects. " God 
hath mercy on the servant who saith Amen." 

Now forasmuch as that scanty territory which 
is the native country of this poor compiler, was in 
the possession of the court of this prince, and 
honoured by his fortunate vicinity, and he com- 
manded (residence) there for many times and 
exalted years, and was attached to the open 
country of that plain, for the enjoyment of hunting, 
when my turn came to stand before his happy 
stirrup, there passed into my mind (Verse) 

" There is no guile with thee to lead thee, nor wilt thou be 
led by wealth; speech may succeed if circumstances do not." 

a passage, which may the Solomon of the kingdom 
realize, that as a mouse it may perchance be of 
service, and with this writing like a locust's foot 



10 PBBFACE. 

transcribe a volume, and that in this way might 
form a composition of the histories and names of 
kings, and of the chronicles of emperors, and 
might convey it as a gift to the high presence, in 
order that, at times of leisure and hours of privacy, 
he might receive recreation from hearing it, and 
might derive example from the vicissitudes of cir- 
cumstances and the changes of the eminent ; And 
upon this subject I requested the advice of the 
just lord, Milld Mansiir-Muzfir-Mahdi-addunya- 
wa-addln, glory of Islam and of Muslims, Sayyad 
of Viziers in both worlds, generous, learned, Abiil 
Kasim 'bn Muhammad 'bn Abi Hanifa (Allah 
guard his splendour and perpetuate his destiny!) 
who was the Asaph of the kingdom and pillar of 
the empire. T requested a reply upon the point. 
He gave me the most extreme encouragement, and 
indicated that " the Kitdh Yamini, compiled by 
'JJibi, is a useful book, and is comprised in few 
sections and light bulk, being an explanation of 
the events and incidents of Sultdn Mahmtid 
Sabahtagin, with much of the aifairs of the family 
of Samdn and a little of the days of the family of 
Boyah, and which contains also some of the his- 
tories and traces of the kings of those countries, 
and lords of those regions." It would be fitting 
(he said) in order that these (historical) exemplars 
should approach nigh unto the understanding, and 
that Turks and citizens should be directed thereby, 



PREFACE. 11 

that you should translate it into the Persian, and 
not be higher than the frame of the book's style, 
and avoid ruggedness and ambitious phrases, and 
not regard it incumbent upon you to employ 
uncouth Arabic words and expressions, but what- 
soever the intelligent mind and generous nature 
approves, to be therewith content, so that I may 
act as father to this bride, and may make the 
unsaleable goods of this stock pass freely with the 
Amir. For, at the present day, two particular 
kinds of advantage will accrue from this book : 
one, that this Prince (may his fortune last for 
ever !) when he contemplates the circumstances 
and the territories of the kings and sultans, his 
predecessors, the extent of their empire, the 
distance to which their authority penetrated, the 
glory of their power, autocracy, and command- 
ments, may also know that their declining fortune, 
and the transference of cities and peoples, rendered 
them not permanent, and all their state has 
decayed, and there remaineth nothing of them, 
except their good name, their virtues, their gene- 
rous acts, their examples, and their mercy. His 
eyesight, by passing over these subjects of thought, 
may become firmer, and his wishes, by traversing 
these chapters, may become more true; And, 
secondly, that people of virtue, excellence, and 
honour may know that these kings caused to cir- 
culate amongst the people of the sword the valu- 



12 PREFACE. 

ables of earth and the riches of the world, and to 
their subjects brought valuable property to support 
the kingdom's slenderness, making them sharers 
and partners in the possessions of the earth, And 
none of them deceased before the full space of life, 
or was not useful even after the consummation of 
the days of his age, And a writer, with five folds of 
paper and a long ball (of ink) which cost (but) two 
drachms of silver, hath painted their memorials in 
a volume of annals, and, having placed their 
impress upon the forehead of time, hath rendered 
their name perennial unto perpetuity everlasting, 
and hath adorned the interior of his volume and 
the contents of his book with the commemora- 
tion of their days, their words, and their deeds. 
Nearly three hundred years* have elapsed since 
they framed histories in praise of Mahmiid Sabak- 
tagin, and spoke as friends of the family of Boy ah 
(Yerse) 

" Though eamela and bread should be no longer, yet the 
glorious memory of the sons of Marwan will be, and thou 
shalt see the congratulatory river flow for ever. Of all that 
the sons of Saman and the kings of the vigorous have col- 
lected, they will sing sweetly after that Hasan hath (no longer) 
spoken of Ghasan (the excellent of the imbecile)." 

As to the Seljiiks, from whose eminent 
kingdoms these two princes were but a dis- 
tillation, and the rule of these two sovereigns 

* Cor. Two {?) 



PREFACE. 13 

but a drop in the sea of their royalty and 
empire, they are no longer preserved for any 
sufficient period, and their name will be blotted 
from the books of minds ; and as in their days 
people of virtue found no success, and derived no 
aid from their diffused grandeurs, ordinances, or 
victories, no one preserved their memory, and no 
memorial remained of the vestiges of their eleva- 
tion. 

I accepted this intimation of the Sahib, the 
just, Heaven augment its help to him, and exhi- 
bited to him this exemphfying parable, and I 
appended this (proposed) arrangement to the 
(other) successive aids and marks of favour, and 
gifts, and presents, which in the course of my life 
I have found from that court of his brilliancy, and 
portico of his merits and endowments, and I 
translated this book from Arabic into Persian. 

Men of information and intelligence are aware 
that in the barbarian (Persian) dialect there is no 
power of affording much gratification, and Abii an 
Nasar Al Utbi, in the narration and composition 
of this book exhibited lawful magic, and displayed 
wonderful novelties, and if any one from the zenith 
of eloquence and delicacy of that model, and the 
copiousness of those expressions, should contem- 
plate the low cellars* of this translation and the 

* Literally " wasliing-places." 



14 PREFACE. 

wretchedness of these words nothing but a blush 
of shame would be the result. I am convinced of 
the fact of my deficiencies, and in my poor mansion 
(of mind) and confusion of intellect well know 
both the scantiness of my capital stock and the 
deficiency of my workmanship. However my 
apology comes to light upon two grounds ; one is 
that I wished not that the intricacies and niceties 
of the aims and drifts of the book should remain 
under the veil of obscurity, and that the arrow of 
understanding should never attain unto it; and 
the second that I wished the Arabian plain (of 
language) to possess a perfect amplitude and 
complete space, and if any one will peruse the 
writings of this poor author in Persian verse and 
rhythms perhaps water* may again come upon the 
face of his labour, and there may ensue pacifica- 
tion towards the standard of these words, and 
reconciliation to the motes of these idle tales, and 
it may thus be known that, althoiigh my Persian 
hackney be restive, my Arab charger is a pleasant 
goer, and although my striped Persian robe is in 
tatters yet my Arabian embroidered garment is fair 
and new ; and if> in the time of the family of 
Sd,min and the days of the house of Boyah, which 
was a time of the Bdzdr of virtue and excellence, 
when the divers of good manners and arts found 

* i.e. Honour. 



PREFACE. 15 

valuable pearls and choice jewels, in the sea of 
their humanity and liberality, and in the gardens 
of their protection, and science possessed fields of 
sugar-cane, and delightful parterres, and were 
blessed with their rich society and admirable 
nobleness, if in the gardens of their generous 
benefits they struck up (songs) like the sweet- 
toned nightingale; and like the starling warbled 
by the border of the rose-garden — no matter. At 
present, when the breeze favourable to virtue hath 
passed away, when the fire of pride in heroes is 
stanched, when excellence is superfluous and men 
are wearied with the learned, and the tree of their 
art would be without fruit, unless these last 
breathings of dying generosity, these relics of libe- 
rality from the. just Sahib, the Chief of Viziers 
(Heaven add lengthened reserves to the remnants 
of his life!) gave them heart again, and com- 
manded a liveliness to commerce in their lofty 
occupation, and a ready sale in their market. It 
is forbidden then, to draw a black pen over this 
whiteness, but esteem should be in our minds for 
this magazine of books. This poor author hath 
composed nearly two thousand verses, in praise 
and commendation of this nobleman (Allah 
encircle him with glory). The greater portion is 
concealed in the collection known as "The Gardens 
of Melancholy," but some more seasonably placed 
in the volume of "The Flame of Souls." The fol- 
lowing is a Kasidah, which was compiled in praise 



1 6 PREFACE. 

of his blessed feet, at a time when he came, having 
composed something.* 1 have a perfect confidence 
in the generosity and liberality of the Maulawi, 
the great Sahib Chief of Viziers (may AUah per- 
petuate it !) that he will draw the line of indul- 
gence over these blunders and errors, and cover 
with the train of the robe of mercy and pardon 
these slips and mistakes, 

If, however, in the explication of the glories 
and wisdom of this generous Lord and unparalleled 
Vizier, one should enter into detail, the widest 
stream would afford no footing in its abyss of 
pages, and in seeking to express his perfection 
neither length nor breadth would be powerful 
enough to celebrate but a small portion thereof; 
and in these days, which are one year of scarcity 
as regards virtue and the virtuous, and when cruel 
fate is perhaps enslaved to a hatred of good 
manners and of the means of honour, and the stars 
of ingenuity are settled in the retirement of 
depression, and folly finds friends, the perfect 
merit, the lofty intellect, the liberal, breast, the 
wide ocean and good fortune of mind, the true 
fortitude, the noble patronage, the wide plain of 
determined and dignified authority, the well- 
ordered conduct, sweet disposition, special inge- 
nuousness, and innate beauties of this surpassing 
heart of super-eminence and this favoured lord of 

* This Kasidah, being obscure, is here omitted. 



PREFACE. 1 7 

favour, hatli arrived as the pardon-pleader of 
fortune, and the fault-coverer of the times. 
People of distinction, in emigrating from these 
flames and in purifying from this distress, have 
covered themselves with his overshadowing veil 
and have fled to the strong fortification and 
powerful munition of his reflecting care ; and one 
of the beneficial qualities of his nature is, that he 
hath obtained a thorough knowledge of the chro- 
nicles, the origin and the state of peoples, the con- 
dition and whatever deserves to be known of the 
kings of Arabia and Persia, and their tribes, and 
hath become deep and powerful in this science, 
and aware of the vicissitudes of events, and his 
mind hath solidly occupied itself in pursuing this 
knowledge, and hath been engaged in acquiring 
the experience of history, so that his enlightened 
understanding and perfumed mind hath become a 
bright mirror, before which the converse of secrets 
and the fallacies of thoughts, and the sequences of 
afiairs, and the ends of actions, are clear and 
shining as the sun-ray (Verse) 

" Oh thy intellect, thou hast seen yesterday the difficulties 
of to-day, and oh thy thought, thou hast given this year the 
harvest of the past. 

" Like Heaven's foreordaining by wisdom for all men. 

" Like the sun, freely benefiting aU things. 

" If they place one principle of increase from thy hand in 
the puncture (i. e., graft from thy nature) 

" No branch would ever blow empty on the poplar." 

C 



1 8 PREFACE. 

And another of his praiseworthy practices and 
agreeable rules is, that not one twinkling of an eye 
of his life (may its extension be conjoined with the 
extension of time !) is wasted, and although most 
of his time is spent in watching over the affairs of 
State and in promoting the peace of Muslims, 
when he finds a moment of leisure he seeks recre- 
ation in the perusal of books and the conversation 
of the wise, and the society of the learned, and in 
discussing the nice points of science, and the 
quaint intricacies of knowledge, and in acquiring 
information upon the rules of religious and eternal 
wisdom, and his soul and time becomes deeply 
immersed in these things ; and if I may put forth 
an assertion it is that the curved umbrella of the 
sky overcast its shadow on the forehead of such 
greatness, and in the four quarters of the world 
there hath never sat upon the four-cornered seat 
of the Vizarat a Minister like him. May he be 
supported in the perfection of his discernment and 
the testimony of hie far-sightedness, and may he 
be recorded so to be by evident arguments and 
clear proofs (Verse) 

" I declare that there is no man like him ; to deny this is 
to deny that God is one." 

Whoso hath entered the winter-house which is 
the mansion of his greatness, the point of contact 
of his happiness, and the fountain of his govern- 



PREFACE. 19 

ment, and should see his benevolent foundations 
and his conduit-pipes of alms, and should witness 
his religious houses, his treasuries of books, and 
other curious and strange things, his library book- 
cases, his choice volumes and appended pages 
therein assembled, and should be aware of the 
hospital for the sick, and the valuable bottles, 
with various kinds of medicines and remedies, and 
their divisions for the poor and humble, he would 
know to what an extent his lofty mind hath 
attained varied kinds of excellence, by the avenues 
of goodness and the utilization of knowledge and 
reflection, and in the power of the Almighty, will 
be convinced, by proof, that neither the world in 
its youth, or creatures in their greatness, or Para- 
dise in its nature, or ocean in its seas, could 
produce his equal (Verse) 

" Let there be no denial that Grod hath collected all things 
in one universe." 

And doubtless it is through his fortunate fore- 
lock and blessed counsel that the just Prince, the 
pacificator of the world, Ulugh Barik, hath passed 
so long a period in such power, comfort, peace, 
repose, and affluence, and hath found such an 
abundant hold of his royalty and empire ; and the 
hope of his servants is this, that he may still con- 
tinue in the freshness of the youth and vigour of 
his fortune, in increase of years and influence of 

c 2 



20 PREFACE. 

power, that overflowing happiness and great 
establishment, as regards his life, his possessions, 
his wishes, and his years, may yet remain for him, 
and that many long years may pass under His 
Majesty, his children, and his descendants (who 
are the apple of the State's eye, and the liver- 
corner of the empire) under the protecting shadow 
and guardianship of his fortunate standard, may 
they arrive at command and hold the world, and 
for eternity may the elevation of the office of 
"Vizier and the seat of the empire's dignity be 
adorned and illuminated by this great centre, this 
bright moon, this phoenix of time, this sun of 
generosity, this sea of munificence, this world of 
knowledge, and this earth of intelligence, if thus 
God will and His definitions (concur). 



ANNALS OF THE LIFE 



A M 1 E NASI E-A D-BIN SABAKTAGIN, 



AND OP ITS EVENTS. 



The Amir JMTdsir-ad-din was a Turk by origin, 
adorned by special favours of God, a mirror of 
royalty and authority, in the day of battle furious 
as a lion, then, liberal as the showers, he still 
distributed favours and kindnesses unto all. Like 
the wind he blew upon the strong and the weak, 
and like the sun he shone upoi; the humble and 
the noble. In mind he was like the sea, which, 
in its liberality, thinks not of its bounds, and in 
rage like the torrent-flood, which regards not 
ascent or descent. During dark events his counsel 
was like a path-directing star; his sword, in 



22 MEMOJKS OF SABAKTAGIN, 

cutting through his enemies, was hke the globe- 
disclosing fate. The marks of nobility and gene- 
rosity were bright and brilliant in his disposition, 
and the evidences of good fortune and happiness 
were plain, whether they were at rest or in motion. 
Abiil Hasin Khazin says, the Amir ISTasiraddin, 
during the time of the reign of Mansiir 'bn Niih 
Samd,ni, came into the wardrobe (household) 
service of Abii Ishak 'bn Ileptagin, who was 
Commander of the Troops of Khurasan. He 
received the post of Chamberlain, and the binding 
and loosing {i. e., the whole direction) of the officers 
and servants, the attendants and the troops, was 
conferred upon him. The nobles and chiefs of 
that prince became acquainted with his high effici- 
ency and ingenuity, and learnt and knew his 
enlightened guidance in transacting this affair ; 
and when they sent Abii Ishak Alptagin, who 
was Commander of the Army, to Ghazna, and 
relinquished the rule of that territory unto him, 
they consigned the reins of the guidance and 
direction of the business thereof, and the disposal 
and settlement of the transactions thereof, to the 
weighty intellect and powerful understanding of 
Nasiraddin. 

And when they sent Abii Ishak Aluptagin to 
Ghazna in a short space of time he was consigned 
(to the tomb) and answered the claim of (nature's) 



MEMOIRS OP sabaktagIn. 23 

debt, and there was no one of his family who pos- 
sessed a fitness for empire, and superiors and 
chiefs, free and bondmen, needed some one who 
should be apt and capable for their sovereignty, 
And whomsoever they preferred, when brought to 
the touchstone of estimation, possessed not the 
perfect standard, until all became of one associated 
mind and one conjoined voice in agreeing that in 
no one was there such worthiness, qualifications for 
rule, better or nobler specialities than in Nlisir- 
addln SabaktagIn. They gave their assent, 
therefore, to him, as ruler and governor. They 
covenanted to accept his sway and rule, and they 
inaugurated him, and Ndsir-ad-din SabaktagIn 
took aU under his protecting pastorate. He 
settled upon a firm basis the safety of the State 
and the prosperity of all, and every one by his 
powerful plans and happy arrangement obtained 
secure portions (fiefs) and arranged comforts. 
Then he turned his face unto the sacred warfare 
with the infidels and the humiliation of the ene- 
mies of the faith, and began to make war upon 
the country of Hindiistdn, whose inhabitants are 
universally enemies of Isldm, and worshippers of 
images and idols. He turned then upon these 
regions and provinces, and extinguished, by the 
water of his sword- wounds, the sparks of idolatry 
struck from their fire-altars, and gave to the winds 



24 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIN. 

the temples and the meeting-places of those base 
ones, and in their room placed fabrics of mosques ~ 
and shrines. He received those who believed into 
the protection of quarter, and caught the idolaters 
in the net of destruction, and between him and the 
rebellious contests of those cursed ones, and the 
resistance of those devils, lamentable affairs 
occurred, the record of which will remain upon the 
page of time until the last day ; and the Amir, in 
enduring the difficulties of those weighty affairs 
and the intense stubbornness of those actions dis- 
played a front of patience and endurance under 
which human strength would have failed, unless 
the aid of the mercy and power of the Lord had 
provided an egress. These verses form a recital 
and picture of his words and deeds : — 

" Virtue is my ancestor. Exertion is my father. 

" My choice is fame, with her grand gains. 

" My occupation is to do that which my inclination hateth. 

" My idea] is a prince, heroic, zealous. 

" My word is all that may be stirring and fervid ; 

" And my object is praise and complacency." 

At a time when he was compiling an account 
of the course of these expeditions and had com- 
manded a history of the transactions of those 
events, it fell into the fortunate (speech) phrase of 
the Sultan (to mention) that "once when I was, 
during those hostilities, in the ranks of the army, 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 25 

and the enemy had been reinforced in great and 
overflowing numbers, and we by a great propor- 
tion fewer than they, and that sacred war had been 
drawn out to a great length, and all the splendour 
and means which we possessed remained no 
longer, and the road of assistance or of seeking aid 
was stopped, and for long we had remained in the 
difficulties of that distress and the anguish of that 
affliction, and the captains of those troops and the 
chiefs of those people sought relief from their 
want of strength, and the means of sustaining life, 
and how they should discover the path of i)atience 
under that misery, and endurance under that 
hardship, I had no remedy except that there was 
a small remaining quantity of winnowed wheat, 
which 1 had for the delicacies of the kitchen : this 
I divided and shared amongst them all, and every 
day provided a Httle, according to their need, until 
God gave victory and fulfilled the promise con- 
tained in the exalted word of Truth, so that, of 
those accursed ones, some became the food of the 
sword, most were captive in the chains of capti- 
vity, and many took to flight in the robes of 
disgrace and shame." And, in like manner, Abdl 
Hasan Khazin relates (from Hasan) Ids good 
order and management thus : "When, upon two 
occasions, I held office under the Amir, he pos- 
sessed not ample means, and if he wished in the 
week to entertain as guests, once or twice, the 



26 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

lords of the empire, he provided hberally from his 
private allowance, that he might thus be enabled 
to adhere firmly to the rules whereby a good name 
and fame are preserved. But by all such means 
his fortunes were enlarged, until the extent of his 
territory and empire became wide, and he increased 
his expenditure in proportion to his rank and 
wealth, unt'l his presence became the Kaaba of 
hope and the Kiblah of prosperity (Verse) 

" His pure soul made him rule purely, and made him to 
know energy and diligence, and made him a king, a hero, until 
he exalted and digniiied his people." 

The first victory which in his happy age 
appeared was the conquest of Bost.* 



Account op the Capttteb or the Pbotiwce oe Bost. 

It originated in the following circumstances : 
One named Tufdn was prince of this territory, 
and another, whose name was BditUz, wrested 
the country from him by force, and expelled 
him, Tdfdn, incapable of resistance, possessed 
no resource except to retire from the land, 
and fled for refuge, in his distress, to the 
protection of Ndsir-ad-dln. Of him Tufdn 
requested troops, to recover his estate from his 

* Bost, or Bust, in Sistan or Sajastan, on the borders of 
Zabulistan. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 27 

enemy, proffering his services and engaging him- 
self to the distinguished Government, by a promise 
that he would every year send a fixed tribute to 
the Treasury, and, in case of need, would assist the 
Amir with his army of chiefs and nobles, and 
would fulfil the customs of service, and settle his 
son with Ndsir-ad-din, as an hostage for his obedi- 
ence. The Amir, being of a kind and generous 
nature, assented to this petition, and sat down 
before Bost with a complete army. In this war 
great efforts were made on both sides, and the 
Amir N^sir-ad-dln charged with the centre body 
of his troops and scattered the enemy's army into 
the narrow abodes of the city. Many were 
wounded and the rest fled. Tufin was restored to 
his kingdom and expressed his thanks for the 
generous and fortunate aid of Ndsir-ad-din, yet he 
began to delay and evade the services to which 
he had agreed, meditating a falling short in and a 
retreat from the full completion of his treaty, until 
the proofs of his treachery and deceit became daily 
more evident ; and one day, when together in the 
field, Ndsir-ad-din addressed to him some bitter 
reproaches; he returned an unbecoming answer, 
which drew on a dispute ; and this went so far 
that Tufd,n put his hand to his sword and wounded 
Ndsir-ad-dln ; and the Amir, witnessing this 
graceless act, clapped his hand upon his sword and 
inflicted upon Tufan a great wound. He wished 



28 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

to repeat it, but was forcibly restrained by the 
soldiers Nisir- ad-din hereon commanded his 
troops to march forth upon that plain and cleanse 
the tablet (of life) from their odious existence. In 
the space of one hour of the day all that country 
was conquered. Tiifdn and Bditiiz took the path 
of Kirmdn and never saw that country again, even 
in their dreams, nor admitted a thought of that 
subject into their minds. But of all the advan- 
tages which resulted to the Amir N^sir-ad-din, 
from that victory (one of the most important) was 
the acquisition of the services of the Shaikh Abul- 
Fath-Busti, who was without an equal in virtue, 
acquirements, understanding, and eloquence. He 
was Secretary to Baitiiz, and when the two Amirs 
betook themselves away from that country Abiil- 
Fath remained behind and concealed himself 
within the city. They made known unto Nd,sir- 
ad-dln his excellent qualifications, who intimated a 
wish for his presence. When he offered his 
respects the Amir received him generously and 
honourably, confirming his former rank and giving 
him good promises, and commanding that so 
respectable an individual should be inscribed in 
the books of accounts, for the same amount of 
allowances as he had received in the service of 
B41tuz. He gave him the same place and com- 
mitted to his guidance the same business as he had 
before directed. The Shaikh Abdl-Fath-Bustl 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAqIn. 29 

thus relates : — " When the Amir Nisir-ad-dln 
valued me as worthy of such good fortune and 
honoured me with such special favour, committing 
to me the portfolio of requests, which is the trea- 
sury of secrets, I began to think, This king cannot 
have full confidence in my deeds or words : he has 
but recently given me pardon and protection, 
whilst he in whose service I have been was his 
marked enemy and opponent. If, therefore, some 
envious or ill-wishing person distort and confuse 
my conduct it is possible that the arrow of malig- 
nity may reach the mark. I therefore went to pay 
my respects to him and said. There can exist no 
higher office or mark than that with which the 
Sovereign has been graciously pleased to distin- 
guish this servant ; yet this servant deems it 
fitting that he should for a while find His 
Majesty's permission (to retire) and to remain 
under the shadow of the King's protection, in some 
place appointed for that purpose, until the Sove- 
reign have fully arranged all afikirs relating to this 
dishonourable P4itiiz,* and the kingdom be at rest 
from disturbances and changes, and the centre-point 
of aftairs revolve with stability ; then this servant 
will kiss the distinguished hand and will look this 
office in the face, when he shall have become justi- 
fied from and cured of this mark of disgrace, and 

* This name is either Baituz or Paitva. 



30 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

note of suspicion, and shall be fixed and settled in 
the high road of confidence and the way of reputa- 
tion." 

The Amir Nisir-ad-din approved this remark 
and thus signified his commands : — " You must 
depart unto the land of Eukhaj and there remain 
an expectant of favour, until the summons shall 
proceed from our presence,, when you shall without 
delay enter upon our service." " The Amir accord- 
ingly sent a royal rescript, and transmitted direc- 
tions respecting me to the officers of the country. 
I began to journey towards the place, and enjoyed 
myself in the highest degree in traversing that 
plain," 

The Shaikh further relates : " One night I was 
returning thanks for the accomplishment of a 
portion of the journey and the passing of that 
stage, and I passed the whole night considering 
and observing the stars and the constellations, 
until the streak of the kohol (eye-lash dye) of 
morning appeared in the openings of the clouds of 
night, and the bright flash of day rose upon the 
destiny of darkened mankind. I descended, for 
the purpose of performing the appointed duty of 
prayer, and when I had fulfilled my devotions and 
the light of day had removed the dark veil from 
before my obscured eye, I looked upon the beauty 
and the delights of that wilderness, which 
resembled a cultivated field. It was fair as the 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 31 

cheek of heart-stealers and bedecked like tlie 
enchanting gardens of Paradise. Brilliant as the 
peacock's feathers and as the banqiaet of KaykMs 
were the running streams, and the upland plains, 
and the boundless wilds. Then this verse passed 
into my mind, ' Your father Adam was one of the 
rebellious, but in knowledge you partake with 
angels.' Hereupon it fell into my mind to cast 
the sacred lot, whether I should go, forward or 
remain. I produced a. book I carried with me for 
the purpose of divination, and the first line of the 
volume was this, ' When thou hast fully arrived 
at thy point -of- safety go not beyond it.' Hereon 
I said unto myself, what lot can be more sure than 
this ? and no place can be more suitable than this. 
I therefore, commanded that my baggage waggons 
and furniture should be turned towards this spot, 
and here, for a princely time, I remained in this 
country, enjoying the cool shade of repose, and on 
this chess-board I paraded like the queen, in the 
enclosure of securitv and refreshment, until the 
adorned letters arrived, with the exalted rescript 
to summon me. 1 hastened to the royal service 
and, amidst the confidential officers of His 
Highness, I attained to what I attained." 

For, after this occurrence, the Office of 
Requests was conferred upon this personage, until 
the latter period of the reign of Ndsir-ad-dln, and 



32 MEMOIES OF SABAKTAGIN. 

the Sultdn Yamln-ad-doulali committed unto him, 
during the early part of his reign, the office of 
President of Investitures, whence all letters of 
victory and the contents of rescripts, volumes, and 
account-books, were by his elegant composition 
adorned, polished, promulgated, and finally re- 
corded. He was retained in this advantageous 
and lucrative office until for some cause he quitted 
the presence and retired into the land of the 
Turks. He died whilst there absent. 

The Amiv Nasir-ad-din having brought this 
country to peaceful submission appointed a vice- 
governor and began to meditate an -attack upon 
Kasdar.* This place was nigh the Amir's terri- 
tory. The prince of that country was hemmed in 
by strong fortresses and enclosed in a fruitful and 
plentiful land. Hence he imagined that the wheel 
of altered fortune could not possibly turn against 
him, and that the hand of the vicissitudes of life 
could never reach the collar of his prosperity, and 
knew not how utterly the King, favoured of the 
moonlit Heaven, despised him, and, like an eagle, 
could catch the winds by the arrow of-might, until 
one night, at the hour when the bud of dawn 
begins to blow and the bride of morning is proudly 
proceeding from the darkened net-work of her 

* Kasdar, or Kusta^, in the mountains of Ar Eushaj 
(Kukhaj ?) 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 33 

couch, the Sultd,n came with his irresistible, encir- 
cling, faithful army and at one blow rendered him 
ruined and a prisoner (Verse) 

" Lo ! whilst the chief of the herd is drinking amidst the 
females, 

" Whilst the dogs are barking and a sacrifice is to be offered 
on account of a child new-born, 

" One in great haste roasts him for a company arriving." 

For the state of the destruction of that morning 
recalled the saying, " He took him as the butcher 
takes the sheep." Afterwards, through his gentle 
and humane disposition, the Amir decided that 
the Prince of that land should be confirmed in the 
possession of his territory, appointing unto him a 
fixed tribute, to be paid year by year, into the 
Treasury, and enjoining that the coin and the 
public buildings should be decorated with the 
blessed name and the happy surname of Ndsir-ad- 
din. 

Ndsir-ad-dln having completed the conquest of 
Kasdar, directed his thoughts towards the 
conquest of infidels. He turned his face towards 
India and meditated striking a blow at those 
accursed, and coming on the rear of that land of 
unbelievers. With sincere fervour and pure design 
of pleasing God he undertook the hardship of that 
sacred war and displayed unshaken resolution in 
patiently prosecuting it, until he had utterly con- 
quered and possessed himself of many castles and 



34 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

strongholds of those far lands, whither the standards 
of IsMm had never penetrated and upon which the 
bright signs of truth had never glanced. He, by 
these fortified holds and territories, augmented the 
boundaries of his kingdom. But when Jaipdl,* 
King of Hindiistan, observed these things and saw 
the line of his frontier continually diminishing, and 
immeasurable fractures and losses every moment 
caused in his States, that grievance rendered him 
disturbed and inconsolable. He represented to 
himself that if he should allow himself to be remiss 
and slothful under so great a cause for anxiety, 
and so signal a misfortune, nor set his face to resist 
it, his hereditary kingdom would go to the winds, 
and, in such an horrible event, the world would be 
severe upon him. He saw no remedy, except in 
beginning to act and to take up arms. He 
assembled, therefore, all his princes, feudatories, 
nobles, and allies, and with a great army 
approached the Musalman territory, hoping that 
the awe of his force would procure him retribution, 
and that the chasm which by the powerful army 
of Islam had been so visibly made in his coasts 
and his country would be removed, and the wound 
which the gleaming sword of Msir-ad-dln had 
inflicted upon the iniquitous infidels would be 
closed up ; and in him was exemplified the text, 

* Jaipdl, Jaibal, Haibal, or Hainal. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 35 

" They wish to extinguish the Hght of God in their 
hearts, but God fortid that his light should not be 
perfected, although the idolaters abhor it." He 
left Lamgh^n, in full reliance upon the valour 
of his troops and in expectation of victory, 
through his conquering army and allies. In his 
head was the intoxication of confidence and in his 
heart the blackness of vain conceit (Verse) 

" No one of sense gives positively until he has gotten. 
Draw up your robe dry from your leg, when the billows are 
twinkling upon the shore." 

And when the Amir Ndsir-ad-dln perceived 
this he began the work vigorously, and marched 
from Ghazna against Jaipal. They came together 
upon the frontiers of each state. Each army 
mutually attacked the other, fought and resisted 
in every way, until the face of the earth was 
stained red with the blood of the slain, and the 
lions and warriors of both armies and nations were . 
worn out and reduced to despair. Then the Sultdn 
Yamln-ad-doulah Mahmiid,* in this contingency, 
remarked that all skill and intelligence was 
unequal to the subjugation of this fort, and that 
all human power fell short against it. And he 
remarked, further, that in that region, wherein 
was the encampment of the accursed, the water of 

* I. e., the Prince Mahmtid, subsequently the Sultan 
Tamin-ad-doulat. 

D 2 



36 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGiN. 

a spring was pure and bright, whilst free from 
any unclean substances, but whenever any impure 
thing* was thrown therein a great flash of 
lightning shone forth, and furious winds arose, and 
a bitter cold succeeded, so that no one could at all 
endure to remain there. The Amir Nasir-ad-din 
therefore commanded that they should cast some 
wine-flasks into the fountain. Immediately a 
great darkness spread over the land and the bright 
day became obscured, and the atmosphere, from 
the sharpness of the extreme cold, drew over itself 
a grey mist, so that patience could no longer 
endure such sufferings, and they were near unto the 
fate of death. Hereupon Jaipil sent a messenger, 
seeking a truce and asking pardon, and engaged to 
surrender at discretion, and to send every year a 
fitting tribute to the Treasury, and accept the 
authority of the Amir over his States, and to 
present gifts of homage, such as a marbit (yoke) 
of elephants, or any other propitiating gifts he 
might command. The Amir Nasir-ad-din, through 
his ingenuous and generous disposition, was 
content with this proposal, and wished to compose 
this affair, and to grant unto his chiefs and army 
some gratifying gifts out of these splendid cessions. 
But the Sultan Yamin-ad-doulah Mahmild gave 
not in to this, but resolutely refused, and said. You 

* A spring, into which, if a small quantity of a certain drug 
should be thrown, &c., Ac. — Dow's Hindustan, p, 27. 



MEMOIRS or sabaktagIn. 37 

cannot bring this affair to an end, except by- 
storming out, and to grant a truce in their calami- 
tous state would be unbecoming and unworthy the 
glory of Islam. • " Cry not for peace nor demand 
it, for you are the highest and God is with you, 
and will not suffer your affairs to fail." When 
then the messenger returned hopeless, and inti- 
mated the state of things, exposing the reply he 
had received and the disappointment of their 
expectations, Jaipil saw that there was no resource 
except in returning to means of extremity and 
despair. He sent back the messenger and said (in 
accordance with the proverb) " When they desire 
terms grant terms, for that is better than fighting. 
Do not by fighting deliver them from their 
weakness (difficulty) for they can destroy lives but 
once." 

The substance of his message was as follows : 
" You have heard and know the nobleness of 
Indians, how that, in seasons of extremity, they 
fear not death or destruction. They run the edge 
of the sword over those who wrong them, when 
there is no means of escaping the blade. In affairs 
of honour and renown we would place ourselves 
upon the fire like roast meat, and upon the dagger 
like the sunrays." If this disinclination to show 
us the favour of a truce and capitulation proceed 
from desire of the enjoyment of our wealth, our 
elephants, our damsels, or our children, then, when 



38 MEMOIRS OP sabaktagIn. 

the crocodile (of extreme distress) arrive and the 
wish for safety becomes a (frustrated) desire, then 
we shall throw all that pertains unto us, our riches 
and our possessions, alive and dead, into the fire, 
and destroy them, and afterwards kill ourselves, so 
that nothing but dust and ashes will remain. 
" The fire will consume, nor will they war with the 
dead and the refuse." 

The Amir Nasir-ad-dln hearing this, and 
thinking it horrible that they should fulfil their 
threat, diverted his views from the project of 
expulsion by storm and directed them towards 
peace and kindness. He interceded with Yamln- 
ad-doulah Mahmiid and prevailed upon him to 
give up his project of revenge. He was content 
that the enemy should present, by way of ransom, 
one thousand packets each of one thousand dinars 
sterling, and five stables- full of elephants, and 
should cede some cities of Hindustan and some 
fortresses within the heart of his kingdom, and 
that both himself, his courtiers, and the principal 
officers of his army should give their sons as host- 
ages, until the terms of the treaty should be carried 
into effect and the chiefs and dependants of the 
conquered party should have acceded to them, 
when the territories and fortresses should be 
restored. 

To the whole of this they agreed, and both 
sides separated from one another, and, when 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. ' 39 

Jaipal had gone a few stages and was in safety, 
and was secure in the midst of his kingdom, his 
base and evil nature led him to infringe the treaty. 
He entered upon measures contrary thereto, and 
as certain persons were with him, by way of doing 
him honour and for the purpose of taking posses- 
sion of the fortresses and territories ceded by the 
agreement, he threw them into prison, by way of 
reprisal for some of his comrades and company, 
who were detained at the Amir's Court, as a 
measure of retaliation. When intelligence of this 
was brought to the Amir he would not receive it, 
but thought it a mere rumour, until the news was 
repeatedly confirmed, when the deceit and treach- 
ery of that belier of kindness was manifested, and 
the truth of his perfidy came forth from the veil 
of report. 

The fire of jealousy then rose high in his 
heart, and the purpose of revenge wholly pos- 
sessed him. He proceeded to the country of 
the infidel traitor, and wheresoever he came he 
plundered and sacked the country until it was 
annihilated. He dug up and burnt down all its 
buildings, and kiUed those deceivers and infidels, 
carrying away their children • and cattle as 
booty. He made the territory of Lamgan (in 
Kashmir), which had been the most populous and 
flourishing of all that country, entirely stript and 
bare. He mastered several other territories, and. 



40 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

destroying their temples, their sacred buildings, 
and their churches, built mosques in their stead, 
making the light of Isl4m visible. 

News of these victories and intelligence of these 
exploits spread through all the world, and all the 
people of Isldm rejoiced exceedingly, and he 
returned to Ghazna, on the wing of victory and of 
success (Verse) 

" Truly thou hast returned the infidel to their milking (or 
to Aleppo) as happily as when the ornaments are returned to 
the maiden who has been stripped of them." 

And when Jaipdl witnessed the destruction of 
his kingdom and experienced the consequences of 
his treacherous infraction of the treaty, seeing the 
glory of his kingdom taken from him and his con- 
federates made a prey to the lion, he was deeply 
chagrined and perplexed in finding a remedy for 
this misfortune. He found himself powerless to 
do anything, except to invoke help, and therefore 
dispatched letters, seeking succour, to the various 
provinces of India, imploring aid. He thus 
assembled nearly 100,000 horse and directed his 
march towards the capital of Isldm. When the 
Amir received intelligence of his return he, in full 
and strong hope, advanced the standards of Islam 
to meet him, resolute and relying upon the 
goodness of the Creator (His name be magnified) 
and looking for the fulfilment of His promise made 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 41 

respecting the gift of success to His Word and 
exalting the standard verses of the faith, i. e., 
" Kill them, God will chastise them by your hands 
and will pierce them through, and give you victory - 
over them and comfort the hearts of believing 
people." And when the armies were near to one 
another the Amir went into a thicket, in disguise, 
in order to reconnoitre the number of these 
accursed people. He saw that they were like an 
immense ocean, and their army like a host of 
innumerable ants and locusts. However he was 
like a lion, who foresees a feast when he beholds 
numerous huntsmen, or like a wolf, more bold as 
the copapany of horsemen is greater. Assembling 
his ardent'and brave warriors he intimated to them 
their glorious and noble lot, exhorting them to 
destroy and vanquish those wretches. All 
appeared ready and eager for the affair, all hearts 
being encouraged by a liberal distribution of 
rewards, honours, and promotions. The Amir 
Ndsir-ad-din cpmmanded that a company of five 
hundred men, a portion of similar successive 
reserves, should make an attack upon the enemy, 
and should maintain their position with their 
utmost efibrts and exertions, and that when these 
had done their utmost and had fulfilled their 
designed duty another company of five hundred 
should succeed in their room, and that all should 
push forward in that manner. They followed his 



42 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

directions, and in this manner, they made their 
way onward, until they terrified the infidels. Then 
they made one simultaneous charge upon them 
and made some prisoners, but the rest betook 
themselves to flight, throwing away all their arms, 
and weapons, and incumbrances, and so quitted 
the land. " The judgment of God is upon those 
who stray from him and this judgment cannot be 
evaded." 

From this time the Hindiis drew in their tails 
and sought no more to invade the land, and were 
content that they were suffered to dwell in peace 
in the more distant parts of their country, in order 
that no trouble should happen to them from the 
house of Isldm. And this territory was entirely 
annexed to the lands of Isldm, was adorned by the 
brilliancy of the true worship, and its inhabitants 
included in the efficient, excellent, and prosperous 
vice-royalty of Nisir-ad-din, being brought beneath 
the wing of his pastoral care. And all his subjects 
and servants girded up their loins in his behalf, 
and whenever he needed aid, or entered upon any 
design or expedition, a thousand horse attended 
his stirrup and were bound to follow his victorious 
banner. 

This afiair being concluded the Amir E,idha- 
Abul-Kasim-Niih, Ibn Mansiir, Samany, King of 
Khurdsan, cast his eye upon Nasir-ad-din, and 
sought assistance, in order to meet an army which 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAQIn. 43 

was troubling him, which proceeded from the 
Turkish provinces, which was disturbing him in 
his enjoyment of territories that had long 
belonged to his throne, and was coveting his here- 
ditary kingdom, that, by such aid, he might 
confirm that kingdom to his race. The Amir 
Ndsir-ad'din, induced by that generosity which 
Grod had implanted within his august nature, 
thought himself obliged to assent to this request, 
and to aid a king thus unjustly exposed to be 
shaken from his ancient house, to restore his 
kingdom, to avenge him upon his enemies, and, by 
coming to his succour, to fulfil the just obligation 
of repressing those who injure one's connexions, 
thus perpetuating the record of his glory in the 
volume of time. Doubtless the Creator made his 
zeal to be the cause of the confirmation of the 
empire unto him and unto his posterity, poured 
constant benefits upon this energetic warrior and 
his children, and retained his successors in the 
possession of that dominion. " God, the possessor 
of the greatest good, grants His favours unto 
whomsoever He willeth." 

ACCOrUT OE THE DECEASE OF MaNSXTB-'BN-IS'uH.* 

In the course of the year 365 the Amir Sadid- 

* Mansur 'bn Nuh, a prince of the family of Saman, was 
(feudal) sovereign of the whole extent of country which lies 
betwfeen the Jaxartes and the Indus. 



44 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

Mansdr-Ibn-Niih had deceased, and his throne and 
seat became vacant. The nobles and chiefs of the 
state assembled and inaugurated his son, the Amir 
ilidha-Niih-Ibn-Mansiir into that dignity. He 
was in the way wardness of early youth, when he was 
thus adorned with the splendour of government 
the majesty of royalty, and the grandeur of power. 
As soon as he was firmly seated upon the throne 
he opened his treasury, and expended that wealth 
and those preci()us jewels and ornaments which his 
bygone ancestors and the grand viziers had accu- 
mulated, upon the chiefs of his army and his 
troops, and the various ranks of his servants, gra- 
tifying every one of his dependents and compa- 
nions, who was well -affected towards him, with 
valuable presents and royal gifts, so that their 
hearts became firm in obedience and devotion to 
him, and the directors of the world placed their 
heads upon the signature of his commands, holding 
fealty to him, and seeking his will and direction. 
Abul-Hasan- Simjiir, General of the Army,* was 
at Nishapilr. Unto him Nuh-Ibn-Mansiir sent a 
commission, as Commander-in-Chief of the troops, 
and intimated to him the late events, his accession 
to his hereditary kingdom, and his inauguration by 
the whole army. He gratified him with various 
proofs of kindness, generous favours, and aug- 

* I. e., of Khurasan. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 45 

merited rank, and promised an increase in Ms 
share of benefits, so that Simjur expressed the 
greatest friendship for him and fully assented to 
his accession. The Vizirat was confirmed to 
Abul-Hasan-Utbi, who, by his excellent under- 
standing, knowledge, and intellect, arranged all 
the affairs of the State in due order, exhibiting 
himself as a mirror of justice and equity. This 
Vizir rendered the chiefs of the State firm and 
constant guardians of its interests, and held the 
restive by the bridle of obedience, so that the fame 
of the good order and magnificence of that 
kingdom was diffused throughout the world, and 
the chiefs of the provinces regularly discharged 
the due tributes and the accustomed services, and 
the Amir-Adhad-ad-doulat, on account of the 
eminent rank, noble renown, strict conduct, strong 
kingdom, and noble bearing of His Highness, 
considered his good-will worth seeking, and deter- 
mined upon measures of fidelity and obedience, 
and scrupulously fulfilled the requests offered from 
that quarter. Sometimes, indeed, he evaded 
certain directions of His Highness, and a spirit of 
opposition and resistance prevailed, and he exhi- 
bited a wish to decline some requisitions, but when 
he carefully considered the effects of rebellion and 
the consequences 6f strife he resisted this tempta- 
tion and adhered to the rules of peace, and kept 
his mind in repose by the bond of wisdom and the 



46 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

advantage of friendship. " There is always good 
in the tractable, but never look for service in a fool 
until the sun shines at night." Ahmad Khaw^- 
razmy was one of the confidential officers of Niih 
Mansiir Siminj, and the Amir sent through him 
every year gifts to the glorious Kaaba and, to the 
honoured Medina (God perpetuate their splendour) 
in order to spend them duly in honouring the two 
sacred places and the holy men, thus to obtain 
rank and merit. This officer relates thus : — 
" Once, when I came from Khur^s^n, on the pil- 
grimage, when I arrived at the abode of Islam, I, as 
usual, presented my respects at the Court of Adha- 
ad-doulat.* He received me very kindly and made 
me describe the state of affairs in Khurdsdn, the 
mode in which business was settled and security 
obtained, and the vizd-rat of Abul-Hasan-Utbi. 
He displayed a full acquaintance of the manner in 
which this Vizir transacted and arranged the 
government," and he said "If any service was 
enjoined by His Highness or any request be made 
you may present it." Hereupon I presented a 
memorandum, given to me by the Shaikh Abul 
Hasan, containing the requisitions of the gifts 

* Adhaddoulat, being an Amir of the family of Buyah or 
Boyah, independent sovereigns of the Caspian provinces, was, 
as will be seen, indignant at the assumption of suzerainty by 
any prince of the rival family of the Samanides, to which the 
Ghazuivides ultimately succeeded. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 47 

assigned to him to pay. These in the whole were 
one thousand robe-pieces, embroidered with the 
name Amir, Said, MaUk, Mansiir, Wali-Au-naan, 
Abul-Kasim-Nuh-'bn Mansiir, Wali Amlr-Almii- 
minln, and five hundred embroidered with the 
name Shaikh JaHl Said, Abul-Hasan, Abd-Allah- 
Ibn- Ahmad, and five hundred plain, in the name 
of the Chamberlain Hisam-ad-doulat, AbulAbbds- 
Tash. When he had read this memorandum he 
became excited, angry, and jealous, and dropped 
the bridle of self-command from his hand. He 
turned his face, upon me and said. If the son of 
Utbi would be content with the government of 
E[:hurisd,n and draw his foot into the skirt of 
peace, and think of moderation it would be 
happier for him and for his master, than these 
degrading directions which he proposes to me. 
However I, with my sharp blood-drawing sword, 
will let the proud breeze into his brain, and with 
the fire of my noble horses will scatter fire-ashes 
from the depths of the Jihun. For, with our lion- 
warriors and brave soldiers, we will go forth to the 
chase, until he shall know his place and no longer 
present to me thus authoritatively such exorbitant 
demands as these. " Return to them, we will 
surely bring an army against them, and we will 
surely compel them to come forth, to receive scorn 
thereby. They are vile," Ahmad Khaw^razmy 
says, "My limbs were full of terror at him : I 



48 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

arose and left the durbar, and, in my apprehension 
and dread, left all to his good faith. When the 
season for marching forth on the pilgrimage arrived 
he sent and called me back, and addressed me with 
great kindness and respect, and said, I have issued 
an order, in accordance with the memorandum, in 
order that you may receive the whole. I am un- 
willing that, on account of such a matter, any ill- 
will should enter the mind of Abul Hasan, or any 
vexation find its way unto him ; therefore you 
must go to the robe-makers and give orders for 
the robes, in such numbers and in such amount as 
you desire, so that when you return all may be 
done and laid up ready for you. So I went and 
ordered the robes, as directed by the requisition, 
and, when I returned, conveyed them to Bukhdrd, 
with other gifts and offerings of friendship." 
Abul Hasan Utbi carried away the prize (literally 
staff of precedency) from all his equals in high- 
mindedness, virtue, and generosity. The most 
eminent poets of the age were zealous in his praise, 
and composed sets of encomiastic stanzas upon 
him, in particular Abii-Tali Mahiiny, who arranged 
many good verses in commendation of him 
(Verse) 

" These compositions of Utbi ! they divide the skull from 
the neck, when they reproach ! He has such intellect ! like the 
iron-end of a spear, when it starts forth from his breast, the 
earth is not large enough for its scope. When he draws forth 
his pen to reply or to announce clouds and heroes are tumul- 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 49 

tuously drawn along. He resembles the pilgrim ascending the 
sacred mountain, or the sacred proclaimer, joyfully sounding 
forth the accomplishment of the pilgrimage and the arrival at 
the goal." 

The office of Great Chamberlain was given to 
Abiil-Abbis Tdsh, who, upon his investment with 
the office, exhibited good points of conduct, and in 
conciliating hearts, rendering dispositions friendly 
and directing the various ranks of the army, dis- 
played an unsullied hand, exhibiting becoming zeal 
in supplying the wants and fulfilling the wishes of 
every one, being ready to aid and intercede for all. 
The Shaikh Abiil-Hasan-Utbi earnestly endea- 
voured also to promote his welfare and dignity, 
opening to him various opportunities of advantage 
and profit, until he became remarkable for wealth 
and jewels. The cause of the authority which he 
possessed in the State and the army was this, viz., 
because A bill Abbds Tdsh was one of the slaves of 
Abii Jabar Utbi. He was eminently adorned with 
intellect, possessing traces of a noble and generous 
disposition, whence he profited by the instructions 
of his master, and became an excellent and accom- 
plished man. Abu Jafar Utbi perceived him, 
therefore, to be well fitted for the service of the 
Amir Sadid-Mansiir Niih, and sent him as a 
present to that Prince. And when the Shaikh 
Abiil-Hasan-Utbi, who knew him intimately and 
possessed perfect confidence in his fortunate supe- 



50 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIN. 

riority, good judgment, wisdom, and influence, 
acceded to office he admitted him to a full share of 
the administration of affairs, and raised him so 
high in office that the great men of the world 
found it necessary to inscribe themselves as 
attached to his service and to wear the badge of 
obedience to him. The Amir then gave the office 
of Chamberlain* to F4ik, who had also been a 
slave of Mansiir-ibn-Niih, and had obtained great 
influence and power with that Prince, becoming 
his arm and breastplate, through his strict probity 
and merit. The command of the army of Khur- 
d,s4n was confirmed to Abiil Hasan Simjiir, and 
these two officers exerted themselves to the utmost 
in consolidating the splendour of the kingdom and 
protecting the garden of the State. The afiairs of 
His Highness, by means of their union and 
concord, arose in dignity up to the star Capella, 
until the sidelong crooked eye of fate marked him, 
and with wounding glance caused fortune to 
change, so that a foundation so well supported and 
a throne so solidly founded in dignity, began to be 
challenged and disturbed by the hand of novelty. 
"When the command is fulfilled decay draws 
near ; we may look for ruin when it is said ' It is 
done.' " The origin of the disgrace and injury of 
this kingdom is to be found in the affairs of 
Sistan. 

* I.e., second chamberlain. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 51 

History or KnALAr-iBN-AnMAD, King or Sistan. 

Khalaf Ahmad, King of Slstd.n, undertook, in 
the year 354, the pilgrimage to Mecca, and left his 
kinsman, Tdhir-ibn-Hussain, Viceroy of his terri- 
tories. This man set himself up in rivalry to the 
King, seduced the army of Khalaf, seized his 
strongholds and treasures, and desired to possess 
himself of the throne of Slstan. When Khalaf 
returned he found his kingdom in confusion and 
his return to his capital intercepted. He fled to 
Mansiir-ibn-Niih, Samany, and implored his aid, 
to deliver his kingdom from the grasp of T4hir. 
Mansiir was disposed, as he was a kinsman, to 
favour him, and sent his army with him towards 
Slst^n, in order to restore him to his country and 
remove his grief. T4hir, when he received intel- 
ligence of the succour given by Mansiir 's army, 
left the country and fixed himself at Isfarain, so 
that Khalaf repossessed himself of his kingdom, 
and the generals and supporting troops- of His 
Highness Mansiir returned content. Then Tdhir 
rushed upon him, defeated him, and compelled 
him to fly to Bddghlz.* Khalaf, in his distress, 
again betook himself to His Highness Mansiir, 
and earnestly implored his succour and help. 
Mansiir received him with generosity and esteemed 

* Badghiz, a town of Khurasan, on the road from Herat to 
Meruar-Eud. 

E 2 



52 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

it a duty to afford him honourable regard and 
effectual aid. He therefore dispatched a chosen 
army of warriors, to assist him. When Khalaf 
came to SIstan with that army Tihir had died, and 
his son Hussain had succeeded him in his opposi- 
tion to Khalaf. He commenced an obstinate 
resistance and took up a strong position, in one of 
the fortresses of Sistan. Khalaf besieged him in 
the citadel of Ark. Many battles took place and 
many of the. soldiers of Hussain, son of Tdhir, were 
slain. Hussain, in this extremity, sent a person 
to His Highness Mansiir, requesting that he might 
be freed from the stigma of rebellion, and offering 
service and submission. He further entreated that 
access might be opened for him to His Highness, 
and that a safe conduct might be granted him 
through the beleaguering troops, that he might 
present his respects at the Court and obtain the 
honour of kissing hands. Mansilr accepted his 
excuses and issued a rescript, according to his 
demand, for his admission to the presence. Khalaf 
was reinstated in his kingdom and his authority 
was established upon the former basis. Thus he 
passed many years, until excess of pride and 
wealth affected his mind, and he forgot what he 
owed unto that dynasty, and began to delay and 
refuse transmitting tribute and customs to the 
government of Bukh^r^. The Amir reproved him 
in rescripts and letters, filled with good advice, and 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 53 

reminding him of tie assistance formerly rendered 
to Mm ; but he, through the intoxication of rebel- 
lion and the vapour of sedition, was carried onward 
in his career, and proceeded in strengthening and 
rooting himself, and in looking more acutely with 
the eye of undutifulness, until Hussain-Ibn-T4hir 
was sent against him, with all the warriors and 
heroes of Khurasdn, who besieged him in the 
fortress of Ark. This siege lasted a long time, 
and the Vizer Abul Hasan Al Utbi sent mes- 
sengers continually, and expressed to the chiefs 
and nobles his eager desire for the completion of 
the enterprize ; but, after aU eiforts, the reahzation 
of his wish never came forth from the veil of Pro- 
vidence, and his aim never reached the mark. The 
affair remained unaccomplished for years, because 
the height of this castle was so great as to be as 
unknown as the secrets of Heaven, and every voice 
was (united) with the voice of angels. Its roof 
reached the plain of Arcturus, and the sentinel 
could hear the distant angelic hymns, and from its 
noble summit brilliancy spread and the clouds wore 
a delicate robe for its height (Verse) 

'' For the service of every (impious) rebel are its peaks, for- 
by it tbou mayest ascend to Heaven on a staircase." 

And around it was a great moat, in whose depth 
imagination could find no footing, and in fording 
which every foot would sink in mud. Like the 



54 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

crocodile it conveyed away horseman and footman, 
and, like fate, it allowed stability neither to clay 
or hard earth (Verse) 

" Mortals totter by its side, as the motli by the edge of the 
flame, and its dread almost exhausted the cavalry, as the sand 
swallows the showers." 

And Khalaf, by various skilful sidelong strokes 
and crafty blows, continually troubled the be- 
siegers, and upon every place where they stood 
cast at them pots full of serpents and scorpions, 
from slinging machines, and made whatever they 
confided in a place of ambuscade, and made their 
nights sleepless. Seven years were thus consumed, 
through the stubbornness of this hero, and the 
resistance of this crafty one, and the men remained 
unable to accomplish the affair, and property, and 
treasure, and horses, and men, and arms were 
wasted. The vestiges of the weakness and the 
indications of the debility of the army of Khur^s^n 
became unfolded and published, and the honour 
and the exultation of the enemy, and the strength 
of the opponents became manifest, and every look 
and every day afforded room for some fresh blow 
and some new injury to the Prince's warriors. But 
there is an end to everything and a limit to every 
kingdom, to every condition happens decay and to 
every dynasty applies the quotation, "God erases 
and establishes whatsoever He willeth, and with 
Him is the book of Fate." 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 55 

And when Abul Hasan Simjilr became sensible 
of the badness of this business and the dulness of 
this market he attached himself to traitorous 
determinations, and he constructed the measure 
of self-protection, and from preserving the good 
state of the kingdom, and establishing conserv- 
ative regulations, betook himself to laxity and 
indifference, and fell into the habit of leaving and 
carelessly neglecting the duty of the accumulation 
of reinforcements and the thickening of the army, 
and the strokes of the billows of troops (Verse) 

"For us, the .guidance of fortune will not favour us, but 
whilst it beholds him who is earnest. All that fortune pro- 
duces is the reed ; manliness mounts a spear-head upon the 
reed." 

So that the sons of the dynasty and the advisers of 
the presence extended the tongue of reproof, and 
found a wide field for correction and attack, and 
said — " Marks of support, of attachment, of honour, 
from the family of Samdn, have been more conspi- 
cuous with regard to none of the princes and 
officers than with regard to the. son of Simjiir, and 
unto no other subject did the Amir Sadid Ibn 
Mansilr Ibn Niih exhibit a more tender regard 
and preference ; and he conferred upon him the 
province of Khurisdn, which is the white of the 
State's eyes and the best portion of the kingdom, 
in order that, when trial should arise and misfor- 



56 MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGIn. 

tune attack, he might prove a fervent heat and a 
powerful column, and, in fulfilling the obligations 
of gratitude for this favour, might devote his head 
and his life, and prove a protecting veil to the 
King, his heirs and successors. Xow, since he 
begins to belie his favours and displays connivance 
and indifference in the performance of the obliga- 
tions of duty, and in the defence of the honour of 
the throne, it may be necessary to issue a docu- 
ment for his removal, and to give his rank and 
allowance to another of the servants of the State, 
who, in the efficiency of his orders, in the stopping 
up outbreaks, and in the conciliation of aU may 
exhibit firmness." And they dispatched from His 
Highness a document, for his removal from his 
government and from the command of the army 
of Khurasdn, and settled his dignity and office 
upon Hisam-ad-doulat Tdsh. And when this 
document came to Abul Hasan Slmjiir the sinful- 
ness of pride withdrew the bridle of self-command 
from his hand, so that he gave a peevish reply and 
openly uttered a rebellious word, and rejected the 
rescript of His Highness. Afterwards, finding the 
eye of understanding, he looked into the issue of 
affairs and thought that any rebellion against the 
master of his prosperity would meet with unplea- 
sant consequences, and that to draw upon the 
records of Slmjiir the mark of treachery and the 
path of disobedience would be the cause of reproof 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 57 

and repentances, expose himself to vexation and 
difficulty, and bring upon liimself misfortune 
instead of plenty, and that to taste the poison 
upon the bow is not the part of the wise. 
Wherefore he assembled his children, chiefs, and 
followers, and calmed them with various kinds of 
good counsel and chapters of advice, and said 
(Verse) 

" As to the Commander of Believers and as to that which 
he hath done it is Fate which hath prostrated us, there is no 
disgrace in the acts of Fate." 

And he assured every one of them that, to be 
content with the determination of God and to 
betake himself to the path of humility, as (sub- 
mitting to all that proceeded) from the master of 
his prosperity, would be the assurance of safety. 
And (for thee, they said) not to take consequent 
measures for these injuries, or reprisals for this 
enmity, wiU be more fitting than to render thyself 
a recipient of misfortune and to distract thyself 
with care, and to rub the side against the wall of 
strife. He therefore summoned the messenger 
back, and, having submitted, he expressed peni- 
tence and made apologies, and begged acceptance 
of his excuses, and said, "I am a young shoot of a 
tree, planted by the King and supported by the 
water of his generosity and the floodgates of his 
benefits, and under the canopy of his beneficence 



58 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

and the veil of his generosities, I sprouted forth 
and exhibited myself, and having in his fortunate 
garden drawn out my branches and become fruit- 
bearing, if he suffer my service for the sake of 
fruit, and confirm his extended favour and his 
esteemed goodness, for that may he be praised and 
thanked, or if he pluck me up from the root and 
make me fuel for the fire, for that may he be 
excused and pardoned." So he sent back the mes- 
senger, with all obedience, and he rose up from 
the surface of the kingdom of Khurasan and 
removed to the borders of Kohistan, and there 
awaited for that which should arrive from His 
Highness, upon the subject of the rescript, who 
commanded that he must go to the borders of 
Slstdn, and to make an efficient manifestation of 
good order, bravery, and excellence in the affairs 
of that place, where all has fallen into confusion, 
like a knot of crimes, and in these urgent matters 
which remain in perplexity, like the square-root of 
the surd, and to release the army from the diffi- 
culties of distance and the vacillations of anxiety. 

Abiil Hasan Simjur went then to Slst^n, and 
between him and Khalaf the grounds of their old 
affection, concord, love, and friendship became 
strengthened and settled. When he arrived at 
that place he immediately sent some one to him, 
and intimated the path of agreement, saying thus, 
"Theresidenceof His Excellency in this country hath 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 59 

been of long continuance, and many injuries have 
arisen in portions of the kingdom ; and since that 
regarding which we are eager and for the preser- 
vation of which, in its dignity, we have devoted 
our head and our Hfe, i. e., your principaHty, is 
going to the wind and is becoming impracticable, 
our efforts (to serve you) are stopped and our 
pains fruitless, therefore this is the way, i. e., that 
thou shouldest rise up from this place and 
shouldest remove to another place, whilst I 
conduct away this army from this country, under 
the pretence of obtaining that which they seek and 
of receiving that which they request,* and when 
the field is clear that will be the fittest time to 
arrange presents and to settle tribute." Khalaf 
listened to this advice and accepted it, and 
acknowledged that these words proceeded from the 
source of safety and security. Therefore he 
departed from the fortress of Ark and went to the 
Castle Tdk, and Abul-Hasan and the chief men of 
the State entered within the citadel and sent the 
good tidings (of success) and dispatched letters of 
victory to His Highness and to all parts, and per- 
formed the Khuttah and decorated the coined 
money with the surname of N"uh-Mansiir. And 
they directed their path towards Khurasan ; but 

* That is Simjfir prevailed upon Khalaf to retire, and, 
offering apparent submission, to reserve his troops for more 
important enterprizes. — De Sact, Notices et Uxtraits, Sfc. 



60 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGiN. 

the full explication of that which after this affair 
happened anew between Khalaf and Husain-ibn- 
Tdhir will fully come in its place, and be presented, 
please God ! 



HisTOET or Hisam-Adbotjlat-Tash, the Chambeklain, 

AND THE TBAHSrEEBNOE Or THE GOTEENMBNT. 

Then they sent to Hisdni-Addoulat-Td,sh, at 
Nishapiir, a commission for the rank of Com- 
mander-in-Chief and General of the Army, and 
they committed unto his faithful and brave hand 
the reins of loosing and binding, of letting go and 
holding fast, of urgency and deficiency, and they 
attached unto him, for the sake of assistance and 
support, ralk-Khd,s. And a company of the chiefs 
and nobles and eminent men of the State were 
dispatched to follow his standard, and they abun- 
dantly furnished him with money, and horses, and 
arms, and stores, and military necessaries. And 
when he arrived at Nishapur he spread open the 
carpet of justice, equity, and kindness, and placed 
upon the thread of good order the affairs of the 
Treasury and of the Custom-houses, and impressed 
the footsteps of liberality, and lessened from the 
poor subjects the want of food, and, by the security 
of his armies, before and behind, settled, confirmed, 
and fixed the marks of government, and the laws 
of authority and power, in the most distant places. 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGIn. 61 

And, at this period, Shfi,ms-Almwdli-Kabiis- 
Ibii-Wasamgir and Fakhr-Addoulat-Ali-bn-Biiyah 
arrived at Kharasdn, on account of the opposition 
which existed between them and Muwid-Addoulat. 
And the cause of this state of things was that 
Rukn-Addoulat had three sons, who each possessed 
a fitness for government, Azd-Addoulat-Abu- 
Shujaa, and Muwid-Addoulat-Buwayyah, and 
Fakhr-Addoulat-Ali. And he divided into three 
parts some territories of Ir4k and some part of 
Khurasdn, and Fars, and Karm^n, and other terri- 
tories which were on his Treasury list, and he 
assigned to each of them his portion. 

At this period Wathlkl wrote upon this 
subject, in the part relating to the Sabseans {apos- 
tates) given in his published work, the Kitdb- 
Kiikgi. And when Rukn-Addoulat died Azd- 
Addoulat coveted and contended for that territory 
which had been assigned unto Fakhr-Addoulat, and 
hindered him from obtaining it, and defeated his 
army. He (therefore) betook himself to recover 
his country and transfer it unto himself, and he 
fixed himself at Hamadin, the capital of the 
kingdom. And when the two princes drew near 
to engage one another, the chiefs of the army of 
Fakhr-Addoulat becanje treacherous and went to 
Azd Addoulat, and joined themselves to the body 
of his troops, and he, in this condition, began to 
dread and to think upon the severe disposition, 



62 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

and the bad temper, and the depth of deceit of 
Azd-Addoulat. For, not long previously, he, ty 
the hands of his soldiers, had murdered Bakhtidr, 
his uncle's son. Therefore Fakhr-Addoulat began 
to fear and proceeded from the midst of the army, 
with some of his own private attendants, to the 
country of Dilam and went towards Jurjan, and 
attached himself to Shams-al-Muall-Kabiis-Ibn- 
Washamgir, and took refuge under his care and 
protection. 

And Shams- Al-Muali made his rank exalted, 
his state respected, and his condition happy, in the 
utmost degree ; nay he exchanged his own power 
for his safety and prosperity, so that, through his 
care and generous disposition, he played away his 
ancient kingdom, which was the most noble of his 
jewels and the most precious object of his affection. 
The explanation of this remark is as follows : 
Azd-Addoulat and Muwid-Addoulat sent a mes- 
senger to Shams-Al-Mu41i, and entreated him to 
give up Fakhr-Addoulat into their hands, and 
they promised much in return for that : they pro- 
mised treasure in money, and gifts in revenue, and 
that part of the territories of the (fugitive prince) 
which they had left to him, and they made repre- 
sentations to him respecting alliances and treaties 
for union, and for the preservation of independ- 
ance, and respecting his becoming involved and 
implicated in cares and troubles. Shams -Al-Muali 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 63 

gave answer : "In tlie law of manliness and in the 
rules of preserving honour it is forbidden to 
diminish promises, or to infringe truth and gene- 
rosity, and what crime can be baser than this, that 
when such a prince has taken refuge in a place, 
and in this place expects to receive generosity and 
protection, to make him see trouble to betray him, 
and to sell him for some small worldly goods, and 
not rather to strive, at the expense of his own life, 
to preserve his dignity and to keep his life safe ; 
and, for my part, I think that when in the midst 
of a troop of cavalry and at the time when men 
exposed their lives in the heat of battle, and when 
they grieve not to strike with the sword, then 
(only) may this proposal be carried out. For if 
this thought passed over the mind it would have 
no effect except th's, that Kabiis will be renowned, 
and that, with the flaming voice of victory, the 
men of Gilan, with their bright sharp spears, will 
bring him upon the place of honour." 

And when this answer came to Azd-Addoulat 
he was angry, and entertained an intention of 
opposing and subduing Kabiis, and he wrote to 
Muwid-Addoulat that it was necessary to make 
preparations and to set forward to try the strength 
of Kabiis, And he sent unto him the men whom 
he required as soldiers, and all necessaries and 
provisions, and whatsoever was requisite to expe- 
dite the afiair. And he marched from the city 



64 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

Ray* and set forward to' Dildm, in the direction 
of Jurjdn.t with a great army of Turks and Ara- 
bians, and wherever he came he devastated the 
territory of Kabiis, and sent in his own Treasury 
collectors, and took possession of everything, until 
he marched upon the city of Asterabad.l And 
Shams-Al-Mud,ll made haste, in order that he 
might preserve the city of Karkdn, which was his 
capital city, from their attack, and when Muway- 
yad-Addoulat had arranged their troops in order 
of battle on the road, then blood began to flow 
from the sword like rain from the clouds, and from 
the blood of the slain the field of battle became 
like a bed of tulips (Verse) 

" At the time of attacking and flying, when all glistens with 
blood, the air becomes thick and the earth rubyrred, Fate 
becomes blind and Fortune deaf." 

Defeat, however, befell his cavalry (i. e., that of 
Kabiis) and the enemy drove him into the midst 
of the forests, and, having thus put him to flight, 
gained a great booty. And Kabiis went to one of 
his castles and there was maintained upon his 
treasures and concealed property for a time, but 
he made a removal in alarm and went to Nishapiir. 

* Eay, a city in Persian Irak. 

t Jurjan, a river of Mazandaran, which falls into the 
Caspian Sea. 

X Asterabad, a celebrated town on the borders of the 
Caspian. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIN. 65 

And Fakhr-Addoulat joined him, by the road of 
Istawa,* and their separated armies fell in with 
them. And they wrote a letter to His Highness, 
at Bukhdrd, and intimated to him what had 
befallen them, and they represented unto him that 
they were well acquainted with the excellent 
goodness and compassion of His Highness, in 
assisting the oppressed and in succouring the 
wretched. And they informed him of the injustice 
that had happened to each of them, through the 
violence of their enemies, and of their struggle for 
their hereditary kingdom and their ancient house, 
and that they woiild conjecture no hope of restora- 
tion or happiness except by his help and assistance, 
for that to remedy and rectify their losses would 
be impossible, unless by the concurrence and coun- 
tenance of His Majesty. 

Niih-Ibn-Mansiir gave an answer full of all 
kinds of generosity and professions of service, 
befitting the principles of generosity, and agreeable 
to the rules of attention and respect, and he sent a 
royal , order to Hisim-Addoulat-Tdsh, that he 
should hold both of them in honour, and see that 
they were treated with the utmost dignity and 
respect, and that he should restore them to their 
hereditary kingdom, and that he should exert 
himself to oppose their enemies and to repulse 

* Istawa, or Istou, probably on the route /rem Mazanderaa 
to Tds, in Khurasan. 

F 



66 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIN. 

those who disturbed them. Hisdm-Addoulat- 
Tdsh fully obeyed the royal order and took the 
way which had been commanded, and rendered 
them becoming service, and assembled the dis- 
persed army, and marched forth from Nishapiir, to 
the district of Jurjan, in order that he might first 
recover Jurjan, where was the capital city of 
Kabils, and might deliver his mind from any 
anxiety respecting himself, and then might attend 
to the affairs of Fakhr-Addoulat. 

And he commanded Falk that he should set 
off by the road of Koms, in the direction of Ray, 
and that he should intercept the assisting forces 
and auxiliaries of Muwayyad-Addoulat, in order 
that, when he should see an army before him and 
behind him, and when his heart should be occupied 
on both sides, his weakness of spirits and feeble- 
ness of condition might become increased. But 
when r4ik had gone two or three marches on that 
road he began to repent and to consider the divi- 
sion of his army, and the diminution of the total 
number of the body of his troops, which would 
result from the constant attention, the restraint, 
and the harassing vigilance of a distant expedition. 
And he thought it expedient to recall F^ik, and 
the two other princes came back with him. And 
Muwayyad-Addoulat went into the city and 
entrenched himself strongly, by means of gates, 
and walls, and moats, and in this fortress he 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 67 

waited patiently for nearly two months. And the 
army of DiMm, when this news arrived, halted and 
set forward on their return to the city ; and in 
these skirmishes th&y never turned away from 
striking with the sword, and they ran hither and 
thither, like the breathing (that flutters) before 
death, and split upon the point of an arrow and 
the edge of a hair,* and in these contests their 
battles were like sword-cutting destiny and like 
life-devouring time. And when the period qf the 
stay of the army at Karkan had become extended 
a scarcity arose and the means of strength, which 
is the support of life, became cut off, and the 
matter came to that point that they kneaded their 
grains of com with clay, for leaven, and, by this 
expedient, just preserved themselves from starva- 
tion. And Utbi relates : " I have seen the 
soldiers' bread made of this leaven." He says this 
in the middle of his volume, for the purpose of 
pointing out their condition and the scantiness of 
their means of subsistance. And when the delay 
had become injurious and unfortunate, and when 
they could be patient no longer, they came out 
from the fortress and arranged in order of battle, 
and Fakhr-Addoulat, with the best part of the 
army of Khurasan, opposed Ali-Kamah, who was 
the general of the army of Muwayyad-Addoulat, 

* The success on both sides, that is, was undecided and 
Binall, although the contests were severe, 

f"2 



68 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

and, at one attack, drove him from the field and, 
putting him to flight, proceeded unto AstarabS,d ; 
and if the army of Khurasd,n had given sufficient 
support to Fakhr-Addoulat, all that army would 
have been broken up and that hand cut off. 
However they displayed slothfulness, in order to 
(indulge) their covetousness and their evil disposi- 
tion, and (the enemy, therefore) returned back 
again and, detaching themselves from the main 
body of the army of the soldiers of Dilam, they 
made an attack upon the followers and the rear of 
the army of Khurasdn, which was occupied with 
plunder, and made them all the food of the sword. 
And in the midst of the army with AburAl-Abas- 
T&sh, Abu-Sayad was distinguished, and a com- 
pany of the troops of Kh'arazm, whose arrows, like 
the destiny of slaughter, never missed the mark, 
and many companies of the army of Dilam were 
swept away by their hand. 

And Abu-Alfazb, a man who was astrologer 
to Muwayyad-Addoulat, had made a calculation 
(and advised him) that at that conjuncture he 
ought to delay, until the planet Mars began to 
decline from the zenith, and then resolve upon 
battle, and use his utmost endeavours upon the 
field, and that if victory ensued, in accordance with 
his wishes, well, but if not that he should sally 
forth with his troops, from that confined place, 
unto the open plain, and commit the event to 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 69 

destiny. And Muwayyad kept this a concealed 
secret and made arrangements for the aflfair, until 
the time appointed and the period defined (namely) 
on the fourth day of the week of the month 
Ramadhan, in the year 371, when he went forth 
with the whole body of his army. And the army 
of Khurasan thought that they were attacking 
them, in the same manner as they had done on 
former days, and that they were coming out of the 
fortress with a portion of their troops. And the 
soldiers commonly said that Muwayyad- Addoulat 
had secretly beguiled F&ik and had carried him 
out of the (right) way by many gifts and great 
presents. For this reason, at the appointed fortu- 
nate time, he displayed inactivity, and when the 
army of Dildm made a charge, at the usual time, 
Fdik turned his back, Hisdm-Addoulat and Fakhr- 
Addoulat kept their ground in the centre, and dis- 
played great firmness, until the greater part of 
their army was broken and night approached, and 
a powerful and spirited enemy came up. Then 
Fakhr- Addoulat said, "It -is not expedient that 
we should remain longer, since the enemy hath 
gained the superiority and have obtained rein- 
forcements, and no one remains with us, since the 
elephants, which were the protection of our centre,, 
and some troops who were not engulphed in the 
torrent, have now turned their back and given up 
with all the others. And (since those who are 



70 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAOiN. 

Btriving for the safety of their lives do not regard 
advantage,) they left all their elephants and 
chanted fthat verse of the Koran) " He who hath 
saved his head surely he had gained." They 
therefore deserted their camp, with its immense 
treasures, and many valuables, and innumerable 
jewels and slaves, and abundance of embroidered 
cloths, and different kinds of fruits and grains ; 
and, until they arrived at Nishapilr, they halted 
and delayed at no place. And they informed His 
Highness of Bukhd,ra of the state of affairs, and 
gave intelligence of this untoward and incredible 
news. And at Bukhdri they first comforted them 
and gave them, according to their promise (the) 
assistance (of troops). And Sahile-Kafy-Ismdll- 
Ibn-Abdd dispatched the messengers of good news 
to the extremities and capital cities of the pro- 
vinces, and transmitted letters of victory unto all 
parts and meridians of the world. And the poets 
of that age and the learned of that time originated 
elegant verses and pure compositions, in the 
description of this event. And the poet Bajalay 
thus speaks upon the affair of Muwayyad- 
Addoulat (Verse) 

" Was there ever a condition like ttine, in the contest of 
the renowned falconry, of the family of Sdmdn,* and (a family 
so) fat. 

"Write to him whom, whilst at ease in Bukhara, ease 
forsook in his sleep, when men were cut off from him." ' 

* Soman signifies ^o^. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 71 

And Abul-Husain-Utbi called the troops from 
Khurasan and Mawaralnahr, and appointed them 
to assemble together at Man!*, for that that place 
should be the place appointed for the rendezvous 
of all the army, until that he himself should be 
able to move, and by his own means should be 
able to rectify his own injuries, and should place 
upon a firm foundation the dignity of the kingdom 
and the freshness of the State. Niih-Mansilr gave 
him a khilaat of great value, and provisions and 
necessaries for the soldiers, and the rank of 
General, with the designation to the ojBSce of Yiz^r 
and of Generalissimo were annexed to the khilaat. 
But, as some have said (Verse) 

" When affairs have come to the highest they return to the 
decline." 

When his affairs had arrived at the highest 
dignity, and the deepest authority, and the most 
perfect, prosperity, and the utmost fruition of hope, 
he began to set his face downward, and that 
khilaat was the cause of the unfastening of the 
rope of his life. And the cause of this event was 
as follows : Abul-Husain-Simjiir always attributed 
his removal from the government of Khurasdn 
unto Utbi, and was continually preparing together 
with Fdik, for attacking and obstructing his dig- 
nity, and was constantly exerting himself to injure 

* Meru or Man). 



72 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

his condition, by means of underhand aspersions, 
until Faik kept in a citadel for that object all his 
■weU-disposed youths, and for that purpose placed 
them close to one-another, and associated them 
together. And they jealously watched an oppor- 
tunity of assisting him, until they prepared a fit 
time for accomplishing the matter. But Abul- 
Husain became aware of this state of things and 
became alarmed, and signified the state of the 
matter to Nilh-Mansiir, who entrusted a body of 
his chosen troops with the care of him, in order 
that they might be contimiously attached to him, 
in the way of protection. And they did keep him 
preserved and guarded from the snares of the 
enemy, until a certain night, when he was going 
towards the palace, when a troop of these young 
soldiers followed behind him, and they gave him 
wounds at every step, and blows without respect, 
and gave to the winds his life, which was the 
fodder of generosity, and spilt upon the ground 
the virtues of his unrivalled disposition. And the 
troop who were his guards left him the captive of 
misfortune and the victim of distress, as some 
poets have said (Yerse) 

" They have the kidneys and the bellies of the greedy and 
lustful. No one, by giving aid, will now become a martyr for 
the food of the word" (i. e., for heavenly reward). 

And they left him upon the road, bathed in his 
blood ; afterwards they removed him to a garden. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 73 

in order that they might bring assistance to him, 
in the manner in which His Highness should 
command. At the dawn, when the mofning 
breeze blew upon him, he groaned : the gardener, 
when he heard his groan, ran to His Highness's 
palace and announced that his master was at the 
point of death. They sent several persons and 
conveyed him to the building called Hahandaz. 
A multitude of physicians were appointed for him, 
in order that they might cure him ; but the 
arrangement of that affair had passed away from 
the hand of the physician, for at that very time his 
soul was released, and the field of the world of the 
exalted and the wise became empty. The office of 
Vizir in him received its last seal and the kingdom 
of Khurisin never saw another Yizlr, and never 
did a nobleman like him sit upon the cushion of 
justice, and in no history is it mentioned that any 
of those vizirs who have been distinguished and 
commended possessed such perfect excellence and 
beneficence, or such abundant skill in guiding and 
governing, as were united in him. And Ibn-Jafar- 
Jami says thus, in his panegyric (Verse) 

"My eye, deeply grieving for thee, Abdl-Hussain, hath 
reflected thee in every eye. The anguish of my sorrow hath 
absorbed me and made me to see the day of Husain" {i. e., 
reminded me of the commemoration of Husain' s martyrdom). 

Some of the ingenious had written on the door 
of his visiting chamber as follows <Verse) 



74 MEMOIES OF SABAKTAGIn. 

"Thj brothers pass by thy tomb, 

" And are alarmed at thy condition (or dignity). 

" They no longer employ lofty words. 

"Eegret for thee overmasters all high (notions)." 

And Hisdm-Addoulat-Tdsh and Shams-Al- 
Mualy-Kabiis, and Fakhr-Addoulat (had) detained 
their army on the road at Nishapiir, in order to 
receive intelligence respecting his, i. e., the Vizer's 
joining them, and Abn-Nasr- LJtbi, who was 
deputy-governor of Nishapur, relates, as fol- 
lows : — 

" One day Hisdm-Addoulat-Tash called for me, 
and when I went to His Excellency I saw the gen- 
tlemen of the privy chamber assemble together, 
and a private audience was being given : all were 
giving their opinion, and they thought it conve- 
nient that they should by some means obtain some 
assistance in this war, and some means of repulsing 
the enemy. And when they saw me they wel- 
comed me eagerly and confided to me the subject 
of their consultation, and requested that I would 
intimate to His Excellency the Vizir the recent 
state of their affairs, in order that he might not lay 
down the path of delay and procrastination in their 
business, but should hasten to provide for troops 
and to cause them to enjoy tranquillity of mind. 
And Shams-Al-Muall-Kabiis lifted up his head 
from among them and said, according to that 
mystical writing (of the Kordn) " "War is a water- 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 75 

bucket,''* the aflfairs of the kingdom are entirely 
distracted by war, and there is no stability either 
in the front or in the rear of the State, and at the 
present our affairs are bound in the knot of diffi- 
culty, and our wishes are withdrawn under the 
veU of disappointment, and our desires beneath 
the curtain of error, but another time HeaVen may 
untie this knot, and this desire may be joined to 
accomplishment, and this hope may be crowned by 
prosperity. For a prudent man seeks for the 
means of entering into victory and success, by his 
efforts and exertions, and arrives at the desired 
effect by means of 'patience and resolution, whilst 
the weak-minded man remains depressed, amidst 
weakness and vexation, and his wishes and desires 
are ruined, through confusion and delay, arid you 
may regard the maxim contained in this writing 
as a quotation almost prophetic (Verse) 

" The timid are looking (idly) for the weak to become 
strong. 

" But this is the baseness of a miserable nature. 

" If you are not content to want (patiently) a matter you 
seek, 

"Tou wiU not, be content to want anything below the 
stars. 

" So the desire of death in contemptible affairs, 

" Is as the desire of death in great affairs (i. e., impatience 

* Or water-reservoir, possibly which, if it breaks its dykes, 
becomes a destructive torrent. So the legining of strife is as 
the letting out of water, Sfc, 



76 MEMOIES OP SABAKTAgIn. 

and weariness of life are exhibited by some perverse disposi- 
tions, even under trivial difficulties)." 

Abu-Nasr-Utbi said, " I have good proof of 
the purity of his elegance and of the excellence of 
his disposition, which in depth and abundance sur- 
passes the sea, and as to the greatness of his 
thoughts and the expansiveness of his intellect I 
have known the perfection of their acuteness and 
vivacity." 

And, at the conclusion of ■ this affair, the news 
of this afflicting difficulty and the report of this 
fire-burning distress arrived ;* and their affairs 
became broken in their hand, and the arrangement 
of their transactions and of their hopes declined, 
and their inclination to sorrow and their engrossing 
agitation, on account of this good friend, took pos- 
session of their hearts. And they recalled 
His4m-Addoulat-T4sh from His Highness of 
Bukh^r^, in order that he might examine into all 
this wrong and trace out the whole of this affair. 
And he declined aiding and assisting them,f and 
adhered to His Highness. And he killed some of 
the offenders with the sword, and arrested some 
and made examples of them ; but some became 
dispersed into the distant regions of the world. 
And the office of Vizir was confirmed to Abil-Al- 

* i.e. The intelligence of the assassination of Utbi the 
Vizir. 

t i-e. The assassins. 



MEMoms OF sabaktagIn. 77 

Hdsdn. But his disposition was too narrow fully 
to embrace this office, and, for that reason, he 
could not fully support that station. 

And, in the midst of this affair, Abul-Husain- 
Sinjiir arrived from Sistdn, and came to his place, 
without permission, and sat down, as a seeker of 
strife and disturbance, and felt an inclination that, 
on account of the unfortunate defence of Jurjan, 
and on account of the defeat which had happened to 
the army of Bukhdrd, there might be some oppor- 
tunity of disposing of his goods and making his 
market brisk.* Abiil-Hasdn greatly blamed and 
reproved him, for that attempt, and directed him, 
by way of counsel and good advice, that he should 
arise from the plain of Khurasdn and should 
remove into Kohistan, which is in Sistdn, until the 
affairs of those parts should arrive at some final 
issue, and that the unfortunate events which had 
taken place, through recent occurrences, should be 
rectified, and the wind of abundance and the 
streets of the market should arise to greater esti- 
mation. And he promised him that, when the 
sincerity of his obedience, and his constancy in 
good service, and his ready firmness in devotion 
to the State should "become conspicuous, he should 
receive various generous gifts, and that there 
should be an augmentation of his allowances, and 

* i. e. Embrace the opportunity of expediting his affairs. 



78 MEMOIRS OP sabaktagIn. 

an increase of his rank, and an elevation of his step 
towards the throne, and that the settlement of his 
allowances should be doubled. 

But when His4m-Addould,t-Tdsh went to 
Bukh^ri and Abu-Ali-'bn-Simjiir found the plain 
of Khur^s4n empty, he watched an opportunity 
and arranged with Fd-Ik the means of sending 
messages, and of writing, and of alliance, and of 
fraternity, and entreated him to join in opposition 
to Tash and with the followers of his standard, and 
with those who were well pleased with his supe- 
riority and pledges. And he made the Sultdn 
odious to the family of the nobles, inviting them 
to ally and unite themselves with him. And he 
succeeded in his evil request. And it happened to 
him according to the saying, "The intervening space 
can meet with its measure." *For between them an 
alliance and treaty took place, and a sincere unity 
was apparent. And he seized the officers who 
were over the revenues of Khurasan, and took 
every one of the sacred and secular endowments as 
revenue, for their own expenditure. And the two 
proceeded unto the city of Merii and actively 
exerted themselves in raising the revenue of 
Khurasd.n, until Tdsh found it necessary, on 
account of the difficulties to which he was reduced, 
to endeavour to repel them, and to discover some 

* i. e. All difficulties may be surmounted. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 79 

planwhicli should be sufScient to put a stop to the 
injury and the wrong which they were inflicting 
upon his country and his subjects. Therefore he 
opened his treasures and distributed his well-pre- 
served jewels, and the most valuable portions of 
his wealth and his furniture, amongst the whole of 
his army, and proceeded from Bukhird, and 
attacked the revenue-defrauders. And messengers 
came and went between them, and laboured at the 
means of agreement and of putting an end to 
enmity, and extinguishing the causes of strife. 
And they threatened them with the ruinous effects 
of contention, and the unpleasant consequences of 
enmity and provocation. And they arrived at this 
conclusion, that Nishapiir should belong to Tdsh, 
and Balkh to Fdik, and Herdt to Abii-Ali. And 
upon this foundation they made peace, and each of 
them went to his own country. And Abii-Bakr- 
Khawarazmy says, in his poem of congratulation 
to Abu-Ali, upon his appointment to the province 
of Herit (Verse) 

" Thou dost congratulate the Amir of Herat, since he has 
now been raised aboTO receiving congratulations for striking 
blows upon her. How may this world congratulate the com- 
munity of a country which this world possesses" (i. e., which is 
worldly and selfish). 

And Hisam-Addoulat-Tash came to Meni, 
and, at the time of his setting out from Bukhara, 
had dismissed Mazni from the office of Vizir, and 



80 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

had given his appointment to his own Chamber- 
lain, Abd-Arrakman-Farsi, because that Mazni 
well knew the secret plans of Abd-Ali and Fdik, 
and because that it was notorious that his oil- 
bottle, i. e.y of connivance, was poured upon their 
affairs and that his delay, during the stirring of 
their rebellion, was conspicuous. When, however, 
he arrived at Menl his chamberlain declined the 
office of Vizir, and that office was committed to 
Abd-AUah-Ibn-Aziz. He was well known and 
remarkable for his opposition to the family of 
Utbi, and had continually expressed a vehement 
eagerness in attackiijg, in annoying, counteracting 
and detesting them. And, as soon as the office of 
Vizir devolved upon him, he removed Tdsh from 
the charge and Generalship of the army, and gave 
an order for the appointment and settlement of 
that dignity upon Abii-All-Husain-Simjilr. And 
since it was evident that the recent weakness and 
decay, and languor that had taken place in 
the freshness and vigour of the State was wholly 
the result of the weak counsels and erroneous 
system of the Vizirs, and since any rectification of 
this evil was not to be imagined possible, except 
by a change and alteration in this system, he 
therefore sent to T^sh, from His Highness, a royal 
order, and annulled the right of having his name 
mentioned in the public prayers, which had been 
given to that prince by the chiefs and generals of 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGIn. 81 

the Army, and ordained that his surnames should 
be of the same amount as they had been in the 
time of Amir-H^jibl, and commanded thathe should 
remove from the governor's place, and depart from 
the midst of Khurasdn, and proceed with his wives 
and children, and should make his calculation and 
diminish his province within these two limits, and 
should exhibit the contentment he formerly exhi- 
bited, with his wealth, and emoluments, and titles. 
And when this royal order reached T£sh he 
became aware that his ill-wishers had found the 
means of attacking him, and that the plots of his 
enemies had arrived at the mark, and that they 
wished to build the foundation of implacability and 
to lay the foundation-stone, in order that, in the 
course of time, their hatred might become effectual 
and that they might cut short the regard which 
existed between him and the author of his fortune, 
and might contrive some method of making His 
Excellency his enemy, so that his former service 
and his previous duty might become annulled and 
disregarded. He therefore summoned the chiefs 
of the army and the officers of the forces, and said, 
" You well know my usual conduct with respect to 
my zealous service, my upright intentions, my 
single-heartedness, my good counsel, and my 
acknowledgment of the duty which I owe, for the 
benefits received from His Majesty, and that, for 
the purpose of establishing the Government and 



82 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

settling his kingdom, I, during the period of my 
command and trust over you, have displayed 
myself as one established upon the rules of 
kindness, and that I have never complained of the 
fulfilment of my duty, for the advantage of the 
places belonging to my district, both in strength- 
ening them and advancing their prosperity, and I 
have employed all my thoughts in endeavouring 
to secure the best result, and I have extended to 
all the protection of kindness and of favour, in 
assisting and benefiting them. Now, under 
present circumstances, when the opinion of His 
Majesty has become changed with regard to me, 
and he hath been pleased to confer my employment 
upon another, there is nothing remaining for me 
except obedience and submission, therefore every 
one of you is entirely at liberty to make your own 
choice with regard to your own affairs. Every 
one of you who may prefer to continue associated 
with me will be honoured and generously treated, 
and his condition will be specially distinguished by 
good maintenance, rank, protection, and liberty 
and freedom, as to times and places ; and if any of 
you wish to separate from me he will meet with no 
opposition or hindrance, on my part." Upon this 
all requested a month's leave of absence, in order 
that they might consult with their followers, and 
give a reply to him with their eyes open, 
with collected minds, and in the way of duty. 



, MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 83 

And, at another meeting, the result was this 
(Verse) 

" Love hath settled upon you, where thou art from that 
place never can I remove or part." 

(Verse) 

" "Whilst I am not in the dust (of the grave) I wiU never 
take off my "hand from the skirt of thy excellence." 

And all agreed upon the following opinion 
(namely) We can have no choice except to remain 
associated with and attached unto thee, and we 
cannot dispense with the obligation of passing both 
our prosperous and unprosperous days, our cold 
and warm fortune, in thy society and in thy 
friendship (Verse) 

" If any grief should happen unto us all wiU be well, if our 
country grieve not, for, with regard to him who hath prospered 
us, if the lions and the Arabians attack him (we wiU defend 
him)." 

And at last they wrote unto His Highness and 
reminded him of the unshaken duty and the well- 
manage'd arrangements of Hisam-Addoulat, and 
suppUcated him that he should protect him, who 
was the connecting link of friendship and the 
confluent fountain of their affairs, from being con- 
founded and distressed, and that he should take 
care that their face should preserve its ornament 
and protection, by means of the dignity of his pas- 

G 2 



84 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

torate and the good consequences of his content- 
giving rule, and that he should make no change or 
alteration in his rank and office. Abdull4h-Ibn- 
Azlz gave no answer, except noisy and quarrel- 
some words, and a perpetual repetition of asperity 
and reproach, and deluded them with deceit, pre- 
tences, and false promises, like the Sir4b which 
the thirsty traveller accounts to be water, until, 
when he comes to it, he finds it nothing. And 
they were aware of his double-dealing and false- 
hood, and they paid no regard to his letters and 
his exhortations, and they became more zealously 
inclined to surround and obey Tdsh (Verse) 

"Thou art content witt thy last wife, even if she be 
regarded with jealousy, but if she with whom thou art content 
is reproached thou wilt be friendly to her and not turn thy 
face from her." [_MS. here extremely doubtful^] 

Account or the DEPAETrsE of TIsh feom JxjejAn to 

BrEHAEA. 

And when Tash came to Bukhdr^, from Jurjan, 
Muwayyad-Addoulat died ; and, before that war 
which has been described broke out, th6re had 
arrived intelligence of the death of Azd-Addoulat, 
and TS,sh, from dread of the insults of his enemies, 
and in order to avoid dispiriting the soldiers, kept 
this intelligence secret. And the chiefs of the 
State of Dilam entered into a consultation, 
respecting the choice of some one out of the great 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 85 

families of the kingdom, who might be regent of 
the State. The election fell upon Fakhr-Addoulat, 
who was of a high rank in the family of Buwayyah 
and of eminence in the royal household, and dis- 
tinguished in the counsels of the State, as well as 
of rank, superiority, and eminent merit. And the 
Lord Kafi-IsmaiUbn-Abbad dispatched couriers 
and wrote letters to him, and, under pretext of 
condoling with him upon the decease of his 
brothers, they congratulated him upon the acqui- 
sition of his kingdom and its remarkable freedom 
from aU things causing anxiety or blame, and from 
all the consequences of war. And they nominated 
his brother, Khusni-Firdz to the office of lieute- 
nant and viceroy, in order that, during the vacancy 
of the dignity, the afiairs and the comfort of the 
royal throne might not again receive injury. And 
Fakhr-Addoulat hastened and turned from Nish- 
apiir to Jurjdn, in a short time, and the whole 
body of the troops set forward to meet his stirrup ; 
and they became well settled on the string of obe- 
dience and service to him, in true inclination and 
regard, and he thus returned to the possession of 
his own kingdom, by the right of justice and of a 
last will, and the provinces of his brother were 
restored unto him, by right of inheritance, accord- 
ing to that (which is said in the Kiiran) " He 
giveth the kingdom unto whomsoever He willeth 
and He removeth it from whomsoever He willeth. 



86 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

for He worketh that which He pleaseth." And 
Abu-Bakr-Khdwarizmi, in that complete Kasidah 
which he composed, as an elegy upon Muwayyad- 
Addoulat, and as a poem of condolence and con- 
gratulation to Fakhr-Addoulat, thus saith (Verse) 

"Thou Last benefited through thy brother, but renown 
through a brother never prospers. 

"Amongst men (fraternal) enmity is not new nor is he 
exceptional. 

" Fortune came to thee like as thou dost see 

" That infants c&n fight before they can request" &c. 

Abu-Alfaraj, his friend, also composed a 
Kasidah, as an elegy upon Muwayyad-Addoulat, 
some of the verses found in which are as foUows 
(Verse) 

" Oh that before the offering of the victim there could have 
been redemption ! 

" Oh that the afflicted could have been glorified by redeem- 
ing! 

" But our eyes had veiled death,* 

" We did not glance at Pate's selection. 

" Say, then, to the world, Thou art stripped, clothe thyself 

" With thy grief, upon us are the garments of mourning ! 

" Thou hast set the seal to sorrow. 

" Henceforth thy market is cold." 

And a messenger was sent by Fakhr-Addoulat 
to T4sh, with a letter, to this effect : " I, with the 
assistance of my army and by God's help, have 
effected, by mUd and gentle means, such an 

* The idea of his death had not occurred to us. 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGiX. 87 

arrangement that the days of misfortune and the 
times of distress have passed away, and affairs 
have become settled and arranged, upon a footing 
of firmness and stability, and this hereditary 
kingdom hath become freed from strife and from 
the wounds of contention." And Td,sh wrote a 
reply and congratulated him upon -his success in 
his objects of pursuit, and upon his meeting with 
his unshaken dignity, and upon the diminution of 
the period of misfortune, and upon the arrival of 
the fortunate days of the State, and upon the 
arrival of the bride of royalty, and upon his 
meeting with the object of his wishes. And in the 
replies to these letters he (moreover) represented 
the history of his affairs, the craftiness of. the 
envious, the neglect of duties, the favouritism and 
the ruin which had proceeded from His Highness 
of Bukhdrd, through the calumnies of enemies, and 
how their success depended upon the overthrow of 
prosperity, and how his government had become 
extravagantly wasteful and unbecoming his august 
position. Fakhr-Addoulat, in answer to this, 
wrote a very bulky epistle, and used the most 
perfect words and the most high-flown language, 
in setting forth his special affection and the sin- 
cerity of his attachment and alliance, and said, 
Whatsoever God may have given of His bounteous 
free-will, in kingdoms, and riches, and treasures, 
and such things, he should consider His Excellency 



88 MEMOIRS OF SABA KTA GIN, 

as a partner in these, and with regard to whatso- 
ever treasure, rank, stores, or army which he sup- 
plicated, there would exist no difficulty, and that 
he must keep to the well-defined road of unity and 
free intercourse, and would be happily settled upon 
the ground of stability. But he found it needful 
for various powerful considerations, to request that 
His Excellency should not forget to grant unto us 
the favours, and the assistance, and the acknow- 
ledgment, and the attention which were given in 
ihe time of our former highnesses. And he 
further said, " If I should devote all my life in 
fulness for this benefit, and in the accomplishment 
of the duty due to this generosity, and if I should 
expend my possessions in acts (of gratitude) unto 
His Excellency, I should notwithstanding regard 
myself as deficient and wanting." And he treated 
Abu-Said-Shibi, who had arrived with the letter 
from His Excellency Fakhr-Addoulat, with the 
most perfect generosity and respect, and sent, as a 
fitting troop to accompany him, near a thousand 
Turkish and Arabian cavalry, by way of assistance. 
And when they arrived at Nishapiir Abd-AUah- 
Ibn-Abd-ArrazS,k, who was one of the officers of 
the army of Khurasan, joined him, and both of 
them united in offering friendship and service to 
Td,sh,* and Tdsh proceeded towards Nishapiir, and 

* i. e. (Sisdm-ad-doulaf) Task. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 89 

when he came near Abiil-Husain-Simjotiri had 
proceeded forward and had gone into the city, and 
had taken up his residence in the castle. When 
Tash arrived Abu-Said-ShibI and all who were 
eminent in Nishapur joined him, and came down 
on the western side of the city. And for several 
days battles took place and the armies joined in 
fight. And in the end two thousand more cavalry 
of the army of DiMm arrived, as a reinforcement, 
men of action, well provided with provisions and 
arms. And when Abul-Hasan received intelli- 
gence of their arrival, and became aware of their 
strength and magnificence, and became acquainted 
with their skill and power, in storming difiicult 
passes and taking possession of fortified cities, as 
well as the good order of their aflFairs, and the 
success of their sieges, he came out of the city in 
the middle of the night, and, under the veil of 
darkness, took the road of flight. And the army 
informed T4sh and they pursued upon their rear, 
and, on account of their heavy accoutrements and 
baggage, a considerable booty was obtained. And 
T^sh came to the city and entered at the west side. 
And Abii-Mansur-Thalabl says, on that event 
(Yerse) 

" Tell him of whose eagerness (to take me) I am fearful. 

"That sportive (youth) hath hunted for hearts with hi* 
temple locks. 

" As to his temple locks let one behold them in the even- 
ing. 



90 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIw. 

" For truly the heart (or courage) of Ibn-Simjtir becomes 
- highly susceptible, through Tash."* 

Then Tdsh dispatched letters from Nishapiir, to > 
His Highness of Bukhiri, and humbly entreated 
the rectification of his condition and the conferring 
of forgiveness upon him, and the permission to 
explain his apologies. And he begged to be 
allowed to speak, for the purpose of the setting 
aside his errors, and offering an entreaty for favour 
and for pardon of all past mistakes. And he said 
" Our refuge is in God." If we have committed 
offences unto whom is the way of forgiveness 
closed ? according to this sentiment (Verse) 

" Give me surgeons and be to me the blessing of a pardon- 
giver, and by thy forgiveness unwrap from me the pain of 
shame. Truly, pardon is a luckless misfortune, yea, contemp- 
tible, except when it is developed in the casting down of our 
faults." 

And Abd- Allah -Ibn-Azlzf took the course of 
neglecting and becoming deaf to these apologies and 
representations, contained in the volume of these 
great chronicles. | And he much employed artful 
and entangling language, in his communications 

*• The MS. of these wild verses appears unsound. They 
however, ^ply an ironical allusion to Simjiir's forwardness 
(compared to a lover's ardour) and subsequent nocturnal 
retreat. 

t Vizer at Bukhara. 

J Possibly a satirical allusion to the tediously-lengthened 
details of these letters from Tash. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 91 

with Niih and his mother, who was regent of the 
kingdom, and assured the prince thus : " Tdsh 
hath fled from Dildm and you have given him an 
asylum in a portion of this State ; but he is sharp- 
ening his teeth to set forward in this direction ; 
and if he goes on in this contemptuous manner and 
you do not, in good time, command concerning him 
that which is good and proper, you wUl assuredly 
lament for the loss of this kingdom, and you must 
cut off aU wish for retaining these provinces, 
whilst you are deceived with his false gilding, his 
studied letters, his boldness, and his deceit." And 
they said that they ought to transfer the reins of 
this business from his hand and restrain him from 
(the power of effecting) any measure, evil or good. 
Utbi says: "I now remember that I extracted, 
for the sake of friendship, two verses from Ibn- 
Almutara (Yerse) 

" There are two things from which the tears flow (namely) 
the two eyes, when we heat the departure (of one beloved). 
There are two things which never perfectly meet with sociality, 
the want of youth and separation from friends. 

Utbi says those verses do not contain the 
strongest expressions, in regard to the state of 
affairs and to their appHcabiHty to the times, 
there are two other verses composed in this 
measure (Verse) 

" There are two things which the trainer cannot manage to 
break in, the mind of women and authority in young men. 



92 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

Tor, as to women, they ever incline towards their passions ; 
and as to our brother youth he floats without a rein" (rudd er) 

Truly, as regards the beauty of these verses 
there is nothing deficient, and that which he hath 
said he hath said with the utmost perspicuity and 
with the perfection of intelligence, and the nicety 
of judgment, and he is a rule for those who are 
possessed of acumen, and an excellent judge of the 
right way of choosing and examining. But it is 
impossible that the aflFection afforded to a nurse 
should be equivalent unto that given to a mother, 
or that the compassion and favour felt towards a 
kinsman should equal that felt for a father, or that 
the attachment to a hireling should resemble that 
towards a friend, or that a vizir, however distin- 
guished for efficiency, in the rules for governing 
and guarding a kingdom, could surpass a king, 
although he be naturally efficient and remarkable 
for firmness and gravity. And Tdsh neglected the 
afiair of Abul-Hasan-Simjiir, and took no further 
trouble upon the subject of his strife-causing sword, 
for he waited for His Highness of Bukh^rS,, in 
order that that fire might perchance be suppressed 
by no other means than by separation and by con- 
trivance. And His Excellency (Tdsh) gave his 
utmost assistance and effected a settlement of 
affairs, and a remedy for those transactions and 
fiery disputes which had recently occurred, and by 
jevery possible means endeavoured to give content- 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGIN. 93 

ment to Nilh. Nevertheless the wound which had 
been inflicted upon hearts was not yet perfectly 
healed, and the dust (of strife) which had settled 
upon the border of minds became increased still 
more and adhered more firmly. And they* 
watched for an opportunity to depress him and to 
obtain the mastery over him. And he was occu- 
pied in settling his affairs, and in gathering and 
forming the army. And Abiil-Hasdn-Simjiir sent 
to Karmdn and requested an army from the Amir 
Abiil-Fawaras-Ibn-Azd-Addoulat. And he sent 
unto him two thousand select cavalry, composed of 
his Arabs of the Nejd, and Fiik joined him, and 
so great an army assembled that neither mountains 
or plains might turn them aside (Yerse) 

" As to Yemen, that part of it which is exposed to the sun 
is narrow, but the small part of the sun upon it makes that 
little most excellent." 

And they by common consent set forward to 
Nishapilr, in order that they might take possession 
of it again. Tdsh, with his army, returned back in 
front of them, and they put their hand to the 
sword and they fiUed the air, as far as the hearing 
extended, with flame, from the collision of their 
battleaxes, and. they drew an ornamented page 
upon the preface of the earth, with the blood of 
warriors (Persian verse) 

* i. e. Simjur and his partizans. 



94 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

" The world, by dint of drawing in the breath, became like 
a vowel point (or dot). Tate, in hatred, opened her jaws like a 
pair of compasses. In the battle-field the beak of the Simurgh 
death became like the foot of the musical partridge."* 

And the army of T^sh, on account of its 
remaining a long time at Nishapiir, was reduced 
to extremity, from scarcity of provisions and debi- 
lity, and the want of the necessaries of life, and 
began to be reduced to fear, and to be contented 
with the path of cowardice and flight, if that by 
any means they might cast themselves from that 
whirlpool of misery upon the shore of safety, and 
save themselves from the confinement of that 
distressing condition, into the free plain (of 
liberty). And T4sh resolved to make one more 
attack, which should be the seal of the affair, and 
to make other and successful onsets on his flank. 
And Abiil-Hasan-Simjur and his son, Abii-All, 
closed foot to foot, and, with firm front and strong 
determination, exerted themselves in repulsing this 
charge ; and Tash betook himself to his tents, and 
the greater part of his army were dispersed, and 
reduced to difficulty and weakness, and the army 
of the enemy came upon his rear and gave him 
one charge, and he was scattered with loss and 
departed, being put to the rout, and the army of 
Dilam departed from his alliance, and the people 

* Probably cloven, that is, men were slain in the battle by 
several weapons, &c. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 95 

of Khurasdn came upon them, whilst dispersed, 
and put many of them to the sword and conducted 
the remainder in the chain of slavery, and sent 
them to Bukhdrd; and when they came to the 
presence they brought them to the midst of Buk- 
hdrd, with the utmost cruelty and the greatest 
contempt, and the buffoons of the city came before 
them, pointing at them and jeering them, and used 
insulting expressions towards them, and addressed 
to them derisive jokes, and severe songs and vitu- 
perations. Afterwards they imprisoned them in 
the fortress of Kahandaz, until some perished of 
cruel treatment and some obtained their freedom ; 
but God knows. 



AcCOriTT OF THE AeEITAI OF TlSH AT JrEJAN, AND THE 

Appoiittment of Abijii-Khaie-Simjub TO BE Geneeal 

OTEE THE AeMT OF KhxTeIsaN. 

Tdsh came to Jurjdn and Fakhr-Addoulat 
resigned to him the royal palace, as it was adorned 
with magnificent furniture and numerous vessels, 
and appurtenances of royalty and beautifully- 
carved plate, and vases of gold and silver, and 
utensils for cooking, and wine-cellars, and all other 
furniture therein. And he* went to Ray and he 
made a noble present to himf of five thousand 
dinars, and two thousand packets of one thousand 

* i. e. Takr-ad-Doulat. t »'• «• Tash. 



96 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

dirdms, and five hundred embroidered throne-robes, 
with several Arabian horses and mules, with orna- 
mented bridles and breasts, and all things belong- 
ing unto them, as arms and coats of mail, and cui- 
rasses and helmets, and surcingles, and shields 
adorned with gold, and Indian swords, and various 
kinds of armour enamelled. And he granted unta 
him all the taxes and revenue of Dihastdn, and 
Abgun, and Astarabdd, except a small part, which 
was to be expended in building fortresses, and in 
maintaining the Cutwdls and the registrars. And 
T4sh proceeded to confer presents and marks of 
generosity upon the regiments of his army, and 
commanded that unto every one (of his soldiers 
from) those countries there should be assigned 
pensions and allowances, until their condition 
should become better than it was at 'Khurisia, 
with regard to abundant harvests and fruitful 
crops, and increased wealth. And Fakhr-Addou- 
lat sent from Tabarist^n successive supplies, and 
all kinds of fresh gratifications, and, with perfect 
affection, exhibited the feelings of his heart, by 
new gifts, as frequent as the twinkling of the eye, 
and he felt no envy, at any part of his dignity and 
prosperity. And S4hib Kifi, through his great 
intelligence and perfect zeal, became acquainted 
with the extravagance which had taken place in 
expenditure and gifts, and in the squandering of 
treasure which necessarily followed this extreme 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGiir. 97 

generosity of Pakhr-Addoulat, and he made a 
severe piece of advice, upon this waste and whim 
of His Highness (Verse) 

" Let not the king waste all upon glory : let him decorate 
glory with the chain of wealth. That arrangement of affairs of 
which glory is the (only) opulence wiU ruin him, when his ene- 
mies are more warlike and their wealth greater. There is no 
glory in this world for him who is of scanty wealth, as there is 
no wealth in this world for him who is of scanty glory." 

Fakhr-Addoulat said one day, in reply to this^ 
" The real favours, the sincere kindness, and the 
continual benefits of T4sh to me are such that if, 
in return for one of them, I should expend the 
whole, both of my hereditary and acquired 
kingdom, even to this garment which I wear, in 
advancing the happiness of his condition and in 
promoting his fortune, I should not regret it. In 
short I can never be sufficiently grateful for one of 
his generous deeds, and I would not shake off the 
obligation by which I am bound, on account even 
of one of his favours." Then he related an account 
of one of his kindnesses and said, " My brothers 
wrote letters to Khurasdn and requested him to 
withdraw from me, and, with respect to consider- 
able property which they were bound to send to 
the Sulti,n, by way of tribute, they said that they 
would give an order to him, allowing him to 
appropriate it to his private use. This property 
consisted of the valuables of Irdk, such as magnifi- 

H 



98 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn, 

cent robes and famous horses, and other produc- 
tions and curiosities of those countries and cities. 
This property then they offered in order to make 
their court and to convey bribes to him, in order 
to stop all excuse and render evasion impossible. 
^But he was not led by covetousness for these 
desirable objects into treachery.) And when the 
news of this letter and the truth of these sayings 
reached me the bright day became dark unto my 
eyes and all good sleep departed from me, and my 
hope of life became cut off. There seemed to be 
no path of purity and no road of escape possible. 
Therefore, through the thought of this untoward 
event and the diabohcal suggestion of that un- 
manly conduct, I, for the whole night, was one 
who sleeplessly watches the stars and is attacked 
by vexation. My heart was grieved and my eye 
was mournful, and my mind was intently expect- 
ing that my destruction would take place in the 
morning, and some (calamitous) event occur, when 
a messenger arrived from the Chamberlain, Tdsh, 
who requested an audience, and came before me, 
and sat down politely, and offered to conduct me. 
I hesitated and doubted whether this were hospi- 
tality or misfortune, an effect of friendship or dis- 
sension, For I made no doubt that the arrow of 
my brother's deceit had reached the desired mark, 
and that, in the very interior of my private resi- 
dence, a great treachery and some hidden evil 



MEMOIRS OF sabaktagIn, 99 

deeds were transacting. I commanded to bring my 
horse and I mounted, in the utmost trepidation, 
the most uncomfortable anxiety, my finger having 
scarcely power ta hold the reins and my hand 
having scarcely strength remaining to grasp the 
whip. When I arrived at his palace he received 
me with unbounded respect, and treated me with 
greater honour and regard than usual, and, by his 
kind familiarity and extreme good-fellowship I 
became a little more at my ease, and my emotions 
and perturbations of alarm abated, and that part 
of my apprehension began to diminish. Then he 
asked for the letters of my brothers and gave them 
to me, rejecting them as treacherous, malevolent, 
and inimical, as scorpion-calumniators, and as 
inMnging the rights of relationship. And he said, 
' I wished to have retained these letters and to 
have kept your noble mind above examining these 
shameful transactions, and agitating these filthy 
matters. However I thought it best to bring 
them forward and to let others know the truth of 
the matter, and to expose the depth of this cor- 
rupting wound, and to draw the veil from the 
surface of the matter, so as to render it free from 
all doubt or qiiestion, and I considered it more 
conducive to your repose of heart and tran- 
quillity of mind so to do.' And he then, 
with " hand clenched, made an oath (saying) 
' I would not sell one combing of thy hair, nay, I 

H 2 



100 MEMOIRS or SABAKTAGiN. 

■would not sell one thread from thy comb, for all 
the revenue of Irdk, and, as regards any sums at 
my command, I would give them to the winds and 
regard them as carrion, as worthless as a nut-shell 
and as a date-skin, in comparison with the restora- 
tion of thy meanest possession. Nay, I have not 
yet conferred upon you the tenth part of the 
honour and the benefits which I have in my mind 
to give you, on account of my sincere affection and 
disinterested love. And if I were to spend all my 
property, even to this ring which I wear upon my 
finger and to this robe wherewith I am clothed, in 
the preservation of thy prosperity and in the 
averting accidents from the area of thy glory, and 
in vindicating thy hereditary kingdom from those 
who trouble it, I should not overpay thy fidelity 
and thy services, and I will never depart from this 
devotion or from acting upon this resolution^ until 
God, through his confirming power, shall cause 
you to arrive at the summit of prosperity and 
place you under the protecting asylum of good 
fortune, and shall grant settled victory and 
conquest.' With respect to one, then, who dis- 
played so humane a resolution and who, under cir- 
cumstances which involved no previous obligations 
to me, and amidst objects of covetousness, dis- 
played such generous zeal towards my defenceless 
person, how can I think it right or how can I con- 
sider it lawful, in acknowledgment of his actions. 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAgIn. 101 

to supersede, or to neglect him, or to pursue, with 
respect to him, the path of dismissal and indiffer- 
ence. No, by God, and by the holy Kaaba, and 
by the soul of Eukn-Addoulat, I will never join 
in forgetting his merit or in belying his protec- 
tion; therefore I will not, with respect to him, 
in any way lessen or diminish his rank or allow- 
ance, especially since I have obtained sufficient 
abihty and means convenient, and God hath 
granted to me settled comfort and maintenance 
enough (Verse) 

" ' Oh may blessings, the requital of his patronage, increase 
and grow! like a maiden pure from reproach, bashful, and 
retired,' &c. 

*' * For although I should meet with the utmost 
zeal and the most extreme valour nevertheless he 
is first in previous excellence and in past genero- 
sity. He is upon the step of benefits and I upon 
the floor of thankfulness. And it cannot be con- 
cealed that the upper seat of judgment is superior 
to the floor of ordinary custom (Verse) 

" ' O thou who dost confer kindness, thou mayest expect 
ihanks. Tet thanks follow benefits and do not precede 
them.' " 

The whole of the company who were assembled 
at that place and who listened to that speech 
admired the eloquence of that harangue and the 
splendour of that citation, and uttered exclama- 



102 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

tions of wonder at his great intellect and at his 
gentle disposition, and at his sincere faithfiilness, 
and at the wideness of the plain of his generosity, 
and at the loftiness of the summit of his thoughts, 
and at his benevolent nature. And Sdhib Kdfi, 
after that, greatly promoted the welfare of Tdsh, 
and the preservation of his comforts, and the 
advancement of his prosperity, and used the 
utmost exertions to obtain his approval. And 
Tdsh remained, for the space of three years, at 
Jurjin, and all his mind was devoted to the service 
of Niih-Mansur; and he felt grieved and anxious 
at his estrangement from His Excellency, and 
desired to be forgiven and redeemed from every 
mark of disobedience and every breach of fidelity. 
And he conjectured this, that he might, perchance, 
cease his harsh demeanour and rise up from the 
pretext of such determinations and blameable 
conduct, and determine to let down the rope of 
obedience and approach the side of fidelity. And 
he sent Abii-Said-Shibi to Fakr-Addoulat, and 
requested assistance, in order to return to the 
Court of Khurasd,n. And he nominated Asfar- 
Ibii-Kardawayah and sent two thousand cavalry 
out of the army of Dilam, to accompany him. 
And he wrote to Xasr-lbn-Al-Hasan-Ibn-Firdz, 
that he should enrol himself amongst the body of 
those troops, and arrange for their command and 
government, and that they should proceed to join 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 103 

His Excellency Tdsh, and should pay due and 
ready obedience unto his orders, and in all things 
acknowledge their subjection to his commands and 
to his standard. And he spent much money in 
equipping his army, and, by means of half of those 
gifts which had been presented to him from 
Kurkan, sent supplies to the whole, of treasure, 
and necessaries, and arms, and presents. And 
when Abd-Said arrived at Koms, which was then 
the residence of Nasr, it happened altogether unto 
him as it happened to Tbn-Al-IIazar, at the 
banquet of the sons of Tamln.* For Nasr com- 
manded that they should cut asunder with the 
sword the left and right parts of these forces, and 
should entirely cut up their limbs and their 
quarters. And he confined the army in subterra- 
neous caverns and removed all openings which 
could allow them to breathe, and applied fire, so 
that all of them perished in the anguish of that 
suflFocation. And as to the auxiliary forces which 
were with them he took them almost all, but some, 
who were the gleanings of the people and the 
remnants of the sword, fled and arrived at Ray. 
And Takhr-Addoulat became extremely confused 
and agitated at the arrival of this news, and the 

* It is not known to what circumstance the author here 
alludes. It refers to some unexpected treachery, for Nasr has 
been just mentioned as one to whose care the troops had been 
recommended. 



104 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

occurrence of this unfortunate event, and set off on 
his march towards Koms, with a design of revenge 
and an intention of retribution, and he summoned 
Tdsh from Jurjdn, in order that, by their joint 
assistance, they might obtain a victory worthy of 
that which had been done to them, and in propor- 
tion to the events which had occurred. And when 
they came to Koms, Nasr saw the spectre of death 
opening his jaws, and the eagle of fate drawing 
her wing around him and sharpening his claws 
(against him). Therefore he saw no expedient 
except in coming to terms, apologizing, and 
seeking pardon. He made, therefore, Tdsh his 
intercessor, and Fakhr-Addoulat, when he saw 
this behaviour and submission, took compassion 
upon his old age, and the mediation of his kindred 
with respect to him became successful, and he gave 
up all intention of revenge. And he directed his 
attention to Khuzistd,n, and to that quarter whence 
came the sound of war from his nephew Bahi- 
Addoulat-'bn-Azd-Addoulat, on account of the 
uncomfortable differences which had lately fallen 
out between them. Therefore he proceeded 
towards Khuzistdn with that brave army. And 
Badr-'bn-Hasanawayah, with an army raised from 
the people, returned to his service and to his 
standard, and brought back with him the com- 
monality and all the public officers of Khuzistdn. 
And he sent Finizan-'bn-Al-Has4n to Basrah, in 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 105 

order that he might also take possession of Basrah 
and add it to the number of his auxiliary cities. 
And when Firuz^n passed over the river of Moses* 
the whole of the population of Basrah rose up to 
assist the army of Baha-Addoulat, who were sta- 
tioned in the city. And they broke down the 
dykes of the reservoirs, so that the whole of the 
plain was filled with water and the roads became 
entirely obliterated, and they were caught in the 
mud (produced by this "water) and they found no 
means of exit. And a great army came from 
Mousel, in support of the people of Basrah, and 
when the army of Firuz^n beheld their numbers 
and their bravery they extricated themselves from 
these whirlpools (fords) and, in a broken and con- 
fused manner, they returned unto Fakhr-Addou- 
lat, and complained before him of the extreme 
suffering of that condition and the misery of those 
muddy places, and, in conclusion, began to put 
forth a petition for maintenance and for pay, and 
for various other advantages. And Faklir- 
Addoulat became wearied with their continual 
application and their numerous questions, and 
began to condemn their weakness and debility, 
and want of energy and of resolution, and their 
imposition upon good nature, and began to regard 
it as disgraceful and odious to seek for men to do 

* The Tigris. 



106 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

an afiair not done. And, following out this 
thought he began to entertain the design of a 
truce, and came to Hamaddn and from that place 
set forward to Riy. This event happened in the 
year 379, in which year a terrible plague broke 
out at Jurj^n, and the greater number of the 
soldiers of Tash, and the chief officers and the most 
eminent of his privy counsellors and scribes 
perished in that plague, and at the last Tdsh 
became involved in this inisfortune, and his life, 
through that suffering, departed to the other world 
and thus yielded to the weakness of old age, to the 
anxiety caused by foreigners, and to his separation 
from his associates. During the period of his resi- 
dence at Jurjan much oppression took place, from 
his troops and armies, and much injury was done, 
by extortions and requisitions, and a commence- 
ment was made of oppressive exactions, which 
debilitated it. And when the news of his death 
was published all the populace of the city arose, 
and the mob began to attack his officers and to 
murder his nobles and his wise men, and to carry 
forth and plunder his property, wherefore the 
officers and chiefs of the army, being compelled to 
repulse them, were unable to fulfil the usual cere- 
monies of mourning or to attend to the care of his 
interment, 

They succeeded, however, in escaping from the 
confinement of the city, unto the open space of the 



iIEMOIB,S OF SABAKTAgIn. 107 

desert, and proceeded to consult upon the choice of 
some one as his successor, who should hold the 
chief command, and the unanimous choice of all of 
them fell upon the sister's son of Tdsh, whom they 
accordingly placed upon the seat of government. 
And he distributed among them the treasures and 
the possessions of Tdsh, and, through his firmness, 
obtained such authority that he made all fear him, 
and all content with him, and to adhere firmly to 
his service. But a clamorous crowd arose from 
the city, and their cries of " help ! help ! to the 
rescue !" rose to the skies, for the mob of the city 
stretched forth the hand of violence, with open 
murmurs, and, forsaking the limits of law, per- 
mitted themselves audaciously to break the bond 
(of restraint) and to tear up the. foundations (of 
propriety) and to lay aside all reverence (for 
authority). And they set out by the way of 
Bikaribdd, to repress them, and some of these 
dogs and mob of wolves came in from the city, 
to fight against them, and when they had thrown 
their moth into the fire of destruction, and that 
army turned in from its ambush, many of that 
mob, coming into collision -v^ith the horses, and 
into distress from the camels, were defeated and 
retreated to the city, and a great number of theses 
dwarfs and mob perished, and the belly of the 
wolves was filled with the carcases of the dead. 
And unto the people there happened, after this 



108 MEMOIES OF SABAKTAGIn. 

event, a fate such as had never happened to any 
people since Yazid-'bn-Ahnuklib. And when the 
affair (of massacre) had arrived at its utmost 
degree the Imdms, and the learned men, and the 
devout men, and the worthy men asked pardon 
and brought forward the glorious Kordn, as their 
intercessor, so that the cry of distress arising from 
tumult was suppressed, and the soldiers held their 
hand from slaughter and returned unto their 
residences and barracks. And they began to 
reflect upon the consequences of their condition 
and upon their present lot. And their opinions 
became changed upon this subject, so that the 
more select portion of the older officers became 
inclined to Khurasdn, and the royal army and the 
troops of the country chose the service of Fakhr- 
Addoulat. And Sahib-Kifi sent a letter and gave 
unto them aU assurances of attachment and pro- 
mises of good, and was willing to augment their 
pay and their rank ; and he requested them that 
some of them should arrange that Abii-Ali should 
become their Inspector* and should enrol their 
names on the muster- list, and that he would pay 
the chief part of their aUbwances and wages. To 
this they did not consent, for their love of their 
homes and their affection to their abodes at Khu- 
rasan held back the bridle of their will, and they 

* The controller of the army, a kind of censor (M. Kasi- 
mirski) muster-master ? or commissioner of musters ? 



MEMOIBS OF SABxVKTAQiN. ] 09 

went to Nishapiir, and became enrolled in the 
army of Abill-Hasdn-Slmjdr, who was at that time 
governor of Khurasan, and they made him Lieu- 
tenant-General of the army of the country, until 
an inspector should come. And the Inspector 
carried their names with great respect to Ray. 
And when they came to His Highness, Fakhr- 
Addoulat, he caressed them greatly and appointed 
two territories as a gift unto them, one (consisting 
of) the subjects of the parts belonging to Tdsh, as 
a means of gratifying their service and augmenting 
their body.* 

And when the Lord Abii-All came to Jurjdn 
and beheld the impertinence of the mob, and the 
exaltation of the common people, consisting of the 
remainder of the populace who had laid hands on 
the army of Khurasan, and had become drunk 
with wickedness, and carried away with folly and 
iniquity, he occupied himself in attending to that 
business, and he arrested all of them, and put to 
death nearly three thousand men of the poor 
thieves and evil-doers of that mob, and, moreover, 
put to death every one who, during his whole life, 
had for one day taken up an iron weapon or had 
made use of bakers' shovels, or such things, for 
the purpose of offence. Some, therefore, he 
fastened upon trees, and some he made a mark to 

* MS. here imperfect. 



110 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

shoot at with arrows, but the body of them he 
passed over the sword, and thus, by his severity 
and violence, that affair was settled, and the insur- 
rection of these base creatures and originators of 
injury and malice came to an end. But God 
knows what is just. 

HiSTOET OF THE CONDTJCT OF ABUt-HASAN-SfMJUE, AS 

Q-ENEKAL or THE Armt oe Khtteasaw, unto the end of 
HIS Life and the Teansfeben ce of that office unto 
HIS Son. 

When Tash, in his flight from Abd All and 
Faik, came to Jurjdn the Vizir Abd-Allah-'bn- 
Aziz was extremely importunate with Abiil-Hasan- 
Simjiir that he would consent to attack him, and, 
on account of his indifference respecting the right 
of the Khutbah of the country of Korkan, and on 
account of his slothfulness in the matter of Tdsh, 
and on account of his permitting his frontier-line 
to be diminished, he blamed him. But he, in this 
matter, continued to act as became his old age, and 
to observe the usual duties of mildness and gravity, 
so that he let the matter rest, and, upon various 
pretexts abstained, obtained his end and repulsed 
these suggestions ; for he thought that if he were 
to lay the foundation and commence any quarrel 
with the army of Dildm he would not arrive per- 
fectly at the object of his wishes and would not be 
advancing towards the desired result. And it 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. ' 111 

miglit happen that he might become struck with 
the evil eye, and that the same accident might 
befall him as befell Tash at Kark^n, and the mis- 
fortune of that error and the injury of that affair 
might afflict aU his remaining years, and his 
ancient kingdom and his well-establishsd province 
for this cause might become disturbed, and its set- 
tlement be called in question. 

And, in the year 377, they removed Abd-AMh- 
'bn-Aziz from the office of Vizir and banished him 
to KhwS,razam, and gave that dignity to Abii-Ali- 
Damagdnl. And he used his utmost exertions to 
transact his business effectually, and he put a stop 
to those corruptions which had found admission in 
some districts of the State. But his strength and 
authority became diminished by this circumstance. 
The greater part of the country remained in the 
grasp of the dependants, and the Vizir was unable 
to remove them, and the army, at the instigation 
of a malignant person, became intractable, and the 
Turks found assistance, and the influence of Vizirs 
suffered detriment, and, disturbances having arisen, 
they removed him also, and gave the office of Vizir 
to Abil-Nasr-Z^id. He was a man of great effici- 
ency in business, a man of great good sense and 
perfect intelligence, well known and distinguished 
for his great eloquence, and for his skill in applying 
his mind to affairs, and ennobled amongst the most 
eminent of his age and the excellent of his time. 



112 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

But, in a short period, they gave an order for dis- 
missing him also, and restored the chief office to 
Abil-Ali-Damagdnl. And, in these days, Abul- 
Hasdn-Ibn-Simjiir went from Nishapiir and pro- 
ceeded upon a journey of recreation, and took with 
him one girl out of all the women of his seraglio, 
and died suddenly whilst amusing himself with 
her. 

And his son Abii-Ali occupied his throne, the 
chieftainship of the family of Simjiir and the baili- 
wick and lordship of Khurasan were conferred 
upon him, on the ground of being heir and on the 
ground of merit. And all laid their necks before 
him and unanimously girded up the loins of service 
and obedience unto him. But, on the part of His 
Highness of Bukhara, they nominated Fiik as 
governor of Herdt. And when this news came to 
Abii-All he sent a letter to Falk, and in this letter 
alluded to the rights of former friendship and past 
attachment of regard in various services, and said, 
" Have the former intercessions made for me, and 
the zealous pleas offered for me by your father, 
and the obligations of my own service, imposed 
such a debt of gratitude upon you that, at the time 
of his decease, you should thus inflict such a wound 
upon me from the most distant and unexpected 
quarters ? Or, otherwise, how is it that you have 
drawn the hand of covetousness over my provinces 
and my portion ? it would rather have become you 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGllf. 113 

to have refrained from this violation of honour and 
fidelity. And yet, with regard to me, thou hast 
overlooked the observance of treaties and of former 
attachment ; otherwise this outrage and this 
attack upon my hereditary kingdom and ancient 
right would never have occurred, and this scorn 
and contempt would never have proceeded from 
you." And, after many words, they came to this 
agreement, that Herdt should belong to Fdik, and 
Nishapiir and the command of the army to Abil- 
AH. 

Accordingly both of them set forward to their 
own country and to their own provinces. And they 
caused to be dispatched, from His Highness of 
Bukhd,r4, the commission and the robe of honour, 
such as is usually given to the generals in the 
army. And Abii-Ali imagined that they had 
sent them for him, but. when they had conveyed 
them some stages and had arrived at the top of 
the two roads, they conveyed them towards Herdt, 
whence it became known to Abd-Ali, with respect 
to Fdlk, that their former agreement had been set 
aside and particularly it appeared evident that 
Fdlk designed to reap the hairvest of these gifts, 
and it was clear that, if this treachery should reach 
its mark and this thought be carried on to action, 
and if he should be at all remiss in opposing this 
attempt and in maintaining the dignity of his 
family, his standard would again receive injury 

I 



114 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

(lit., be pecked at). And lest, by any means, any 

offence sbould be committed, to the detriment of 

his condition and to the troubling himself and his 

family, he used the utmost diligence in the matter 

and ceased not to examine into the affair, from 

beginning to end (Yerse) 

" Truly the Divine command is before the eyes, but we have 
gone on casting away from our remembrance the conse- 
quences" (of sin). 

And when the news came that Fdlk had 
departed from Herit he pursued him and met him 
between Her^t and Biishaikh,* and defeated him 
completely, with the loss of many killed and 
wounded, and Fdlk fell back in confusion to 
Meniriid,t and a body of the army of Abii-Ali 
went after him, as far as the bridge of Menlriid. 
But he was prepared for them and arranged his 
army to receive them, and he made prisoners of 
some of the troops and carried them to Bukhdri. 

And Abii-All went to Merd, and sent some 
one to His Highness of Bukhd,rd, with an 
humble offer of allegiance, and proposed to 
regard himself as bound to His Highness by the 
rules of servitude, and to gird himself to his service 
as one of his devoted attendants, and to strengthen 
him by means of his kindred and his friends, and 
he made an earnest request that they should 

* Bushaik or Pushauj, near Herat, on the North. 

t Merur6d or Meru-arrud, now Murghab, in Khurasan. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 115 

confirm his fether's office unto himself and should 
not suffer to pass away those ancient rights of 
patronage (on the one hand) and of clientship (on 
the other) which had so constantly existed between 
the royal house of Sdmdn and the family of 
Simjilr, and should not expel him from the list of 
servants and the body of dependents, and that he 
should not listen to or receive the reports stirred 
up by troublesome persons against his fidelity, and 
that he should not account anything as lawful 
which might be a cause of abuse and of despair. 
Niih-'bn-Mansiir listened to his words with favour 
and satisfaction, and determined that his request 
should obtain its object, and he confirmed to him 
the command and gave to him the surname of 
Imad-Addoulat. Therefore he returned to Nisha- 
piir with the object of his wishes, and by every 
good method and popular measure occupied 
himself in arranging and setting in order his 
affairs, and in regulating his business. And the 
means of his glory and the degree of his honour 
became so increased that unto his other surnames 
they added the name of Amlr-Al-Umard-Al- 
Muwayyad. And (the poet) Abd-Bakr-Khwd- 
razmy says thus, in his eulogy (Verse) 

" The eminent keep their thoughts and their breasts behin,d 
a veil. 

" Dust (of blame, &c.) falls upon them and in the morning 
it niakes them an example. 

" Truly in the morning they are in a state of captivity, 

I 2 



116 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

although at eve they were in a state of greatness," &c., &c. 
(alluding to the discomfiture of Paik). 

And when his affairs had arrived at a great 
height of power he took into his service a body of 
men from the country and the villages of Khura- 
san, and began to divide his property and his taxes 
amongst his followers ; and when Niih-'bn-Mansilr 
requested of him that he would set apart some 
portion of his territory for the supply of the royal 
Treasury he refused his consent, and gave answer, 
" This province is to be regarded as a collected 
whole, without division, and the means of the 
treasury must not be drowned (overwhelmed) in 
expenses upon the dissipated, and the whole extent 
of this province would not suffice for them. 
Therefore it would be necessary thait His Highness 
should order me some additional allowance, and 
add another province to those which I already 
possess, as a means qi maintaining hospitality." 
And thus, during this affair, he vacillated between 
obedience and disobedience, and exhibited the ill- 
disposed (mind) behind the curtain of sincerity. 
*And Abil-AH began to make arrangements for 
raising money and stimulating payments, and 
began to stretch out the hand of oppression, and 
he reduced the better part of the revenue of Khu- 

* Or, he put forward Ab6-Ali-Nasaf (as collector) for the 
purpose of raising money, &c. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTA of N. 117 

rasdn to its lowest point, and made demands upon 
the people for money, whether they could or 
whether they could not- comply with them, until 
the blood of both the upper and lower classes 
oozed out. They afterwards presented a paper 
accusation against the Collector to the Diydn, and" 
put him to death with the greatest suffering, 
exposing him to the torture upon the rack and to 
the blows of sticks. And a messenger was sent to 
Hardn-'bn-Ildk-Khdn, the Turkish Prince, who 
was appointed to arrange with him plans of agree- 
able intercourse, and settle a treaty of alliance and 
hospitality. And they made a. secret agreement 
with him, that they should divide the kingdom of 
the family of Sdmdn with him that Bukhdrd and 
Samarkand, and all the country beyond the river 
Jihtfn should be his," and that the half pari; thus 
divided by the Jihiin should be settled upon Abii- 
AH, and ,that .both of them should agree upon a 
mutual alliance and assistance. With this proposal 
he was dazzled and became more confirmed in his 
desire to possess the kingdom, and he therefore 
entertained a design of blockading Bukh^rd with a 
considerable army. Thus it happened according 
to the saying, "For Muhammld they drew the 
swords of Muhammdd, and struck down with them 
the chiefs of Muhammdd."* Yet AM-Ali, in 

* i. e. Co-religionists engaged in civil war. 



118 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

appearance, still supported the pretensions of Niih, 
and, in his province, introduced the title of that 
Prince into the public prayers, and struck money 
in his name, but, notwithstanding, he began to 
turn aside towards the path of perfidy and 
falsehood, and to incline towards the direction of 
faulty and blameable conduct. And when the 
beginning of this misfortune became apparent, all 
the nobles of Miwarannahr became inclined to the 
sweetness of novelty and change, and expressed 
their weariness of the long duration of the dynasty 
of the family of Samin, and ceased to regard 
themselves as bound to be attached to those 
princes. Thus the Amirs rose up in disaffection 
and employed all their efforts to influence his 
opinion, and stimulate his determination, that so he 
might cut off in plunder the borders of that 
kingdom, and might behold the success of his wish 
and the attainment of his object. Thus resolved 
upon his secret business he arrived at the clouds 
(of ambition). And Niih sent, to encounter him, 
his Chamberlain Ibikh, with a distinguished army 
and officers. A severe struggle ensued, so that 
the brilliancy of day became darkened, and from 
the darkness of the day the stars emerged from 
the curtain of calamity, and the field of battle 
became a well-furnished table for beasts and birds. 
And Ibikh, who was the pillar of the kingdom and 
the column of the State, was taken prisoner, with 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGllf. 119 

many of the officers and chiefs of the army. Thus 
the covetousness of the Khin, for the kingdom of 
Khurasin and the throne of the fanaily of Samdn 
became confirmed, and his eagerness to obtain the 
free enjoyment of his wishes and the complete 
possession of that province became augmented. 



AcOOriTT OF rilK AND HIS HI8TOBY, AFTEB THE EtENTS 
■WHICH HAVE BEEN EEOOEBED. 

Faik, after his defeat by Abii-Ali, retreated to 
Marurud and there took up his abode, and occupied 
himself there in arranging his aifairs and in obvi- 
ating difficulties, and preparing provisions and 
necessaries for the army. And when his afiairs 
began to arrive at some order and to be settled he. 
set forward towards Bukhirfi, without having 
obtained permission from His Highness, and 
invited him to enter into consultation with him. 
And Niih, from that circumstance, conjectured 
something wrong, and came forth from Bukhdr^, 
and sent out his chief officers of the army, with his 
special officers of State to fight against him. And 
they defeated him and they slew and destroyed, in 
various ways, his officers and chief men ; and Fdlk, 
when he came to the bank of the Jihiin, found no 
boat, but escaped from the talons of death by his 
own skill, and passed over the water, and came 
unto the side near Balkh ; and, after some days, he 



120 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIk. 

arrived at Termad, and wrote a letter to the 
Khdn,* and told the whole story respecting his 
opposition to and his making war against Nuh. 
And Nuh sent a royal order to the prince of 
Jurjdn, Abu-Al-Hareth-Farigiini, that he should 
assist in repulsing that enemy. And Abii-Al- 
Hareth collected together a considerable army and 
made war against him, and Fdlk sent back, to 
oppose him, ArsMn, known by the name of Akhir- 
SdMr (Lieutenant-General) with five hundred 
chosen cavalry together with Turkish and Arab 
soldiers, and they fell like a wolf upon the flock, 
and they utterly destroyed the army, and took 
possession of their property, and their arms, and 
their horses, and returned with ample booty to 
Balkh. 

And, at this conjuncture, Zahir-'bn-Al-Fadhl 
had taken forcible possession of the coast of 
Saganyan, from Abu-Al-Muzaffar-Ibn-Ahmad, 
a,nd, by force of arms, had taken up his abode in 
his territory. And Abu-Al-MuzafTar, when he 
had thus been driven out from his land, betook 
himself to the protection of Fdik, and requested 
assistance from him, and Fdik felt strongly inclined 
to grant all that was necessary, considering that 
his truth and his excellence, and the greatness of 
his kindred, and the splendour of his rank, and the 

* i. e. Of the Turks, Ilek 'bn Ilek Khan. 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGlNr 121 

illustrious records of history, relating to his faraily, 
were remarkable, and, moreover, that with regard 
to him, he had been specially connected with the 
Amirs of Khurasan, by race and by benefits ; 
therefore he sent his army to his service. And 
Zahir, hearing of the slender resources of Fdik, of 
the small number of chiefs who were attached to 
him, and of the deserted state of the whole plain 
of Balkh, began earnestly to covet the possession 
of Balkh, and came, with all his forces, into the 
citadel ; and the people of the city came from 
Balkh, and began to fight against him ; and one 
of the Arab troops knew Zahir, and, by casting a 
javelin at him, threw him from his elephant, and, 
coming down, took his head. 

And when the army heard the news of this 
event they were thrown into confusion, and every 
one of them went to his own province and became 
entirely dispirited. 

And when the affairs of Ibekh* came to such 
an extreme point of necessity as has been described, 
and they carried him prisoner to Turkestdn, the 
kingdom of Bukhdrd became disordered, and its 
odious corruption became evident, and the back of 
the chiefs of the State became broken, and neither 
regard nor veneration for the throne of that royal 
house remained. And, in the midst of this coufu- 

* Ibekh, or Ibekh Hajit, or Hajib, General of the Forces 
of Nuh, King of Bukhara. Hajib signifies Chamberlam. 



122 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAqIn. 

sion, he began to incline to F41k and called him to 
the service of the throne, and to the support of 
His Highness ; and, when he came to Court, His 
Highness conferred upon him increased gifts and 
favours, and sent him to Samarkand, with all 
needful supplies and provisions, in order that he 
might exert himself in guarding the precious 
deposit of the State, and in preserving the passes 
of the kingdom. And when he arrived at these 
boundaries Baghrakhdn* attacked him, and Fdik, 
being without perseverance or sufficient knowledge 
of affairs, came to Bukhdrd, routed and in confu- 
sion, and he left his comrades and the chief officers 
of the Sultan to the pleasure of the sword, and 
placed them beneath the dragon's tail (Verse) 

" He left his best friends to the enemy, to slaughter them, 
and saved himself by his good horse and his bridle." 

And it seemed very likely to every one that 
his flight from Samarkand had been determined 
beforehand, and that he was induced to commit 
this treachery through his odious disposition and 
corrupt meanness, and his ingratitude to the 
author of his prosperity, which was the cause that 
the vigour of the State was exhausted and this 
ancient royal house given to the winds. And 
Niih, hearing the news of this unfortunate affair, 

* Baghrakhan is the same personage as Harua-'bn-Ilek- 
Khan, the Turkish chief mentioned above. . 



MEMOIRS OF SABjJ.KTAq1n. ] 23 

and of this great event, became alarmed and eon- 
fused, and deserted his capital, and settled in some 
retired spot. Truly God is omniscient ! 



ACCOTJNT OF THE AeEITAL OF BaQHEAKHAN AT BrKHAsA, 

AND THE Plight of Eidha feom that place, and his 
Eetfen, a Second Time, to BitkhaeA, aftee his 
Eemotal, and the Mxgeation of Bagheakhan. 

Baghrakhdn came to Bukhird and Fdik 
returned to meet him, and became enrolled in the 
number of his special officers, and showed himself 
active in increasing his troops and followers, and 
vied with him (in activity) and for several years 
there existed much assured friendship and sincerity 
between them. And when Bagrakhan became 
settled upon the throne F^ik requested permission 
to go to Balkh, in order that he might collect the 
taxes of those provinces and discover the means of 
supply for the Treasury, and that he might cause 
his* name to be inserted in the public prayers, and 
strike coin in his name, as a sign of his sovereignty 
over those provinces. And, with this excuse, he 
procured leave of absence, and came towards 
Balkh. And Nilh, having ascertained his 
strength,, came out, and, passing the Jihiin, arrived 
at Amul-Shatt (i. e., the hanks of the river). And 
many of the slaves and servants of the opposite 

* His, i. e., Biighrakhau'a. 



124 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAQIn. 

party fell over to him there, and the others became 
confused and dispirited. And when they received 
intelligence of his arrival they became glad and 
joyful, and it seemed to them that fresh life and 
new happiness would result to them from his resi- 
dence, and, having separated themselves from the 
neighbourhood of the army, attached themselves 
to him, until (at length) the whole of the army 
concurred, and Niih conferred the office of Vizir 
upon Abii-All-Balami, and committed unto him 
the administration of his sovereignty in those pos- 
sessions. But he, in the regulation and the 
arrangement of this matter, displayed much confu- 
sion and want of sense, and was unequal to the 
task of guiding and ordering this business, at a 
time when the whole country was in the grasp of 
the enemy, and a great army had assembled, and 
he had not the means either of resisting them or 
coming to an agreement with them. Niih 
therefore summoned Abd-Allah-Ibn-Aziz from 
Khwarazm again, and placed him upon the chief 
seat of office in the kingdom, but, through the 
renewed rising of the constellations of contention 
and the commencement of the season of strife, 
Niih wrote letters to Abu-Ali-Simjiir, at Mdwar- 
annahr, and entreated his assistance and the fulfil- 
ment of the duty of generosity, and implored his 
aid, in averting the peril of the jewel of the State. 
But he, in this matter, completely deceived Niih, 



MEMOIRS or sabaktagIn. 125 

by his lying words and his treacherous ways, and, 
under pretence of increasing the army and aug- 
menting his forces, he suffered the opportunity to 
pass away. Then he went from Nishapiir to 
Sarakhs, and from that place, after a long stay, he 
went to Meni, to await the arrival of Baghrakhan, 
and expecting the fulfilment of that stipulation 
which existed between them, with respect to the 
division of the kingdom of Niih. And all this 
officers of Abii-Ali employed their Utmost exer- 
tions in settling this plan and in accomplishing 
this thought, and in arranging this proposal, and 
they appeared to incline to this opinion— that the 
royal house of Sdmdn had changed, and that the 
days of its prosperity and the period' of its reign 
had passed away, and that the prevalence of its 
decline and the proofs of its weakness appeared at 
every glance of the eye, and that at every look 
new dissensions and fresh weaknesses appeared. 
And the wise have said, of old, " To abet the weak 
is to weaken yourself."^^ Since the period of 
prosperity has passed away and the turn of adver- 
sity had arrived, to help and to associate with Niih 
would be the cause of humiliation and the fruitful 
origin of misfortune. And when Nilh came to 
Amul Shatt he sent a person to Abd-Ali, and said, 

* De Sacy translates this proverb " Le salut du foible est 
dans le mepris qu'il inspire," but the above version seems to 
be more in accordance with the context. 



126 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

" Our expectation hath exceeded aJl bounds, and 
the matter hath reached its utmost point, the 
enemy hath become victorious, and the house hath 
passed away from our hands. It is time that thou 
shouldst display some zeal in the duty of preserv- 
ing it, and in ftilfiUing the obligations which you 
owe ; and there are no means of preserving our 
empire, and maintaining the rights of our fore- 
fathers and predecessors, except by thy aid and 
-assistance." And out of all the letters which were 
upon this subject, from His Highness Niih to 
Abil-All, there is one passage which was composed 
by Abu-Ali-Damaghani, as follows : " Since the 
State hath great need of support, when it is evi- 
dent that sotae persons are designing to disturb 
the foundations of its buttresses, therefore the 
State hath recourse to thy power for help, in the 
name of Heaven." But Abil-All, according to 
his usual vile habits and worthless disposition, 
persisted in his hardness of heart, and, throwing 
away all thought of future consequences, cast aside 
all self-respect and shame, and exhibited nothing 
but impudence and wickedness, and preferred 
requests most unusual, and claims most uncom- 
mendable, and requested that his titles, as men- 
tioned in the public prayers (Khutbah) should be 
higher than those of the predecessors of His 
Highness Niih, and requested that they should 
introduce the prayer at the beginning of his pecu- 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGIn. 127 

liar titles, between his name and his surname, and 
that they should describe him as deputy of the 
Commander of the Faithful, which title is the 
peculiar designation of the family of S^mdn, and 
is one by which no other of the kings of the earth 
have been described. And the Prince Niih 
received aU these pretensions with favourable 
replies. And one of thp servants of Niih, a man an 
Aristotle in mind, had come to Abii-All, on a 
message. He heard this kind of demand, and saw 
his iniiquity and obstinacy in these discussions, and 
he said, " This King, Niih, is at present so con- 
fused by distress, that if thou should'st demand of 
him that he should acknowledge thee as sovereign 
he would not care. However after to-day there is 
to-morrow, the afiairs of fortune are ever changing. 
Do thou, therefore, so be and so speak that the 
people of the earth may be pleased with thee, and 
may speak well of thy name." The eyes of those 
who were present at this, interview were filled with 
tears, at the utterance of this speech and at the 
severe fortune of the Prince, and their hearts were 
roasted in the fire of this calamity. But Abii-All 
was stiU bent upon and carried away by that 
blindness and folly, and doubtless it was God 
alone who, without favour from man, satisfactorily 
settled the affairs of Prince Niih, and rendered his 
opponents hated and despised, and replaced him 
upon a settled throne, and in the royal dignity. 



128 MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAQIN. 

and made the envy and malice of his enemies to 
be the cause of their own humihation and disgrace. 
Thus, when anything is difficult, God knows how 
to set it right. 



Account or the Eetuen of the Peince Eidha* to 

BtTKHAEi, AETEE THE DePAETUEE OF BaGHBXkHAN FEOM 

THENCE. 

Baghrakhan was injured by the air of Bukhdrd, 
although he had a great desire and base longing to 
injure the ancient lords and the noble family. 
And on account of the severity of his disease, they 
knew no meSins of curing him, except by returning 
to the air of Turkistdn. Wherefore they carried 
him in a litter to the borders Of Turkistdn ; and 
the people stretched the hand of vengeance upon 
the rear of his army, and they killed many of the 
people. And the road of his retreat was by the 
territory of the Gozz Turks, and these Gozz tribes 
went several marches behind him, and killed the 
stragglers of his army, and plundered their 
baggage and their provisions. And Baghrakhd,n, 
in one of these journeys, resigned his soul. And 
when this news came to the Prince Niih he deter- 
mined to re-establish his authority, and the people 
of Bukhdra made rejoicings at his arrival, and the 
wise and great men of the city came forth to meet 

* Eidha, that is, Nuh, of Bukhdrd. 



MEMOIRS OP sabaktaqIn. 129 

his stirrup, and they were as charmed with his 
fortunate arrival as the day-watchman at the rising 
of the full moon, or the thirsty traveller at the 
sight of the pure brook. And the princes of Buk- 
hdr^ and Samarkand, and their allies, came to 
settle the Treasury affairs of the Prince Niih, and 
they placed his commands and his prohibitions 
upon their usual footing and upon their former 
authority. And thus all the causes of contention 
were cut off. And when Abii-All-Simjiir saw 
that the affairs of the kingdom of Niih were in 
course of settlement, and that the affairs of his own 
province approached to a blameable condition, and 
his wishes, through the confused times and through 
the troubled period, had produced no fruit, since 
his desire was broken and despised, and that the 
hne of his desire upon the dice of fortune had 
become crooked (and askew), and, moreover, that 
the settlements which he held from Baghrakhkn, 
respecting the completion of the conventions, 
and the fulfilment of the verbal treaties which 
had been agreed upon between them, respecting 
the division of the province of Khurasan and of 
Mdwarannahr, and also the settlement concerning 
its equal partition between them, had not been 
carried into effect, (for Baghrakhan, when he 
took the throne of Bukhdra, inserted the name of 
Abd-All-Simjur in the public prayers in the same 
list with the other generals of the army, and made 

K 



130 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

no alteration with respect to him in the usual state 
of things); then Abii-Ali began to gnaw the 
fingers of vexation and repentance, and the bril- 
liant light of his flag was destroyed in the darkness 
of his calamity, and the garden of his enjoyment 
withered in the cold wind of this event; whereupon 
he assembled the nobles of the state, and the 
counsellors of his court ; and, in order to obtain 
their advice, asked them to enter upon the consi- 
deration of some remedy of this afiair, and some 
means of escape from this misfortune. They all 
said, " The clay of which the royal house of Sdmin 
was formed is made up with the water of gene- 
rosity, and of a kind and forgiving temper ; but 
the dissensions and the depressions of the princes 
of this family, through the errors of their servants 
and the blunders of their dependants, have become 
notorious every day. This is the only way of pro- 
ceeding, that thou shouldest request this healing 
plaster of pardon from them, and shouldest request 
acceptance of thy excuses from their court. For, 
indeed, in this life-risking whirlpool, there is no 
possibility of arriving at the shore of safety, except 
in the boat of the assistance of Niih, and this 
inundation of disaster will never assuage, except 
by means of the fortunate empire of Nuh, and it 
will be necessary to go under his protection, with 
sword and with shroud * and to cast yourselves 
* i. e. Devoting sword and life to his service. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 131 

upon his generosity and his pity, and thus to draw 
out the thorn, which- has (unfortunately) lodged 
and broken in his breast, by the beak of humility 
and submission ; and to remore the dust which 
unluckily had become attached to the border of the 
garment of his mind^ by: blowing the breath of 
kindness and union ; and, since affairs have arrived 
at this extremity of inefficiency, it will be neces- 
sary to deserve approbation by their services, and 
to take hold of the course of service, and the rules 
of obedience ; since there can be no better remedy 
for a broken head than the lint, or for sinners than 
an agreeable refuge ; nor will he restrain from you 
the face of apology, acceptance, and pardon." 

Abii-Ali found this discourse to- possess a just 
weight in the scale of good sense, and that it would 
comprehend the circle of his conveniences. He, 
therefore, collected together of his various posses- 
sions many presents and packets of precious stones, 
in order that he might send them by the hand of 
an ambassador who had an oily tongue unto Prince 
Niih, so that by this trick the perception of his 
base plan might escape the enlightened mind, and 
by the softness of craftiness the bird of kindness 
might raise up his wing, which had been wetted in 
the mist of dislike. But he again thought of 
the decreed word, " Resolution is equal to fore- 
thought." He therefore tried another expedient, 
and said, " There is an old warning spoken (by the 

k2 



132 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

wise), ' He that soweth thorns will never obtain 
grapes therefrom.' If I have sown a piece of 
ground quite full of the seeds of wrong, how shall 
I measure it out in autumn full of the harvest of 
gratitude ; and if I plant in my enclosure the 
young tree of opposition, how can I expect the 
fruit of concord ; since to put a wounded snake into 
one's bosom, or to taste the poison which is upon 
the bow, is not the action of a wise man ; for the 
intelligent have said, ' Kings have teeth in their 
bellies, like the crocodile,' and they are like the 
sea, which although it be the source of the fountain 
of life, and although it contain all kinds of jewels 
and valuable things, nevertheless is sometimes like 
a whirlpool, which, in the twinkhng of an eye, can 
destroy the world, and carry away mankind ; and 
that ' A king is a sea, in which we may be drowned 
even when it is at rest over its pearls, and when it 
swells we should beware.'" 

And Fd,ik also, when he saw that the boat of 
Niih had arrived in safety, and at settled prospe- 
rity, lost all firmness of heart and- quietness of 
spirit, and sought some safe refuge from the evil of 
this storm. At last he determined upon this weak 
plan, and this crude object, and this excess of 
impudence, that he should put a bold face upon 
the affair ; and set off towards Bukhdrd, in order 
that he might recover Niih to his interest, by 
means of contention and violence. But to be ob- 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGiN. 183 

structed in our end is odious to all. The Prince 
Niih sent on before him the best portions of his 
private guards and chamberlains, and between the 
two armies various battles and horrible slaughters 
took place, and many were killed on both sides ; 
and the birds and lions, and eagles and hyaenas 
obtained from those who were slain in this assembly 
of sorrow, and from those who were found in this 
meat-distributing place, a merry feast and a table 
of delicacies. And Fdlk, when he escaped with 
but a small part of his army from the sword of the 
people of Bukhara, and had saved himself from the 
talons of fate, took to flight, and since he knew 
no refuge except the court of Abii All, or any 
place to fly to, went to Men! ; and Abil All was 
rejoiced at his arrival, and considered the contrac- 
tion of an alliance with him would be an afiair of 
importance, based upon sound judgment, he there- 
fore embraced his ofier of help and support, and 
considered that his presence would enable him to 
dispense with the favour of Ridha-Niih-Ibn Man- 
shir, he therefore sent Fdik the money which he 
had prepared for the tribute due to Bukh^rd, and 
there was confirmed between them a complete 
unity, and a mutual association, and sincere affec- 
tion, and an agreement to oppose all one-anothers' 
enemies and adversaries. And they came together 
to Nishapiir, and occupied themselves in the pre- 
paration of arms, and in the arrangement of the 
means of service in the field, and in organizing 



134 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

matters for the day of battle. And the Prince 
Niih when he heard of their agreement to ruin and 
injure him, and when their combination to do him 
wrong became apparent, applied all his thoughts 
to consider by what forbearing skill he might 
compel these two young colts to become obedient 
to the burden, and by what power he might catch 
these two savage crocodiles in the snare of punish- 
ment, and by the assistance of what lion he might 
most completely seize in his claws these two crafty 
wolves. And after consideration the lot of his 
election fell upon Nasir-Addin-Sabaktagin,* since 
he was well known, and of established reputation 
amongst the nobles of those provinces for his pre- 
eminence in all good ways, and his firmness in 
that which is right, and his careful regard for the 
happiness of the people, and for his support of 
religion, and his aid given to God. He therefore 
sent Abii-Nasr-Farsi to him, and signified the evil 
deeds, and the disgraceful actions of Abii-All and 
F4ik, and requested from his repelling arm, and 
his expansive benevolence, the remedy for this 
disease, and the means of mollifying this fury ; 
and offered a request to him respecting the remo- 
val of this anxiety, and the taking away of this 
treachery, and said, " The way of hope from all 
other quarters of the kingdom, and from all 

* Utbi has here conducted his digression upon the affairs 
of Bukhara, to the point when Sabaktagin became involved 
with them, through the application of Nuh for his aid. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 135 

other resources of the state, hath been stopped 
up, and there is no probability of meeting with 
any help, nor any hope of repelling these evils, 
unless by the powerful force and vigorous bridle of 
Nasir-Addoulat-Abii-Mansdr, and in the breast 
of thought there can be entertained no idea 
respecting the conferring this favour and the 
accomplishing this service from any other than 
from him." And Nasiir Addin was refreshed in 
heart, and his bosom was gladdened that he was 
entrusted to expedite, and purify, and arrange 
in this matter of the wounded (state), and was 
jealously (indignant) on account of this attenuating 
consumption of the family of Saman, and abhorred 
the crimes and baseness of Abii All, and the 
meanness and low manners of F^tk. He therefore 
girded up his loins to transfer the empire from 
them, and to respond to the demand of the Prince. 
He speedily marched, and with eagerness to fulfil 
his duty, and in the ardour of his faithful disposi- 
tion arrived at Mdwardnnahr. The Prince Niih 
rose up, and went to the borders of Kash, to wit- 
ness his arrival. Here they met with the greatest 
friendliness ; but before the meeting Nasdr Addin 
had requested to be excused the trouble of dis- 
mounting, and the felicity of kissing the ground of 
obedience, on account of the weakness of old age 
and the burden of advanced years, and the Prince 
Niih for that reason accepted his excuse ; but when 



136 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGlN. 

the eyes of Nasir Addin fell upon the external 
appearance of the prince, his veneration for his 
king and emperor wrested the rein from his hand, 
and he alighted and kissed the stirrup of Ntih. 
And N^ sent to meet him some agreeable pre- 
sents, and attracted him by extreme honour and 
entire respect, and from the meeting of these two 
great men, and the association of these two kings., 
joy came to all hearts; and the rose of delight 
unfolded its flowers amongst high and low, and 
became so universally diffiised that such a state of 
affairs has never been recorded or described in 
history. And the prince Niih opened the hand of 
kindness and generosity, and much gratified him- 
self and his followers with various gifts and 
dignities ; and in the end it appeared how the sin- 
cerity of his advances was worthy of his greatness, 
when during several days he sought his counsel, 
respecting the injury and damage of those two 
benefit-beliers, he exhibited perfect confidence, 
Nasir AddIn was delighted, and offered his zealous 
service, and engaged himself to sincere obedience 
and allegiance, and requested a delay of some days 
that he might go to Ghazna, and make arrange- 
ments respecting the assembling an army, and the 
preparation of military necessaries ; and with per- 
fect zeal might betake himself to the sacred war 
against the wicked. The prince consented, and 
presented him with splendid robes of honour, and 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAqIn. 137 

royal gifts and unlimited presents of various kinds 
of valuable articles, and both of them went to their 
own abode, and used their utmost industry in 
settling their affairs, and assembling soldiers, and 
in arranging arms, and in providing necessaries 
and horses for the expedition. 

And Abii-AH, when he received information of 
these things, became confounded and confused, 
and the sun of his judgment tended towards 
declension, and the culmination of his star (of 
good fortune) proceeded towards an eclipse, and 
his contemptible disposition lost the right road in 
the brightness of the intellect of th& King. And 
this question was proposed to. the council of his 
officers and favourites, and he endeavoured to 
increase his fire from the breath of every one, and 
having considered the means of getting out of the 
difficulty, the most excellent advice and the most 
approved opinion of aU was this, that he ought to 
propose friendship and fraternity with Fakhr- 
Addoulat, and that his love would be an important 
handle (by which to obtain his objects) and his 
friendship an efficient supporter of his views. For 
he thought that it would be expedient to obtain 
the advantage of his alliance, before any alteration 
in his fortunes, " so that if (he said) we should 
happen to find difficulty in retaining the province 
of Khurasan, we might have in readiness an excel- 
lent resource and an eminent place of refuge." And 



"138 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

the volume of their wise counsels was arranged 
and sealed upon these conditions. And Abii-All 
proceeded according to this plan, and he appointed 
Abii-Jafar-Zulkarnain for this expedition, and sent 
for Fakhr-Addoulat, by his hand, some packages 
full of the fine productions of Khurasan, and of the 
export goods of Turkistan. And, in like manner, 
he entered into arrangements with respect to 
Sahlb-Kati, and he felt assured that, by his means 
and his guidance, he should succeed. 

And Abu-Jafar brought back the following 
account, namely : " When I presented these gifts 
before the S4hib, and, using the words of Abii- All, 
apologized for them, and when, in my speech, this 
expression occurred, namely, ' I seem to myself, in 
bringing the tribute of this trifling amount of 
capital stock to the presence of the sufficient one 
of sufficient ones, like one who should bring dates 
as a present to Hajar ;'* — 

"He gave this answer : ' Yes, they do bring 
dates to Hajar, from Medina, by way of bless- 
ing, not by reason of need.' " Then S4hib Kafi, 
for the purpose of settlmg the foundations of affec- 
tion, and establishing the principles of friendship 
between the two powers, used his utmost exertions, 
in order that the foundations of sincere regard and 
prosperity should become established, and that the 

* Hajar, a town in Arabia, therefore tiie native country of 
dates. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 139 

way of intercourse, by means of letters and mes- 
sages, should become trodden. And this affection 
and regard was settled. 

Now Mamiin-Ibn-Muhammad, who was Prince 
of Jurj an, and Abd- Abdullah , King of Khwdrlzm, a+ 
the time of the dissensions at Bukharfi,, and during 
the days of misfortune, had offered to him (Nilh) 
marks of kindness, and had zealously proffered 
their services, and had assisted him with money 
and property, and the Prince Niih, at the time 
when he again attained to the possession of his 
principality, in order to reward their fidelity, and 
by way of recompense to them, had settled the 
city named Nisa upon Mamiln, and augmented 
the territory of Khwdrizm, by the city of Abi- 
ward, and sent to each a royal letter, together 
with a sword and sash, with the royal certificate, 
and each of them sent succours from their respec- 
tive ^provinces. And Abii-Ali relinquished Nisa 
to Mamiin ; but to the King of Khwarlzm he 
returned an answer, and said : " The city* Abi- 
ward, is beloved and specially inscribed amongst 
my brother's provinces, and, unless some compen- 
sation be assigned by the Divdn, Abiward shall 
not be surrendered." And he commanded that 
some (troops) should expel the King of Khwdrizm 
from his rightful possession ; and the King of 
Khwarizm bore this as a grudge in his hearty until 
he could find an opportunity of revenge ; but the 



140 MEMOIRS OF SABAKT\.GiN. 

explication of all these matters shall be commemo- 
rated in its proper place, please God. 

And, in the midst of all these transactions, the 
troops of Nasir-Addln-Sabaktagin, having arrived 
at a lucky moment, came up, with numerous 
troops, and a brave army, and a complete array, 
and with every supply, and in the front of his 
army there were nearly two hundred pairs of ele- 
phants, which he had found as plunder in India, 
all adorned with splendid trappings and incompar- 
able housings, and after them the regiments of 
troops, and after them the Prince Niih came in 
from Bukhara ; and, at Jurj^n, Abii-Al-Hareth- 
Fareganl, and the Sh^r,^^ and other chiefs of the 
cities, joined him, and Nasir-Addin-Sabaktdglu 
joined him, and the army was all assembled, like 
locusts or ants innumerable, and as immeasurable 
as the sand of the desert, and Abvl-AH and Pdik 
departed from Nishapiir, and came to Her^t, in 
order that they might guard that frontier from the 
attack of the enemy, and they took the troops of 
those provinces with them, and the Prince Niih 
and the Amir Sabaktagin.f . 
And he said, "The relations of friendship were 
well established between thee and my father, and 

, * The peculiar title of the princes of Georgia, 
t Several lines are here wanting in the MS. It recom- 
mences with a speech of Abu-Ali to Sabaktagin, requesting the 
intercession of the latter with Ntih. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 141 

the wise have said, ' the love of fathers should be 
the alliance of sons,' and when the succession to 
the Nawwdb authority of Khurasdn came to me I 
proceeded in the path of my father, and in the ful- 
filment of respect and the performance of the 
duties of service neglected not the smallest parti- 
cular. Let, then, these forms and bygone connec- 
tions so far prevail as to induce thee to use thy 
exertions for the settlement of this affair, and for 
the extinction of the materials of strife, and that 
thou mayest become the mediator of justice and 
the umpire of compassion between me and the 
Prince ; and if, through my error, any action has 
been willingly perpetrated which is not becoming 
or consonant to faithful service, mayest thou ask 
pardon and allay the fire of anger, and remove the 
dust of hatred, and I will cease from my perverse 
conduct with regard to woman, which is the vice 
to which I have been addicted, and I will earnestly 
engage myself in doing my duty, and after this 
how shall I be unable to withdraw from enchant- 
ment." The Amir-Sabaktagin accepted this com- 
mission, and was content to go about others' con- 
tentment, and had several communications with 
the Prince, both when absent and present, both 
by personal interviews and by letters brought 
forward on this subject, until his interces- 
sion became successful, and the Prince Niih 
ceased to retain such hatred. And Xasir-Addin 



142 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

wrote this good news to Abil-Ali, announcing that 
his wishes were fulfilled, and that the Prince had 
issued his pardon, and had passed over all that he 
had said and done, upon condition that he should 
pay fifteen packets, each containing one million of 
dirhems, by way of fine and compensation for the 
injury which had resulted to the Treasury, and 
that he should henceforth, in the strictest manner, 
express and preserve his Service to the throne, and 
the duties of a subject to His Highness, as estab- 
lished during the time of his ancestors, upon a gua- 
ranteed basis. And the friends of Abu- AH began a 
consultation with one another, upon the subject, 
and they regarded the discharge of this ransom to 
be a great advantage, in comparison with the 
obtaining peace and the abatement of the fire of 
strife, and they were all content with this proposal. 
But the body of the troops, through the heat 
of youth and -the want of experience, and their 
indifference to the consequences of their conduct, 
became obstinate, and disregarded this settlement, 
and they ran to the camp of Nasir-Addin and 
plundered the soldier who was stationed in front 
of the yokes of elephants and killed him, with 
some others whom they found off their guard. 
And a messenger of Nasir-Addln, when he 
returned, passed by those troops, who were the 
advanced guard of Abii-Ali, who used to him 
words of scoffing and said, " Let your master exert 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIN. 143 

himself within the palace and there speak his vain 
words. It is not possible that, whilst we can hold 
these swords in our hands, we should give up our 
bodies to such disgrace, or be content with the 
stigma of this servitude (Verse) 

" ' As to the house of Grod (Jerusalem) he shall not take it 
in battle whilst we can hold a sword.' " 

When the news of this event was brought to 
Ndsir-Addin he became angry and expressed 
wonder at the conduct of the army, and sent word 
to Abii-Ali, to this effect, " Prepare to fight and 
come to battle, for this quarrel will not be con- 
cluded except by the decision of the sword, and 
this contest cannot be cut off, unless by the 
meeting of warriors on the battle-field. If thou 
art beguiled by the queen of thy chess-board — the 
alliance which thou hast made with Falk, come 
. to-morrow into the plain, that you may see my 
elephant playing upon the board of the valiant, 
and if, through thy forces of horse and foot (pawns 
and knights) the castle has been burnt, now throw 
thy horses with us into the arena, that thou 
mayest witness the ' horsemanship of skilled 
masters." Then, having departed from his en- 
campments, he conducted the army to a plain, the 
widest in his possession, and there he arrayed his 
forces against him, and arranged his right, and left, 
and placed in front a gigantic body of war-ele- 



144 MEMoms OF sabaktagIn. 

phants, and he himself, with the Prince Niih and 
the Amir Mahmiid, stood in the centre ; and all 
their men in the battle inscribed their names in 
the book of death, and in the contest tooth was 
lost for tooth (Verse) 

" Of all terrors most terrible is (the terror) of death. 
" Where neither weakness or excuses can be exerted. 
" "When blows in anger meet with difficulty in opposing 
spears, in the congregation of the rebellious."* 

And Abil-Ah arranged his army in the proper 
method and put his regiments in order, and he 
sent Fdik to the right hand and kept his brother, 
Abil-Al-Kasim-Simjiir, at his left hand, and he 
himself took up his position in the centre. And 
when the two armies engaged Fdlk on the right, 
defeated the enemy on the left, and Abii-AK- 
Kdsim, on the left, broke through the right, and 
Sabaktagin was very near losing the whole affair 
out of his hand, and he became very weak and 
powerless. However, Dird-'bn-Shams-Almudli- 
Kabiis-'bn-Washamgert made a charge from the 
centre of Abii- All's army, and, when he arrived at 
the middle of the two troops, he drew his shield 
over his back, and went in front of Prince Nilh, 
and offered his respects, and betook himself to 
slaughter the army of Abii-AH. And the army 

r * The translator doubts the correctness of the MS. of these 
verses, and can only give an approximate and free version, 
t Or Washamgir. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 145 

of Abii-Ali, when they saw the treachery of Ddrd, 
' became distrustful, and thought that his treachery 
could not be without common consent, and for this 
reason they became disheartened. And Nasir- 
Addin, with his cavalry, made a charge, and 
portions of the earth became convulsed, from the 
motion of the troops ; and the army of Abii-AH, 
from their terror at that untoward accident, and 
their alarm at that onset, betook themselves' to 
flight and was broken up, and none of them found 
any power of rallying, and Amlr-Mahmiid pursued 
behind them, and put to death every one with 
whom he came up, or took them prisoners ; and 
these troops threw away so much treasure and 
valuables, and stores, and armour, that if the tithe 
of it had been presented (to the Prince Ntlh) and 
had been given to him, by way of ransom, their 
honour would have remained uninjured, nor would 
they have been scattered unto various provinces of 
the earth, in the robe of shame and the dress of 
ruin. 

And Abii-AK retreated to Nishapiir, and there 
occupied himself in arranging his affairs and in 
attending to the wounds of his army, and in pre- 
paring military stores, in order that, before the 
army arrived, he might consider the remedy for 
his defeat, and the means of providing for the 
object of his wishes. And the Prince Niih and 
the chiefs of Sabaktagln and Mahmiid halted two 



146 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIN. 

or three days, on account of the heat* which the 
camels and horses had suffered, and for the 
purpose of dividing the booty and the treasure ; 
and the Prince Nuh gave to the Amir Sabaktagin 
the surname of Ndsir-Addln, and honoured his son 
and heir, Mahmiid, with the surname Saif-Ad- 
doillat. And he presented him with the general- 
ship of the troops, which had been the office of 
Abii-Ali, and he proceeded to Nishapilr, with 
great splendour and a well-appointed army, and 
abundants of troops, and a great staff of officers. 

And Abul-Fath-Basti says, in describing him, 
as follows (Verse) 

"AH affairs are arranged (or collected) by Saif-Addoulat, 
we have seen them all arranged in proper order. The sons of 
renown and honour are named and honoured, but none of the 
renowned and honoured are equal to him." 

And they designated him, in the order of 
words, by the surname of Saif-Addoulat, until 
God raised him to the pinnacle of greatness, and 
granted him the kingly office, and (then) he was 
known and celebrated throughout all the regions 
of the earth, by the name of SuMn Yamin-Ad- 
doulat-wa- Amin- Almuslimah .f 

And when Abii-AH received intelligence of his 
expected arrival, he set off to Jurjdn, in the hope 

* Or in order to ascertain or compute (the number) of the 
camels and horses. 

t This is evidently an error, it should be Al Millat. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 147 

of settling the treaty which had been arranged 
between him and Fakhr-Addoulat, respecting mu- 
tual assistance and protection, and support ; and 
he sent one of his privy chamber gentlemen, named 
Abii-Nasr, on a mission to him, and represented 
the event which had taken place. And he wrote 
a letter to S4hib-Kdfi, inviting him to extend the 
aid which his position enabled him to do, (and in 
his letter he assured him) that he regarded him 
as the support of his life, and the pillar of his 
prosperity, and that he esteemed his previous 
generosity and favour, as a treasure of precious 
things. And he said, "The faces of people of 
intelligence are guiding bridles. Friends ought 
to come to one's assistance in time of misfortune, 
and they ought to profit their connections when 
days of sorrow come. Unto us powerful enemies 
and vahant foes have appeared, and our inherited 
abode and ancient rank hath passed from our 
hands. And where shall we find a comrade like 
thee whom we may produce as our supreme oracle ? 
or where shall we find one as efficient as thee, who 
can afford a remedy for our troubles, and become 
a refuge from our ills ? the fame of whose autho- 
rity and gravity, like the sun, shines forth over 
every corner and region of the earth ; and accord- 
ing to the proverb, 'He that is neighbour to 
Al-Azad is not far off An-Niijiim,'* it is neces- 
* Azad and Nfijtiin, two Arabian tribes. 

l2 



148 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIN. 

sary that you should not object to enter upon 
some salutary counsels upon our affairs, with his 
Highness Fakhr-Addoulat, by way of the expres- 
sion of opinions, so that through thy beneficial 
energy this grief and unpleasantness may not be 
over the neck of one's thoughts." 

S4bib-Kafi regarded this opportunity as a per- 
fect gain, and employed the most urgent expres- 
sions before Fakhr-Addoulat, and said, " The son 
of Simjiir is not a bird that falls into the snare 
every minute, nor is he so straitened for hospi- 
tality, that the door of honour and respect should 
pass from his grasp ; and since he has taken refuge 
in this state, and come to the door of this sove- 
reign, let the princes of the earth keep their eyes 
upon him, that his proper right of (kindness) may 
be maintained, and let them provide for the resto- 
ration of his rank, and for the extolling his dignity 
to the utmost, and for enquiring into the means of 
establishing his name and renown." 

Upon this Fakhr-Addoulat commanded that 
they should appoint him a fixed allowance out of 
the revenues of the treasury of Jurgdn, and that 
they should give in settled portions to the officers 
a thousand bags, each containing a thousand royal 
dirhems, out of the taxes of that province, in order 
that the expenses of the army should be paid pro- 
perly. And Abu- All and Fdlk remained in the 
same place during the winter, until the spring 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 149 

began to appear, and the meadows to bloom with 
flowers, and the season for setting the army in 
motion arrived. 

Now whilst their Highnesses Naslr-Addin- 
Sabaktagin and Siif-Addoulat-Mahmiid were at 
Nishapiir, at the source of events, their opinion 
respecting the merit of Abdullah- Azir had become 
changed, and they began to suspect that he was 
disturbing their relations with Prince Nilh, and 
that he was endeavouring to encroach upon their 
country and provinces. And the Prince Niih, on 
account of the awe which he entertained for his 
Vizir, and his dread of him, and his fear on account 
of injury which might happen to him from that 
quarter, removed, and went to the neighbourhood 
of Tils, And when Saif-Addoulat became aware 
of this state of things, he went after him ; and in 
order to conciliate his Excellency, and to obtain a 
propitious decree from the Royal Court, and to 
prove the fidelity of his intentions, he used his 
utmost endeavours in his professions of friendship 
and obedience ; and the Prince Niih was much 
gratified with his arrival, and expressed great 
affection for him. Thus the immediate pressure of 
that untoward affair was removed, and Abd-Allah- 
Ibn-Azlz, dreading this alliance, retired- and went 
to Merd, and the Prince Niih, after this event of 
the reconciliation of the two powers, and after the 
occurrence of their sincere friendship, went in the 



150 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

footsteps of the Vizir as far as Merd, and from 
thence proceeded to Bukh&rd, and established him- 
self upon the throne of his kingdom, with con- 
fidence and prosperity. And the two Amirs 
Naslr-Addin and Saif-Addoulat spread forth at 
Nishapur the carpet of justice, and of mercy, and 
of equity, and entirely abolished the system of 
innovations, and of blameable novelties, and the 
rules of tyranny. And all the subjects of the 
province and the people, were placed by them 
under the canopy of peace and tranquillity. And 
the principles of tyranny, and injustice, and vio- 
lence, and court-favour, which in weak times, and 
in the reign of the family of Simjiir, had been in- 
troduced, were abolished by them throughout the 
whole country of Khurasan, and such things were 
entirely removed, so that the confidence of the 
people revived, and the provinces became well 
inhabited again ; and the caravans of the mer- 
chants, and the dealers in merchandize, began to 
attend to their affairs, and, in the room of misfor- 
tune and alarm, found the road of security, and 
prosperity and abundance appeared plentifully to 
the view. 

And the Amlr-Naslr-Addln took it into his 
head to go for a short time to Herdt, and to renew 
the treaty respecting his stores, and possessions, 
domestics, and provinces. He proceeded to that 
district, and Amir-Saif-Addoulat-MahmTid was 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAOiw. 151 

established at Nishapdr upon the throne of govern- 
ment, and in the heutenancy of the army. 

Then Abd-All and F^Ik wrote a despatch to 
Fakhr-Addoulat, and represented that he should 
send supplies from Ray, in order that they might 
defray their expenses incurred in the maintenance 
of their officers ; and they pointed out that the 
revenues of Jurjan, of which they had obtained 
possession, for the support of their rank, were 
insufficient for their dignity. Abu-Nasr, the 
Chamberlain, wrote a letter, in reply, thus : " I 
have submitted the writing which arrived to the 
consideration of Fakhr-Addoulat. He commands 
me to reply, that the treasuries of kings are like 
migbty rivers, whose overpowering torrents and 
abundant waters impress the eyes and astonish 
men ; but a real body (of waters) and great pros- 
perity is denied them. Let them be careless in 
apportioning them, and they wUl know that they 
may be expended by means of many (small) 
streams, and that their currents may be swallowed 
up by people of necessity and persons of distJress. 
Although we possess a wealthy province yet an 
amount equal to double its revenue stands against 
it, by reason of the support of the army, of various 
kinds of expenditures and different kinds of de- 
fences. If you would relinquish to us your ample 
resources and the outgoings (caused by' the army 
of Khurasan we would accept that revenue to put 



152 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

in order our finance, and you can refer yourselves 
to your other possessions, whereby you may have 
strength equal to your circumstances. We have 
gone to the utmost. If further apology be 
(needed) on this point, let our apology appear on 
this ground." 

Abii-Ali and Fdlk were struck and quite con- 
founded at this reply, and assembled their distin- 
guished officers, and, unfolding the circumstances, 
consulted them respecting the fit manner of acting 
in that contingency, and of arranging that affair. 
Every one gave a varying opinion : some said it 
would be necessaiy to take possession of Jurjdn, 
for the expenses, and to proclaim the title of the 
Prince Ntih in that province, and for this service 
to request admission into his presence, and to send 
an envoy to express obedience and devotion, and 
to ask aid from his victorious Highness, and to 
represent that the preceding princes of the royal 
house of S^mdn have been for long ages desirous 
to obtain these provinces, and for that object have 
expended immeasurably, and have sent numerous 
armies, in the hope of recovering this province by 
the sacrifice of hves and the risking of heads, and 
with all this they have not attained their desire ; 
but through us this can be attained and be pro- 
cured, without trouble, vexation, or annoyance ; 
and we know that it is very far from the act of a 
wise man to give ready money for credit, or to sell 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGIn. 153 

that which is present for that which is non-appa- 
rent. Faik drew back his head/' and said, "This 
is our position, that Sabaktagin hath departed 
from Nishapiir, and Mahnnid has not the power of 
resistance. He is a foreigner at Khurasdn, and 
the army of an alien is like a torrent,f which, 
although it may appear terrible, yet the stream 
passes away, and from its precipitancy becomes 
reduced to nothing (Verse) 

" ' A sword of mist is soon dispersed.' 

" I must go to Nishapiir, and expel Mahmiid 
from that province, and take possession thereof, 
and so sit down at rest and quietness, awaiting 
what the mercy of God may bring forth from the 
curtain of mystery and the day-book of occur- 
rences (Verse) 

" ' Between the gradual rising of the irrigation and the 
necessity of bewaring of it, 

" ' There may he the manumission of a slave, there may be 
the reparation of the broken.' 

" And at this time it is the summer season, and 
the air of Jurjdn is infectious and unhealthy, and 
our army will be injured by the unwholesomeness 
of that air, and if they should meet with the enemy, 

* *. e. Dissented. 

t Or the army of one who is isolated, unsupparted, &c. 



154 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

it might become weak. When the bad air is dis- 
persed and the autumnal season has arrived, 
Karkan is in our hands." 

The majority of the army concurred with this 
opinion, and the love of home and their affection 
for their families and abodes prevailed, and they 
agreed to this resolution. And Abii-AH was 
compelled to conform, of necessity, and to concur 
with their will. And, in the midst of these trans- 
actions, news arrived that Sahib-Kdfi, who was the 
lamp to illuminate the darkness of these matters, 
and the physician to heal this disease, had drawn 
near to the Giver of Mercy, and had approached 
the dominion of death. And Abii-Ali, for that 
reason, lost his wish to jreside at Jurjan, since his 
hope of support depended upon Sahib-Kafi, who 
had directed his chief attention to the well-doing 
and guidance of His Excellency, and had stirred 
up Fakhr-Addoulat, by his zeal and attention in 
regulating affairs, and his skill in procuring the 
accomplishment of his wishes, in the way of retali- 
ation upon his enemies. And when Sahib-Kafi 
died, the poets of that time made many verses in 
his praise. Abu-Mahmild-Khazin thus says 
(Verse) 

" Oh K^fi, the Prince ! I am not sufficient to commend thee, 
according to thy due. Eyen if my power of commending or of 
vituperating were lengthened I could not express, in detail, 
each one of the qualities which we weep for in thee. Com- 



MEMOIRS OF BABAKTAGIn. 155 

mendation would be blame for one who looks with moist eye 
upon the extremity of thy incomparable brUlianey !" &c. 



And Abii-All went from Jurjdn, by way of 
Juin, and sent to Fiik, to meet him, by the way 
of Isfarain ; and they met on the confines of 
Nishapiir, and directed their course towards Nish- 
apiir. And when Saif-Addoulat received intelli- 
gence of this event, he caused messengers to run 
hastily to his father, and informed him of their 
arrival : and he came forth from the city with a 
squadron of troops which had remained with him, 
and pitched his camp outside the city, in order, to 
observe (the movements) of the enemy's army. 
And Abii-All and Fdlk hastened forward, in order 
that they might engage him before news of their 
arrival had reached him. But Saif-Addoulat stood 
up against them with the troops which he had, and 
offered them battle ; and he put numbers to the 
sword, and cast many under the feet of the ele- 
phants, and he very nearly won the victory. 
However Abii-Ali and Fiik made a circular 
movement, and divine destiny seconded their 
wishes. And Saif-Addoulat thought it not fit to 
make any longer delay, and saw that it would be 
useful and proper to proceed towards His High- 
ness, his father, trusting that by the magnifying 
glory and might of his star and happy fortune, 
victory would in the issue compensate him, and 



156 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAQIn. 

that in the end victory and prosperity would 
arrive, to establish, his days (in glory) (Yersej 

" Surely I know that I alone can slaughter them ; I will 
slaughter them, and the enemy shall not escape martyrdom ; I 
will stop up from them (the road of escape) and the most 
beloved of them shall be food for ravens, on the day of cutting 
off the extension of life." 

And the light and heavy-armed troops which 
remained away frora Saif-Addoulat, and some 
yokes of elephants and some of th.e Indian troops, 
remained in the power of Abil-Ali. With these 
he was reinforced, and thus refitted* the breakings 
which had occurred to him in equipments and 
baggage. But another fire of tumult blazed forth, 
and his desire of exalting his condition and happily 
arranging his affair was restrained. For many of 
his chief officers and sections of his troops thought 
it expedient to follow the Amirs in the rear, and, 
before they could re-assemble their forces or 
compose their affairs, bring to perfection the dis- 
aster which had occurred, and to harass them from 
the province of Khurasdn ; but his scant fortune, 
his weak zeal, and his flattered power made him 
slothful in listening to these words or following 
this advice, so that he took up his abode at Nish- 
apiir, and then he applied himself to smooth over 
his past misfortunes, and betook himself to write 
letters to Bukh^rd, and to seek the favour of the 

* lAteraWj jalcmed, cut, as in joiner's work. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAqIn. 157 

Prince Niih, and to ask impossibilities, until the 
torrent of misfortune came over his head, and he 
was caught in the snare of sorrow ; and, in like 
manner, he sent a letter to the Amir Ndsir-Addin, 
and knocked at the door of excuse, and took to 
display his ingenuous conduct, and perfectly trans- 
ferred the blame of that proceeding and the crime 
of that eflFort from himself to a long-backed pack- 
ass, and he threw the burden of this error upon 
Fdlk and the other chiefs, and he said, " If the 
reins of choice had been in my hand, and the other 
chiefs had not displayed so much zeal in seducing 
and beguiling the people, I should never have left 
Jurjdn and I should never have tampered with the 
province of Khurasin, and I never should have 
breathed one breath in opposition to the pleasure 
of His Highness N^sir-Addln, and I never should 
have put one foot forward in the matter." 

In this way did he offer to make amends, and 
requested terms of accommodation, and employed 
the most coloured (feigned) proceedings in the way 
of asking pardon and indulgence, and intreating to 
be received into confidence. But by these lying 
excuses and disagreeable words he made the im- 
pression respecting himself and his followers more 
confirmed. And the Amir Nasir-Addin sent let- 
ters to (all) quarters, and summoned the army back 
again ; and he took with him, as speedily as 
possible, all the officers who had obtained leave of 



158 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

absence. And he sent Abu Nasr-Abl-Zaid to 
Sistan, to summon Khalaf-'bn-AJimad, and he 
called Abub-Hareth-Fareghiini from Jurjan ; and 
he caused one to run to Prince Ndh, in order that 
he might aid the matter, and expedite the proceed- 
ings. And they assembled an army so great that, 
from the trouble of the thick trees of their stan- 
dards, a bird could not fly into the field of the 
atmosphere, and the means of fighting, or of flpng 
into the glens and drinking-places* of the earth 
were intercepted from the wild beasts and Uons 
(Verse) 

" Through their number the loftiest hills were oversha- 
dowed, also the most inaccessible peaks, and the most cele- 
brated range of mountains." 

Now, after. the event at Nishapiir, Fdlk went 

to Tils, and began freely and unreservedly to 

confer with the Amir Nd,sir-Addln, and having 

represented the inclination he felt for the service, 

and the rights of his Highness, he began to let 

down the thread of obedience and duty. And 

.Nasir-Addin wrote an answer, which flattered his 

hypocrisy, his falsehood, and his deceit, and he 

measured out to him some coins (of compliment) 

in the same measure (Verse) 

" Let him praise me and I will praise him. Every one 
makes sport for his master."t 

* G-lens and drinking-places, or dens and places of 
concourse ; wild beasts assemble at rivers, &c. 

t Or, Every one may play the buffoon for his master. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 159 

And the petty chieftan of Tiis, in like manner, 
began to decline from Abii-All, and took his stand 
between hypocrisy and sincerity, and began to 
withdraw his side from his alliance, and to be 
undecided respecting his acquaintance and associa- 
tion; but Abd-All sent Abiil-Kasim, the priest, 
who was one of his privy counsellors, to them, and 
warned them of the consequences of dissension, 
and said, " At the present time there is no remedy 
against the force and insolence of your enemies, 
and against the disturbance of the times, and the 
confusion of aU things, except in mutual alliance, 
and mutual efforts, and mutual support. And 
above all things, we should never break the chain 
of friendship, until we have found some means of 
getting out of present circumstances." And Abii- 
Kdsim, the priest, went and addressed himself to 
them, and urged upon them alliance and confidence. 
And he wrote to Abii-All thus : " It is necessary 
that, whatever happens, you should march and join 
yourselves to them." Upon this Abii-Ali marched 
to the province of Tds, and F4ik and the Amir 
joined him, and entered into a sincere and friendly 
alliance, and they chose a wide plain at Anderah, 
and halted at that place. 

And Abii-Kdsim-'bn-Simjiir opposed Abii-Ali, 
and remained inactive at Nishapiir, on account of 
the grudge which had arisen between them* on 
* Or on account of that which had occurred previously. 



160 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn, 

account of the slaughter which had occurred when 
Abii-Ali had taken from him the province of Herdt, 
and had given it to his servant Ilmangii, and Abii- 
AH for some time remained heart-broken, on ac- 
count of the oppression of his brother, and the 
cessation of his support and power ; and he per- 
ceived that his power was humiliated and ruined. 

And Ndsir-Addin* made a movement towards 
overpowering their forces, and conquering their 
troops, and he came to Tils, and the regions of 
the earth were agitated by the march of his army 
(Verse) 

" "When we travel between the east and the west the 
wakeful earth is moved and its elements." 

And the young men on both sides, and the 
youths of both parties, were engaged from day to 
night in battle and combats. They began therefore 
to consult how to contrive a snare for him, and 
how to find a remedy for these circumstances. 
And the Amir of Tils, and several who were emi- 
nently judicious, and had experienced the vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, said "The following plan is the 
best ; that we should take refuge in the great 
mountains, and should seek for help in the fort- 
resses and castles of those provinces. And we will 
excite the men of Tils against them, that they may 

* Sabaktagin, in consequence of the summons of his son 
Mahmud. 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAgIn. 161 

make night attacks upon the skirt of the army, arid 
plunder their baggage and their horses, and make 
booty of their heavy baggage. And in this we 
will consume some time, until they begin to fear, 
and considerable bodies of their outermost troops 
are cut oflF; then we will draw up our ranks against 
them, with clearsightedness and effectual arrange- 
ment ; we will engage them, and we will execute 
the business completely." But the lower order of 
the soldiers, and the inferior ranks of the people, 
felt averse to this proposal, and said, " This would 
be a mark of weakness, and an evidence of insuffi- 
cient power and strength, and we wiU not give up 
our bodies to this imbecility, nor will concur in 
this humiliation (Verse) 

" ' A generous man will venerate youtb.' "* 

And when the hand of the sword of the breeze 
of morning was drawn from the sheath of the 
horizon, the men of both armies and the warriors 
of both countries drew out mutually the sharp 
sword ; and when the engagement came to its 
height and the flame of war arrived at its utmost 
point, then, at night, on the left of Abil-All, a 
great dust arose, and the Amir Saif-Addoulat 
came up with many troops and with innumerable 
soldiers, on that side, and Abii-Ali remained bold 

* i. e. Make allowances for, respect their feelings. 

M 



162 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

but perplexed between those two armies, and con- 
sidered that it would be a remedy for the difficulty 
if he took both his wings above his centre,* and 
charged in one body upon the centre of Nasir- Ad- 
din, so that he should not be able to escape from 
that difficulty, even by a small space. Nasir- 
Addin repulsed that attack with great steadiness 
and firmness, and Saif-Addoulat came up, and 
they attacked the army of Abii-Ali in the middle, 
and drops of blood flowed upon the field of battle, 
and the war-elephants seized the horsemen with 
their trunks, and broke their backs beneath their 
feet, until countless multitudes and innumerable 
people perished upon that plain. And Abii-Ali- 
'bn-Millz, the Chamberlain, and Yaktegin-Fara- 
giin, and ArsMn-Beg, and Abil-AlI-'bn-Nawishgin, 
and the army of f Ibn-Abi-Jafar-Addilami were 
taken prisoners, with several other eminent officers 
of the army of Abii-AlI, having obtained conditions 
of surrender, and the rest having acquired some 
support and protection, through the darkness of 
the night, gained an opportunity of escape from 
the disaster of that battle. And Saif Addoulat 
went after them, and, by means of the cutting 
arguments of the sword, obtained retribution and 

* i. e. So as to add his wings to his centre and form one 
heavy body, whereby to break through the army of Sabaktagin, 
before the troops of Mahmud should arrive, 
t The prsenomen here illegible. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTA^GiN. 163 

satisfaction from them, and, putting them to death, 
made a free gift of them to the beasts and birds 
(Verse) 

" So they turned their back, to those who were cutting them 
down. Very soon was their boasted eminence reduced to small 
particles." 

And that day Saif-Addoulat-Mahmiid exhi- 
bited the manifest signs of manliness^ and the 
opening of the gates of bravery and valour, so that 
the record thereof remains in the volume of time, 
and in the books of nations ; and if Rustain and 
Isfandiyar had been witnesses of his deeds, they 
would have desired to be imitators of his way of 
handling the sword and the spear, and would have 
cried out " Wonderful," at the sight of the exploits 
of his hand and of his arm, and would have clapped 
their hands when beholding his strength and his 
heroism. 

And Abii-AH and Fdlk went from that route to 
the fortress Kaldt,* and this fortress is a fortress 
which is joined to the girdle of the sky, and is so 
lofty that no bird would be able by flight to take 
refuge in this heavenly eminence, from the vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, and so high that the fancy could 
never reach the sublimity of its threshold.f 

* A strong fortress near Tus. 

t Four lines of verse upon the height of this fortress 
omitted. 

M 2 



164 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

And the Amir of Ttis hospitably entertained 
them some days, until they became acquainted 
with the exact state of the army, and the number 
of those who were living or dead, and the remnant 
which had escaped in safety from that massacre 
joined them. And AbTi-Ali had consigned to the 
Amir of Tiis some elephants which had been taken 
at the battle of Nishaptir, and he possessed them. 
And Abu-Al-'bn-Bagrar and other chieffcans, who 
had been imprisoned by Nasir-Addln, wrote a 
letter to the Amir and represented as follows : 
" Naslr-Addln hath admitted us to pay our respects 
to him, and hath caressed us, and given us some 
sure hope that he would release us all, on condition 
that thou- wouldst restore unto his service some 
elephants which are in thy possession." They 
therefore supplicated that, he would return a 
favourable answer to their request, and by means 
of this gratification procure their release. And 
Abii-Ali earnestly exerted himself to offer this gate 
of reconciliation, and to procure the accomplish- 
ment of this request. And he and Fdlk marched 
forward on the road to Abiward, and quickly 
changed their position from those narrow passes 
unto the open space of the desert. And the Amir 
sent those elephants to Naslr-Addin, and for that 
service requested him to be propitious, and suc- 
ceeded so well, that by means of so novel a service, 
and so remarkable an offering, he was favourably 



MEMOIRS OP sabaktagIn. 165 

accepted by Naslr-Addin, and his dignity for this 
reason was confirmed. And Abiil-Fath-Basti, in 
commemorating this, says thus (Verse) 

" Behold what Abu-Ali hath come unto ! Thou didst see 
one who has the heart of Kais. He rebelled against the 
Sultan, and there hurried against him men who could expel 
Abfi Kabis. He arose in the morning Tus the wise, he became 
X&s at noon, and little Tils* in the eyening." 

And when Abd-Ali and Fdlk arrived at Abi- 
ward, Fdlk marched away by the way of Sirkhas, 
without the advice and without the knowledge of 
Abii- Ali, and Abii-Ali sent, and said " Even if you 
have become weary of my society I will by no 
means separate from you, and I wiU continue my 
friendship with you, with my usual liberality, zeal, 
and generosity ; so that every measure which takes 
place may conduce to the concord of both parties, 
and to the satisfaction of one and the other ; and 
if you think it proper, or regard it as convenient, 
I will be a follower of your standard, and a com- 
rade of your army ; and I will obtain the Hght of 
knowledge from your brilliant guidance and direc- 
tion ; and behold ! I am proceeding in thy rear." 
And Fd,lk halted until Abii-AH came up to him, 
and they proceeded to Sirkhas,t and from that 
time set forward to Meru. 

And when Nasir-Addln heard the news of 

* Probably alluding to the petty chieftain of Tlis. 
t Or Sirakhs. 



166 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

them he dismissed the Amlr-Salf-Addoulat to 
go to Nishapiir, and took upon himself the 
charge of settling their affairs and healing their 
differences.* And he went in their track, and they 
took the way of the desert unto Amil-Shatt,t in 
the confident expectation that Naslr-Addln, on 
account of the number of his troops and the super- 
abundance of his army, would not be able to pass 
over Tallies which were without any fruits, and 
would find no possible means of transporting his 
troops through a place where neither water or 
fodder were to be obtained. And when they arri- 
ved at Amil-Shatt they took the method of apo- 
logy, and of humility, and of supplication, before 
his Highness M^Hk-Niih, and Abii-AH named 
Abul-Hazin-Kasir for this journey, and Faik 
named the priest Abd-Arrahmdn, and both went, 
and earnestly exerted themselves to avoid the 
blame, and to obtain the approbation of the prince, 
and they said, " No amiable person can ever com- 
pare any excellence with the peculiar generosity 
and beneficence of the Eling ; and the King, with 
respect to the brilliancy of his kindness, imitates 
God himself, who through the perfection of his 
greatness, and power, and majesty lets fall the veil 
of concealment over the faults of his disobedient 
servants, and with respect to their punishment 

* Ironically. 

t Amol Shatt, or Amil Shatt, Amol on the river-bank. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 167 

deals gently and mildly, until they perceive what 
is the right way, and become convinced of the 
hatefulness of their deeds and their actions ; and 
when they enter into the gate of repentance, and 
religion, and stand on the foot of acknowledge 
ment and confession, He accepts their repentance, 
and looks upon their deeds and their words with 
an eye of compassion and forgiveness ; and, accord- 
ing to that text (of the Koran), ' He who among 
you commits folly, and then repents, and does well, 
will be pardoned, for God is for^ving and merci- 
ful.' Let him (the Prince) give unto them the 
royal sash and diploma of God's forgiveness for all 
that has passed. And it is not concealed that 
Abil-AH and Fd,lk are two Servants of his High- 
ness, and although they may have the stigma of 
rebellion, and have acted treacherously in belying 
former favours, yet the enlightened mind of the 
Prince hath seen their distressed condition, and 
hath found means fitly to requite, and to punish 
them, so that they now know the value of the 
favour of the good-wiU of his Highness. And old 
servants and hereditary attendants are like' tame 
pigeons, which, although they may fly into the 
distant atmosphere, and make the circuit of the 
world, end their flight by returning to their accus- 
tomed home, and place their heads upon their own 
nests. And thus these men have placed their hope 
of hopes upon the generosity and the compassion 



168 MBMOIBS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

of his Highness, and through death and the sword 
have learned caution, and now say, ' Although our 
offence is great, the generosity of our Prince is 
greater ; and although the field of our apology is 
narrow, the plain of his Majesty's beneficence and 
kindness is extensive ; so that he will act in this 
respect according to his extreme generosity and 
liberal disposition, and will pardon with a munifi- 
cence (which can only be described in the words of 
the text), ' There shall be no deficiency or want 
amongst you now.' (And we trust) that if he will 
turn away his head from our errors and misdeeds, 
and turn upon us the head of reconciliation and 
mercy, that his slaves wUl, on their part, take hold 
of the thread of duty again, and their deficiencies 
being forgiven, will fulfil the usual course of ser- 
vice.' " 

When this letter arrived they seized the courier 
of Fdik, and detained him in a dungeon, and they 
greatly caressed the messenger of Abu-All, and 
protracted his stay by every fair means ; and they 
commanded that for the present he should proceed 
to the country about Jurjan, and in that place take 
up his residence, until the illustrious decision, and 
the settlement .of his allowances should be com- 
pleted. And they wrote a letter to Mamur-Ibn- 
Mahmiid, and to the governor of Jurj^, that he 
should grant him a generous rank; and should 
settle upon a firm foundation his needful allow- 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAqIn. 169 

ances and payments, until the arrangements 
should be settled respecting his attendants and 
troops. 

Fdlk, upon receiving the news of the rejection 
of his apology and of the conduct exhibited towards 
his messenger, was in a rage, and he placed his 
heart upon this proceeding, namely, that he should 
pass over the Jihiin, and take refuge with Ihk- 
Kh^n, and should be protected by the number of 
his troops and his servants. And he said to Abii- 
Ali, "The object of that message to thee from 
Jurj^n, and of the kindness displayed to you, was 
to infuse hesitation into the distinguished nature, 
and to remove the links of our unity and friendship. 
And if you make but a single glance of your eye 
upon the deceptions which we have committed in 
this kingdom, and the crimes which in former days 
we have excited, it can never be concealed from 
your discernment that to desire safety, or to seek 
for pardon, or connivance, is to hammer cold iron, 
and to cast yourself through the blandishments of 
art into the snare of ruin. I am convinced that it 
would be better for thee not to relinquish your 
connexion with me, and not to bring yourself into 
a serious contingency, or to turn your head from 
the strait path of good counsel and firmness, and 
be thus beguiled by a crafty truce, and incline to 
the flattery and blandishment of the enemy, (con- 
trarv to that verse of the Kordn), 'Let not that 



l70 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGiN. 

which thou seest in the face deceive thee, the real 
truth hes beneath the ribs.' " 

The Lord, however, bound up the sight of the 
eyes of Abii-AJi, and made his ears deaf and 
incapable of hearing good counsel and advice, so 
that he neglected Folk's proposal of mutual assist- 
ance, and determined upon the plan of separating 
himself from him, and, like a person who causes 
his own death, threw himself, by his own means, 
into the trap of misfortune (Verse) 

" There are no means whereby a man may remove that event 
which Grod appointeth, and there are no means of repelling that 
which God willa. 

" When fortune becomes black to a man whatever he may 
do he will never escape it." 

From that residence, then, they separated from 
each other, and F41k passed the Jihiln, with a 
design of gaining Ilik-Khdn. Then they sent 
forward the Chamberlain Yaktuziin,"^^ from Buk- 
hdrS., to follow him, and they encountered, near 
Nasafjf but each evaded one another, without 
engaging or attacking. And F4Ik met with a 
most favourable reception from Ilik-Kh4n, and he 
was kindly looked upon, receiving honourable rank 
and distinguished station ; and the Kh4n caressed 
him with various distinctions and marks of gene- 
rosity, and was highly satisfied and contented with 

* Or Baktuzun. t Nakhshib. 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGIn. 171 

his arrangement of affairs, and Ms settlement of 
business. 

Thus Abu- All lost the right road and remained 
excluded from the aid of grace, and fate sewed up 
his eyesight, so that he remained careless with 
regard to the weighty affairs and the unfortunate 
businesses (which demanded his attention) and, in 
escaping from the burning forge of fortune, cast 
himself into the burning forge of injustice and 
sorrow. And these verses aptly describe his con- 
dition (Verse) 

" "When God willetli to fulfil his pleasure upon a man, even 
although he he possessed of good judgment, and acuteness, and 
clearsightedness, and skill, whereby to transact any affairs 
which occur to him, yet, when the effects of destiny oppose 
him, G-od anoints him with folly and blinds his eyes, and 
understanding wastes away from his intellect ; but, when God 
hath fully accomplished his will with regard to him, he re- 
storeth to him his understanding, that he may take example 
from what has happened." 

And Abii-Ali, when -he had gone a thousand 
marches, on the road to Juijdn, came to Saf, which 
is a village near Khwarizm, on the western side. 
Upon his arrival Abu-Abd-AUah, King of Khwa- 
rizm, sent messengers, and begged to be excused for 
his remissness in not dispatching an Istakbdl, and 
promised thuti, namely, " To-morrow I will myself 
personally present my respects, and offer my apo- 
logy, and will be forward in the fulfilment of my 



172 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTA-GIn. 

duty." And when the night came on he sent two 
thousand cavalry and infantry, that they, coming 
upon the army whilst encamped, in the darkest 
hour of the night, might attack them and might 
clear the face of the earth from his filthiness. And 
Abii-All Khali, who was one of the officers of 
Abu-Ali-Simjur, tells this story: "At the time 
when T went with a letter to the King of Khwa- 
rizm, before the dispute which took place between 
them, Abu-Abd-AHah, amongst other good advice 
which he had sent to Abil-Ali, said, ' Convey to 
him this verse, which is one of the verses of Ibn- 
Almiliz, in order that it may be the model of his 
affairs and the tendency of his actions (Verse) 

" ' If thou canst manage to obtain an opportunity against 
thy enemy arrange not thy exertions except thereto. For, if 
thou dost not quickly occupy that gate, by that gate thy enemy 
will come to thee, with blood afterwards, and the turn wiU be 
to the other way.' 

" And Abii-Ali received favourably that advice 
from him, and accepted the proposition contained 
in his question, but forgot the time of the descent 
of misfortune and of the occurrence of distress, and 
did not consider that we ought not to support 
ourselves upon a wall whose foundation has been 
injured, and we ought to avoid the friendship of 
one who has a scar from a wound given by thee. 

"And, through the heavenly decree, these verses 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 173 

were effaced from his mind, so that he went to the 
abode of lions and to the haunts of hyaenas, in the 
sleep of carelessness, and relinquished all marks of 
self-possession and perseverance, so that when the 
grey streaks of dawn were drawn over the night, 
a rattling from the sound of fifes and drums fell 
like an earthquake upon the picket-guards of Abii- 
Ali, and they seized the outer rampart of the 
castle, which was his private residence.* And he, 
with certain of his domestic slaves, came forth to 
repulse that body of men, and he asked one of the 
party what was the cause of that violence and 
onset. And he said, ' The King of Khuwarizm 
hath given a royal order to capture you. Now if 
you send a reply, with a friendly submission and 
mild obedience, he will be the better inclined and 
you wiU be able to extinguish the fury which you 
have lighted up within him, and to put an end to 
the sorrow which has disappointed your wishes, 
and then you will be nearer to the hope of safety 
and to the means of security ; but, if not, we shall 
take you and your companions in the snare of 
violence, and will drag you disgracefully before the 
King of Khwarizm.' Abii-Ali, in the extremity of 
his distress, drew the blanket of this disgrace over 
his head, and became obedient to this decision and 
submitted. And one of the captains and generals 

* Literally his sleeping apartment. 



174 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

of that troop took him upon the crupper, and con- 
veyed him into the presence of the King of 
Khwarizm, on the morning of Sunday, the first 
day of the full moon, in the month of Ramadhan, 
in the year 386. And the King commanded that 
he should be imprisoned in one of his fortresses, 
and he seized the chief men of his army, and the 
most eminent of his followers, and put them all in 
chains and placed fetters upon them, and sent a 
crier into the city, to proclaim thus, ' As to every 
one of the followers of Abii-All abiding in that 
place we have given you permission to shed their 
blood, and we command you not to leave one 
alive.' Thus, as if they were victims and devoted 
sacrifices, they killed them separately from each 
other, like the letters of the alphabet, but some 
became dispersed, like fugitives, upon the hills and 
the plains and the mountains, and the Chamberlain 
Ilmangii escaped, with certain others, and came to 
the country of Jurjd,n. And when Mamiin- 
Mahmiid, Viceroy of JuijS,n, became aware of this 
state of things the fire of jealousy struck a spark 
in his mind, and confusion and vacillation of 
purpose obtained the mastery over him. But he 
assembled the regiments of the army and the bat- 
talions of his troops, and with great joy sent them, 
as well as a body of the residue of the servants of 
Abil-Ali, who had arranged themselves under the 
bridle of the obedience of Ilmangii, to the frontiers 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAGIW. 175 

of Khwdrismshdh, in order that they might be like 
a necklace around the city of K^t, which is the 
jewel* of Khwfi.rism8h4h, and enclose the army as 
it were in a snare, on every side. And they cut 
off the rear, and the soldiers and the followers of 
the King of Khwarizm, with the sword of punish- 
ment, and they killed some and compelled the 
others to disperse ; and they took the King of 
Khwarizm prisoner, and they put the fetters which 
were upon the foot of Abii-Ali upon his heels, and, 
in a twinkling of an eye, the condition of these 
two individuals became mutually changed, the 
Amir became prisoner and the prisoner became 
Amir, according to the text, ' With God it is 
easy.' 

" And they conveyed' Abii-All with great re- 
spect and veneration to Jurjdn, and they placed the 
King of Khwarizm, arrayed in the dress of humi- 
hation and in the robe of misfortune, upon a horse, 
and proceeded to Jurjan, and Mamiln set forth to 
meet Abii-Ali, and with great honour and venera- 
tion, and every mark of respect he came from 
Bost, and they offered to him magnificent gifts and 
much honour, and many presents, so that his con- 
dition and that of the remnant of his people 
became secure, and all that is unpleasant was 
withdrawn. And they made for him an entertain- 

* Capital. 



1 76 MEMOIKS OF SABAKTAGIN. 

ment and a feast, such as was not usual in that or 
any other age ; and they produced wine, and by 
wine all the causes of sorrow, and the effects of 
strife, were removed. And when Mamiin arrived, 
and began to exhibit friendship and attachment by 
the service of the knee, and when some time had 
elapsed,* and the strength of the wine made 
some impression, they introduced the King of 
Khwarizm, upon the back of a slave, and addressed 
some words to him, and began to blame him 
extremely ; he did not answer a word, but held down 
his head in confusion, and at last they cut off his 
head in the midst of the assembly, with one stroke 
of the scimitar, and made his white head, together 
with all his attendants, deeply black. Thus was 
accomplished the text, ' God doeth all that he 
willeth and executeth all that he designeth.' 

"And Khwarazm was quietly yielded up to 
Mamiin, and was added to the roll-account of his 
divan, and annexed to his other provinces and 
countries. And he began to open the gate of 
intercession on behalf of Abii^All, with His High- 
ness of Bukhara, and earnestly requested the 
acceptance of his repentance and conversion, and 
his relinquishment of his former bad conduct. 
/ " And the Prince Niih, in order fully to accom- 
plish his wish, and to fulfil his object, and to for- 

* Or when some rounds of wine had passed. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIN. . 177 

ward his supplication to heaven, issued a royal 
letter, similar to the volume of prayers addressed 
to the Supreme Court (of Heaven). And he sum- 
moned Abii-AK before him, and painted the secret 
determinations of the tablet of his mind, with 
various kinds Of deceitful assurances of security, 
and made the volume of his brain a ground for 
imposing the colours of deceit and fiction, until like 
the moth he became destroyed by approaching the 
fire, and laid his face on the bed of his own ruin, 
and the wonderful text, ' In the going forth to 
battle of those whose slaughter is written, even 
upon their couch,' became accomplished in his 
affairs ; for when he arrived at Bukh^rd, the Vizir 
Abdallah-'bn-Aziz, and the various ranks of his 
chief ofiicers and chamberlains came forth to meet 
him, with the usual congratulations, and when he 
arrived at the court before the palace, he descended 
and kissed the ground, the chief officers being be- 
hind him, and through conscious shame, and the 
knowledge that he had been ungrateful for the 
favours he had received, he held down his head ; 
and Ilmangd, and the other generals, and his bro- 
thers and chiefs, brought him down and conveyed 
him to pay his respects to the throne ; and the 
King* ordered that they should take them aU, and 
bind them in chains as prisoners, and should lay 

* Or Amir — the sovereign of Bukhara still prefers the title 
of Amir to that of King." — BuaNE's Travels in BuMidrd. 

N 



178 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIN. 

the hand of plunder and rapine upon his followers 
and servants ; and they plundered all their baggage, 
and their arms, and their cattle. And in this way- 
was the volume of the life of Abii-Ali finally sealed, 
and his royal ambition, which had attempted to fly 
into the atmosphere of greatness, fell into the snare 
of misfortune and disgrace, and his wild-horse dis- 
position, which had twisted out its neck from the 
collar of good sense, became bound by the skilful- 
ness of the wise ; and the tiger of pride who had 
challenged the lion of the sky, was taken prisoner 
by the hand of the fox of deceit, and by the fraud 
of fortune, and the eagle of the standard of his 
prosperity, which had boasted itself with the celes- 
tial eagle in the highest zenith, became turned 
through grief at the day of reverses towards the 
Nadir of misfortune, ' But God is merciful who 
hath spoken, and his word is truly most excellent' 
(Verse) 

" ' If man be not content with that which God enables him 
to possess, and if he does not come to the command which is 
shown him ; if he wonders at wonderful (great) things and 
geeks advantage therefrom, and pride folds around him, and he 
seeks benefit thereby : then it solicits him, and his conversation 
becomes evil ; then he may laugh a day, but he will weep a 
year.' 

" And at this time Nasir-Addin was posted at 
Menl, and when the news of that which had be- 
fallen Abii-All came to him he went to Balk, and 
a letter came to him from the Prince Nilh, telling 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 179 

him that ' Ilek-khan had come upon the frontiers 
of his territory, and designed to conquer it ; and he 
had pressed the collectors of the revenue to give up 
to him the revenues received. It would therefore be 
consonant with thy kindness and virtue that thou 
shouldest bring to perfection that good conduct 
which thou hast hitherto displayed, and that thou 
shouldest embroider with a border of pearls that 
robe of zeal which thou hast so firmly held in 
arrainging the affairs of our province, by fulfilling 
this enterprise ; and that thou shouldest once more 
display thy army in repulsing this khdn ; and that 
by the hand of thy good counsel and kindness thou 
shouldest roll back this ball of anxiety.' 

" (Hereupon) Naslr-Addin assembled his chief 
officers, and the experienced and ingenious men of 
his Court, and requested them to explain whether 
this proposal was wrong, or honourabloj or right ; 
but upon this point their notions were different, 
and their thoughts were various. He therefore set 
them all on one side> and took counsel from God's 
blessing alonOj and the rain of his jealousy rushed 
down, and the force of veneration and regard be- 
came excited within him, and he demanded that 
the affair whose foot by reason of weakness had 
stumbled should stand firmly, and that the build- 
ing which had been erected for the support of the 
kingdom (and which had become diminished by 
negligence) should be restored. 

N 2 



180 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 

" And he summoned the secretary, and he dis- 
patched a royal order for collecting an army from 
all quarters of the provinces of Khurasan and 
Ghuzna,* and Zabulistan, and commanded them to 
march forth and set forward. And he marched to 
the villages which are called the private villages, 
between Kash and Nasaf, in order that the armies 
of Jurjin, and Khatal, and Saganyan, and other 
parts might join him ; and Saif-Addoulat-Mahmiid 
proceeded from Nishaptir with an army arrayed in 
order and a large number of attendants. 

" And when Ilek received information of their 
number he sent to Naslr-Addin several of his 
senators and eminent officers, and gave them a 
letter which they were to convey, and they said, 
' Ilek-Khan says thus — between us there ought to 
be a brotherhood for the faith, and since our days 
and our hours pass away, they should be occupied 
in the sacred warfare against those infidel Turks 
and Hindds, and in illustrating the rights of the 
faith, and in procuring victory to religion, and in 
prostrating the idolators and the malicious, and- in 
displaying our hatred by war with the wicked and 
the evil doers. Now Niih hath seated himself in 
the midst of a peaceful state, and is squandering 

* Is it probable that the word Qhazna may have been 
derived from the ancient Oahaza, the h passing into v and w, 
and then dropping, and the affix na being added, e. g., Qdbaza, 
Gawaia, Gaza, Ghazna? 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 181 

tKe revenues of Khurasdn upon his amusements 
and dissipations ; and gives not any protection to 
Islam, nor any preservation or defence to the fron- 
tiers, it would therefore be more convenient that 
we shoxxld make this country free from him, and 
that we should convert the sources of wealth to the 
service of the faith and the aid of Isld,m, and its 
supremacy ; and that we should turn aside (divert 
to other objects) those firm ranks (of yours) which 
have been arrayed to attack our troops, and that 
we should enter into a treaty for the mutual sup- 
port of each other, and that we should found a 
bulwark against our adversaries. And to bring 
our followers into serious contingencies, the hard- 
ship of which results to us, and the advantage to 
others, is far removed from the judgment of good 
sense, and the high-road of justice. And I myself 
will never free myself from the obligations of reli- 
gion, since during my whole life I have drawn the 
sword in the sacred warfare, and in the countries 
of the infidels have on this path sought to reckon 
up renown. Let me draw it before the face of 
•IsMm, for safety and fortune in the other world are 
due only to the cutting off of iniquity, and the re- 
jection of evil, for therein the indulgent Verse wiU 
be fulfilled : ' Though thou hast extended thy hand 
upon me, in order to kill me ; I will not extend 
my hand against thee to kill thee ; since I fear 
God, the ruler of both worlds.' 



182 MBMOIES OF SABAKTAgIn. 

" Naslr-Addln made answer as follows, * Prince 
Niih. has a great kingdom, and Ms ancestors have 
always possessed established rights over the Maho- 
metan people. And the Princes of Khurasfi,n and 
of the neighbouring provinces have ever been 
subject to those ancient Lords, and to that noble 
family. And when his allies and his servants 
rebelled against him, and betook themselves tO the 
way of perverseness, he relied upon my support 
and depended upon my assistance, and I gave my 
time to the service and to the protection of his 
government, and to the strengthening the frontiers 
of his province. And I became firmly attached to 
him, and if he had wished that my life, and fortune, 
and army should have been thrown away to the 
winds, for the purpose of protecting his safety, 
and strengthening his kingdom, and assisting his 
friends, and appeasing his enemies, I should not 
have declined the fulfilment of his views. And I 
never gave place unto the Kings of his province, 
but entirely according to the rules of the Divine 
law, and according to the directions of sacred de- 
crees, my mind is of necessity devoted to his ser- 
vice in repulsing his ill-wishers and enemies. And 
to repulse also thy rebellion and disobedience from 
the area of his kingdom, and from the circumference 
of his possessions, my pledged mind regards as a 
duty, according to the declaration of the glorious 
Koran, " If one of the two rebel against the other 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 183 

then fight ye him who rebels until he die, accord- 
ing to God's word." ' 

" When Ilek-Khan heard this answer he began 
to make preparation for the aiFair, and he sent 
heralds to all parts of the provinces, and to all the 
Turkish tribes, and collected an army so great that 
on account of its number neither the mountains or 
the plains could be warmed by the sun, so as to; 
produce fruit, and the expanse of the earth became 
narrow, through their greatness and their bulk 
(Verse) 

" ' The torrent displaced the marble stones in the halls. 
" ' One sees them prostrating themselves humbly at your 
feet.' 

"And Naslr-Addin caused swift couriers to 
hasten unto Prince Niih, and said, ' It is necessary 
(for you) to assemble the troops, and to march on 
the road of celerity, in order to stand up firmly, in 
answer to the disaffected, which will cause a double 
adyantage to the standard of his Highness ; one, 
that through the noble presence, strength of heart, 
and alacrity in movement^ and avidity to resist, 
may be increased unto the; nobles of the state ; and, 
the second, that through the princely splendour 
and royal magnificence, and the good fortune of 
the happy umbrella, confusion and weakness may 
be caused unto the enemy.' 

:; "The Prince Niih consulted the Vizir Abd- 
Allah-'bn-Azlz, and since, on account of his 



184 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIk, 

memory of past events, ttis Vizir was suspicious 
and timid, he said to the King, ' Naslr-Addln 
possesses an innumerable army, with a staff, arms, 
abundant splendour, perfect decorations, a company 
of fine men, and a concourse of lieutenants, whilst 
his Highness has no suitable equipment. It 
would be a perfect misery to be in the society or 
the neighbourhood of one, who in imposing appear- 
ance, and in number, so royally outstrips, both in 
quantity and quality, the Prince. The way is this : 
Let a number of the Princes and Lords, and dis- 
tinguished chiefs of the Court, and also a number of 
the common soldiers, attach themselves to his ser- 
vice, and let his Highness give orders that they all 
should become obedient followers of his standard ; 
and let the Prince employ apologies, and use the 
means of making excuses accepted, and ask pardon 
of their Highnesses.' * Thus did the Vizir exer- 
cise all his judgment in managing and dealing with 
his master. The Prince N\ih was purchased by his 
cajolery, and became cheated by his hypocrisy and 
enchantments, and he accordingly wrote a letter to 
Nasir-Addln, and sent the army for his service. 
Naslr-Addin was satisfied that the cause of this 
refusal and opposition was the treachery and the 
powerful influence, and management of the Vizir, 
and his object and design was to the following 
effect : that the exertions which N^sir-Addln had 
* i. e. Sabaktagin and his son Mahmud. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 185 

made in collecting an army, and in completing their 
equipment, and arranging their march, and promo- 
ting their honour, might be wasted, he provided 
therefore Saif-Addoulat-Mahmiid with twenty- 
thousand cavalry, and sent him to Bukh^r^, in 
order that he might bring Niih to co-operate in his 
measures, whether willing or unwilling, and subject 
him to his own will. And he nominated Abii- 
Nasr-'bn-Abi-Zaid to be Vizir, and he sent an 
army with him to Bukhara.* And Abd- Allah- Aziz 
when he received intelligence of these affairs felt 
that the world had become unpropitious to him, 
and sought some place to which he might escape, 
and took refuge in flight, and remained in conceal- 
ment. And Abu-Nasr-'bn-Abi-Zaid came to his 
Highness, and the PHnce Niih, in deference to the 
judgment of Nasir-Addln greatly honoured him, 
and confirmed the appointment of Vizir to him ; 
and he displayed both efficiency and skill in the 
arrangement of those affairs, and added splendour 
to the office of Vizir, and entered upon his office 
with firmness, and succeeded in the best manner 
in repairing and settling those evils which had 
emerged under the administration of 'bn-Aziz. 
And Abul-Fath-Basti in describing this event says 
as follows (Verse) 

* This proceeding of Sabaktagin virtually deposed Niih and 
ultimately secured the throne of Bukhara to the family of 
Ghazna. 



186 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

'" I could have sacrificed myself for the venerable Abu-Nasir. 
" ' He who, in giving joy to all, dispersed the darkness of 
sorrow. 

" ' The sharpness of his pen was never blunted. 

" ' Although, in war, the sword blunts, 

" ' He could be concise but not bare ; 

" ' He could be sublime but not wearying,' &c. 

"And in like manner he wrote these lines at 
the time when the office of V^izir was confirmed to 
him (Yerse) 

" ' Carry out my word (I say) to every one who seeks for 
patronage, 

" ' And to every one who hopes not to fail' in his object, 

" ' Approach the glorious venerable Shaikh, 

" ' The Vizir of Vizirs, Ahmad-'bn-Muhammad,' &c. 

" And Nasir-Addin wrote a detailed account to 
Prince Niih, and made him believe the certainty of 
the deceitfulness of 'bn-Aziz, and his inclination to 
the party of Abii-AJij and his decleinsion from their 
alliance and from the treaty of mutual assistance, 
and requested that he would deliver him again into 
his hands. And this request met with a favourable 
reply, and before the arrival of Saif-Addoulat he 
gave up 'bn-AzIz, apd he sent Ilmang^, Chamber- 
lain of Abii-Ali to him, and he sent 'bn-Aziz to 
the castle of Jardin, and detained him in prison, 
in a place the horror of which if he beheld even in 
a dream, life would have become wretched, and the 
world to his eyes dark and miserable. 

" And, in the midst of these events, Ilek-Khan 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. JSf 

arrived, with the tribes and cavalry of Turkistdn, 
together with his followers, over against Mawaral- 
nahar, and sent a messenger to Naslr-Addln, and 
proposed to him words of peace and the offer of a 
truce ; and he, on account of the inertness and 
indecision of Nilh, gave in to peace. And a con- 
vention was concluded between them, to the effect 
that Kiitiim should be the actual frontier and 
repelling boundary of the two kingdoms, and that 
neither power should seek to augment his territory 
beyond that settled point, and neither should 
oppose this condition or infringe this treaty. 

" And, with respect to the city of Samarkand, 
they, through the intercession of Ilek-Khan, and 
in order to supply the claims of his old service, 
confirmed it to Fdlk. And, by way of confirma- 
tion of this, he received a written document, wit- 
nessed by the Imdms and senators of Mawaral- 
nahar. 

" And the two (princes) turned their face from 
each other, and each went unto his own province, 
and Nasir-Addin* came unto Balkh, and Saif- 
Addoulatf to Nishapiir, and the Prince Niih 
became happily freed from the contentions of the 
army of the Turks, and from the anxiety of heart 
caused by them. 

"And Abu-Nasr-'bn-Abi-Zaid became occupied 

* Sabaktagfn. t Mahmfid. 



188 MEMOIRS OP SabaktagIn. 

in the arrangement of the affairs of the Vizd,rat, and, 
on account of the deUverance and freedom of the 
provinces, and the return of the sources of revenue, 
and the (change in the former) weakness and 
ruined state of the revenue collections, applied 
himself to strengthen and to confirm and settle the 
means of tribute. And his time passed away in 
expediencies and contrivances, and he washed 
away blood with blood.* And when fifty months 
had elapsed from the time of his investiture with 
the ofiice of Vizir certain of his young guards laid 
hands upon him and killed him. And Prince Nuh 
Was extremely confounded and disheartened at this 
event, and, on account of the (consequent) ill-will 
of Nasir-Addln, and the probability that he might 
be suspected of this assassination, and that the 
imputation of being gratified with this deed might 
fall upon him. He sought some means of escape, 
and displayed every mark of sympathy and sorrow, 
and came forth from the royal palace, and offered 
prayers for his soul, and arrested those young men, 
and put them all to death with the utmost severity. 
And amongst various poems in commemoration of 
this Vizir that by Abii-Nasr says thus (Verse) 

" ' The hearts of men are sick with grief, and the soul of 
glory and piety is afflicted with disease. 
" ' "Why does the world grieve for thee ? 

* Eepaired exaction with exaction. 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 189 

" But that by losing thee thou hast left the world an 
orphan.' " 



AccorNT or ABrL-KAsiM SimjIje, Bbothee or Abu-Al!, and 
his clectimstanoes, aetee his secession teom his 
Beothee. 

Abul-Kasim, after his separation from Abil- 
All, remained retired in a corner, until the flag of 
Nasir-Addin reached Khurasan. Then he betook 
himself to his service and requested to be allowed 
the happiness of following his standard. His pro- 
posal met with the most favourable reception pos- 
sible from Naslr-Addln, and he fully supplied him 
with those marks of generosity and of respect 
which were due to his efficiency. And he wrote a 
despatch to the Prince, and enlarged upon his 
worth, and requested for him the gift of the 
province of Kohistan, which had been an ancient 
part of the territories of the family of Simjiir. 
And the Prince fuUy complied with this request, 
and he sent to him an ornamented royal dispatch, 
containing the grant of the province of Kohistan, 
adding various honourable titles and valuable 
dresses of honour, and he accepted his services and 
his obedience with an eye of favour and with 
expressions of praise. And he took up his resi- 
dence in his province with comfort of mind and 
quietness of heart, until the time when Naslr- 
Addin called upon him to repress the assemblage 



190 MEMOIRS^OF SABAKTAGIn. 

and to humble the numbers, and to conquer the 
pretensions and the excesses of the enemies of the 
State ; but he, through suspicion, and fear, and 
alarm at consequences, and on account of his con- 
nexion, as a kinsman, with the affairs of his 
brother, excused himself, and sought for pretexts 
for holding back, and exhibited repugnance from 
complying with that request. But, although he 
knew that an opposition to the judgment and a 
hesitation in coalescing with the majority would 
be attended with a noxious issue and an evil result, 
he engaged with the rebels, and, because he found 
the plain of Khurasan empty, he proceeded to 
Nishapur. Here AbTi-lSTasr-'bn-Mahmiid, the 
Chamberlain, joined him, and both of them 
together betook themselves to crimes and malice, 
and to seek for money, and to annoy the tax-col- 
lectors, and to knead the provinces (in exactions) 
and to torment the subjects. And when Naslr- 
Addln received intelligence of these proceedings 
he wrote to Saif-Addoulat that he should set 
forward to Nishapiir, and he sent his brother with 
suitable forces to his assistance, in order that they 
might examine into the state of affairs, and, before 
their wickedness became of serious consequence, 
and before the fire which they lighted should burst 
into a flame, might effectually put a stop to that 
cause of anxiety. He was not content with setting 
them in motion and sending them, but he himself 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAGIn. 191 

marched fortli from BaUfh and went in their rear. 
Saif-Addoulat dispatched Begrajak-Beg* to run 
after them, and Abul-Kasim, from dread of those 
forces, and alarm at that army, and fear at those 
two warriors, drew over his back the shield of 
flight, and took the road of retreat, and came to 
the confines of Jurj^n. And Saif-Addoulat, 
having completely recovered himself from this dif- 
ficulty, respecting Abul-Kasim and his companion, 
and having enabled Khurasd,n to become quite free 
from the effects of their malice, came with Beg- 
rajak to the Court of Naslr-Addin, and they 
devoted themselves anew to his service. 

And at the time of the stay of Nasfr- Addin at 
Balkh there arrived messengers, on the part of 
Fakhr-Addoulat, who thus entered upon the com- 
mencement of writing correspondence, and sought 
a favourable reception, by means of many gifts and 
presents, and various kinds of the commodities of 
Irdk, and exhibited an earnest zfeal for affection, 
sincerity, and kindness. And, the Amir Naslr- 
Addln, in order to requite these benefits, doubly 
performed various acts of kindness, and sent Abd- 
Allah, the scribe, on a journey to Fakhr-Addoulat, 
and conveyed unto him large packages of the 
valuable goods of Khurasdn, with six elephants of 
a perfect shape. But some intimated unto Fakhr- 

* Brother of Sabaktagin. 



192 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

Addoulat, by way of exciting his suspicion, that 
Abd- Allah, the scribe, was occupied in the Court 
in spying into affairs and in making himself 
acquainted with proceedings, and in stirring up 
strife with the chiefs of the army, and he thus 
incurred an unfavourable opinion, and he wrote an 
uncivil reply to Nasir-Addin, and said, " A mes- 
senger ought to be the interpreter of thy mind and 
of thy royal Court, but the messenger whom thou 
has sent hither appears to be a speaker of hypo- 
crisy and an agent in discord, and, just like a 
serpent, he has shown himself to be a most conspi- 
cuous perpetrator of malice, and his craftiness in 
drinking up benefits, and his readiness both to 
speak and to act wickedness in a corner, hath 
become notorious in the palace." And these 
words were undoubtedly written in reference to his 
disposition, namely, " He is one who wishes not 
to recognize that a royal throne is not maintained 
in the secrecies of earth, but by using force against 
force, and power against power." 

And JSTdsir-Addln was vexed with these words, 
and the novelty of this state of affairs began to 
fade, and the foundations of that affection which 
they had began to rear up became broken. 

But, afterwards there arrived another messen- 
ger, on the part of Fakhr-Addoulat who brought 
certain writings, containing propositions for the 
commencement of friendship, and for the extension 



MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 193 

of the principles of concord, saying thus : " The 
Prince Niih, with regard to us, holds generously 
open the gates of regard, and the ways of bounty 
and he exhibits great zeal for an alliance, and for 
ties of affinity with his Highness. And we desire 
that the arrangement of this friendship, and the 
settlement of this alliance may be effected with the 
concurrence and consent of Ndsir-Addin, and that 
on both sides the paths of friendship and the high- 
road of deliverance from the vicissitudes of time 
and confusion of change may exist, since on our 
part we should regret nothing which we could do 
that might be possible and effectual for the preser- 
vation of the welfare and for the settlement of the 
prosperity of his Highness. And on account of the 
clear intellect, and the solid understanding, and the 
pure mind, and the unbounded generosity of Ndsir- 
Addin we feel confident that the families may be- 
come one, and the way of intercourse may be 
placed on unity, and that both our faults and our 
merits may be treated with sincere love and true 
affection, in order that we may become fixed and 
settled in friendship, and that the foundations of 
kindred and affection may cohere in duty and 
right." And Nisir-Addln heard these excellent 
professions with pleasure, and drew the mirror of 
sincerity over the face of the petitioner ; and in the 
weakness of his sincerity he returned this regard 
and kindness doubly, and their relations, fixed 



194 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

upon the foundation of the building of regard, and 
upon the well-arranged pillars of kindred, became 
free from and divested of doubt and offence. 

And when Abiil-Kasim-Ibn-Simjur, in his dis- 
tress, fled to the compassion of Fakhr-Addoulat, 
and took refuge in his dominions, and withdrew 
his tooth from the confines of Khurasin, he sum- 
moned him to the borders of Damg-han and 
Koms, and Jurj^n, and gave unto him the revenues 
of those provinces for wages and maintenance for 
himself and his army; but the conclusion of all his 
transactions, and his wealth, and his condition shall 
be unfolded in its proper place, please God. 

And after the affair of Nasr-Ibn-Zaid the Prince 
Niih sent a servant unto the court of Ndsir-Addin, 
and consulted him upon conferring the ofiice of 
Vlzlr upon some efficient person of the province, 
who should possess a persevering mind, addicted to 
the regulation of affairs. N4sir-Addin presented 
the right of making the selection to the (common) 
judgment of the kingdom ; and making use of the 
services of every one of the Vizirs attached to his 
Court, whose judgment might make the election, 
the choice fell upon Abul-Muzaffar-Bargashi, and 
he was accordingly honoured by his Highness with 
the robe which was fit for that good fortune, and 
suitablb to his efficiency, and he, in the dress of 
that office, displayed the marks of fortitude and 
the evidences of good sense, and established good 



MEMOIRS OP SABAKTAgIn, 195 

regulations, and was the happy occupant of that 
employment, until the close of the life of the Prince 
Niih. And the Amir Nasir-Addin came to Balkh, 
and the Amir Saif-Addoulat went to NishapUr; 
and Abul-Hasan-'bn-Abi-Ali-'bn Simjiir, esta- 
blished himself in the coasts of Kdin, and when 
intelligence of the flight of his father to T\is came 
to him he went to Ray, and had recourse unto the 
care of Fakhr- Addoulat ; and Fakhr-Addoulat in 
his behalf was forward in opening the gates of 
kindness and favour, and every month he paid in 
his name fifty thousand dirhems, by way of monthly 
(pay), and he continually maintained him with in- 
creased marks of generosity and honour, and acts 
of favour, and deeds of kindness. And he paid 
continual attention to him, partly in order to honour 
his noble descent, and partly in order to show forth 
that such a personage as the son of. Simjiir was in 
his service ; and he passed a long time before him 
upon the carpet of prosperity and the abode of 
comfort, until, the star of misfortune arose, and the 
miseries of evil luck cast him down from the canopy 
of safety and the roof of peace into the pit of 
grief and the noose of perplexity ; for, on account 
of the inclination which he felt for the object in 
view* he. went to Nishaprir, and he attached him- 
self to the imagination that he might be- able to 

* Doubtless to raise a rebeUion against Nuh. 

o 2 



196 MEMOIRS OF SABAKTAgIn. 

proceed by gentle degrees to his object, under the 
curtain of concealment and under the speech of 
secrecy ; but they quickly stripped off from him 
the skirt of concealment/ and drew him forth infa- 
mous and mortified, and sent him to Bukhird. 
And thus the decree of God reached its full accom- 
plishment with respect to him, and thus his condi- 
tion came to its end, by reason of the reputation of 
his father, and Um-Salmah, in his poem, writes 
these two verses, with veritable judgment (Verse) 

" Thougli one may abstain from sin, 

" Thougb he be an Ayesha in constancy before men, 

" God removes their understandings from the people, 

" When he would accomplish his decrees upon their chief." 

And the petty Amir of Tils remained in his 
rank amongst the body of the soldiers of Saif- 
Addoulat until he had fulfilled his designs respect- 
ing Mdwaralnahr, and until the Turkish affair was 
effectually settled ; and, in the midst of this affair, 
he (Saif-Addoulat) was so involved in alarm and 
terror from a dream, that he seized him (of Tiis), 
and the end of his history partook of the nature of 
the question of Abii-Ali and his other colleagues.* 

And when Nasir-Addin returned from the 
affair of Tiis, and had taken up his residence tran- 
quilly at Balkh, he there received intelligence of 
the affairs of Abii-All and his comrades. And 

* i. e. He was possibly put to death. 



MEMOIES OP SABAKTAGiN. 197 

immediately after this news an assemblage of mis- 
fortunes amongst the Princes and great men of 
Irak and Khurasan rapidly followed and succeeded 
one another on every side (Verse) 

" Mansions flow upon the site of mansions,* as if they had 
all arrived at the time of paying the last debt." 

The meaning of this expression is as follows : 
namely, that Mamiln-Ibn-Muhammad, whilst at an 
entertainment given by the general of his troops, 
was killed by the hand of his guards. And on the 
thirteenth day of the month Rajab, in the year 
387, A.H., the Prince Niih, after an illness of two 
or three days, went to God, and in the flower of 
his youth departed unto the residence of the grave. 
And they gave this Prince the surname of Amir- 
Riza, (or Ridha), (^. e,). Lord of Kindness. 

And a great man of the nobles of Naslr- 
Addin, who was the brother of his soul, together 
with several of his infant children, and servants 
and slaves removed to the mansion of eternity. 
And at last the, Amir became veryiU and confined 
to his bed. He entertained the hope of convales- 
cence and restoration, and became earnestly 
desirous of the water and the air of Ghazna, and 
sought healing and refreshment from the breezes 
of that region, but the decree of fate and the ordi- 

* Or (great) families pass away upon (great) families. 



198 DEATH OF SABAKTAGIn. 

nation of God did not permit that, and his desire 
never received its fulfilment, and he resigned his 
soul to Paradise in one of the resting-houses on 
his road. 

They transported his remains, in a litter, to 
Ghazna. And, -amongst the peculiar occurrences 
and wonderful incidents relating to him, Utbi, in 
his book, cites the following : " I was in attendance 
upon the Amir Nasir-Addin before the occurrence 
of his illness, and he, in the course of conversation 
with the Shaikh Abul-Fath-Busti said, 'We, in 
treating the diseases which occur to us and in esti- 
mating the maladies which happen to us, are like 
sheep — the first time that the sheep-shearer, in 
order to free them from their dirty wool, firmly 
binds their four feet, they see an action to which 
they have not been accustomed and are in a con- 
dition contrary to their usual wont, and they, 
therefore, in great trouble and in their extreme 
terror, cast themselves upon the ground and they 
are almost in despair of their life, and give 
themselves up for dead, until the shearer has com- 
pleted his business and released them : then repose 
finds its way into them and they feel rejoiced at 
the breath of life, and at the restoration of safety. 
But the second time that they fall into the hand 
of the shearer their condition is one between fear 
and hope, and as soon as they are released they 
forget that condition, and on that account their 



DEATH OF SABAKTAgIn. 199 

apprehension becomes less ; so that at the third 
time they regard it as a usual established custom, 
and are perfectly quiet. Ahd thus when the 
butcher takes hold of them, and binds them they 
by no means feel any terror or dread, but they 
remain in the weakest security, and in the most 
quiet and contented state, whilst he cuts through, 
their neck-viens witb the sv^ord of violence, and 
casts their gweet life to the winds. We in our 
various maladies, vicissitudes of sicknesses, and 
attacks of disease, are deceived and gladdened with 
the hope of restoration and recovery, and we be- 
come deaf and careless to the summons of death, 
until the noose of fate falls upon the neck, and the 
chain of destiny becomes firmly fastened upon us.' 
And between the utterance of this similitude, and 
the completion of the days of his life there did not 
intervene a space of forty days, and all men won- 
dered at the occurrence of this event, and at the 
surprising and unexpected verification of this 
sapng, that the decree of the Almighty should be 
so thoroughly accomphshed in this speech of his, 
and that this enlightened mind, which was Hie 
mirror of the secrets of mystery, and that blessed 
tongue which was the interpreter of the events of 
fortune, should so clearly express the appointments 
of destiny, and the certainty of the last hour, before 
the approach of his departure, or the time of his 
resting from the journey of life." 



200 DEATH OF SABAKTAgIN. 

And in the subsequent period, and in future 
times, a palace was built at the place where he 
died, and named Sahal-Abad,* and considerable 
sums were settled as an endowment for its support, 
and an entire acre of the plain was set out for 
the beautifying and adornment of the foundation, 
and for the columns to support that rare fabric and 
admirable structure ; but on account of the troubled 
state of the times it never was completed, and his 
sons declined to undertake its accomplishment, and 
thus it happened that it fell to ruin, and the pains 
which had been devoted to its foundation and sup- 
port were wasted. And a certain learned man 
passed by this palace, and made the following 
verses upon its appearance (Verse) 

" Heaven bless thee in this desert mansion. Thou hast 
lighted up in me my old regret,t and thou knowest that I pro- 
mised thee, a month since, a new (mansion) and it is not 
accomplished ; for changes of inclination have worn out thy 
dwelling in a month." 

And thus this unfortunate building, through 
the instability of earthly things and of deceitful 
fortune, became useless ; like a child-devouring 
crocodile, and hke the fox of fraud, and like the 
wolf of howling, and like' the shifting shadow, and 
like the unprofitable desert-mist (Verse) 

* Sahal Abad, Mansion of the Mild (?)— Sabattagin is 
represented as a Prince of an amiable and humane disposition, 
t i. e. Obviam factus sum (subito) desiderio meo. 



DEATH OF FAKHR-ADDOULAT. ^01 

" The world is a decaying embankment, by a passing 
torrent. 

" Think not that you can construct a stable building with 
one handful of clay." 

And the Shaik Abul-Falk-Basti, in his poem 
commending Ndsir-Addfn, says thus (Verse) 

" I said, when JN'asir-Addin-wa-Addoulah died, ' His life was 
a multitude of glories. The agglomeration of his virtues con- 
tended with each one separately in excellence ; as this man will 
rise with this confusedly on the last day.' " 

And immediately after this event there arrived 
the news of the death of Fakhr-Addoulat-Ali- 
Biigali, and thus both were buried in the month 
Shabin, in the year 387. And the cause of the 
death of Fakhr-Addoulat (besides the decree of 
the Lord) was this ; he was building the fortress 
of Tabarak, and when he had finished it he went 
into the fortress with some wine-bibbing comrades, 
and occupied himself in merriment, and he felt a 
wish for some roasted kababs of beef, and they 
brought an ox before him, and killed it, and made 
kababs of its flesh, and he exceeded very much in 
eating these ; and he afterwards again drank some 
heavy cups of wine, and his bowels twisted, and a 
severe illness began, through which he resigned his 
life, and Abul-Faraj-Sawa, in his poem thus says 
(Verse) 

" Ah ! the world is saying to him who is filled therewith ! 



202 SUCCESSION OP ISMAIL. 

' Beware, beware of my sudden violence or secret onset. Let 
not my prolonged smile deceive thee. My words may make 
thee laugh, my deeds will make thee weep.' " 

And their subsequent condition, after the 
occurrence of these misfortunes, and the falling out 
of these sorrows, was this, that AH, the son of 
Mahmiid, took his father's place, and the army in- 
augurated him, and his authority extended beyond 
his own territory to Jurjdn and Khwarazm, and 
recovered its former stability. And the hereditary 
kingdom of Riza-Niih-'bn-Mansiir devolved upon 
his next heir, Abul-Harith-Mansiir-Ibn-Niih, and 
the oaths of the regiments of the army were taken 
to him as General and Sultdn.* And he distri- 
buted amongst the body of the army his inherited 
money, and his stored-up valuables ; and the senti- 
ments of all were unanimously favourable to under- 
take bis service, and his obedience. And the Vizir 
Abul-Muzaffar-Baragshi became settled and con- 
firmed upon the cushion of ofiice. 

Now Ndsir-Addln in his lifetime, had nomi- 
nated his son Ismail as his heir, and his will con- 
fided his children and his family to his care. And 
when the will of God brought it to pass (that he 

* Abul Harith is here styled Sultan, but more commonly 
Amir or Malik. Sultan appears to denote a sovereign who 
wins his power by force {Tvpawo^) Amir, the Lieutenant of the 
ecclesiastical sovereign, and Malik, one who peacefully and 
regularly acquires or enjoys a kingdom (BairiXeOs). 



SUCCESSION TO DILAM. 203 

died), the whole assembly of the chiefs and of the 
people hastened to engage in his service, and be- 
came submissive unto the guiding string of obe- 
dience, and devotion unto him and the will of the 
late Amir respecting obedience to his authority was 
effectually performed, and the assembled council of 
the officers of State agreed respecting the means of 
supplying maintenance to the various ranks of his 
Court. 

And with regard to Fakhr-Addoulat the whole 
country of DiMm after his decease unanimously 
joined his son Majd-Addoulat-Abu-Talib-Rustdm, 
and placed him upon the throne, and, by the 
authority of the Khalif, gave him the surname 
of Majd-Addoulat-wa-Kahf-Almillat* And the 
complete history of both these personages shall be 
given in its proper place, please God. And the 
poet Thadlabi, in his account of these affairs and the 
wonders of this year, and the distresses of these 
times, has written a descriptive poem, and in truth 
that which Abu-Mansur-Thad,labi hath written is 
an enchanting production (Verse) 

" 'Dost thou not see what for two years has been succes- 
sively the cry ? 

" There has been a cry to death and murder, 
" Ndh, the son of Mansur ! the striking hand hath seized 
him on those protected parts which the ribs are pledged to 
guard" the hearty?) 

* Glory of the Empire and Asylum of the Eeligious. 



204 AFFAIRS OF BUKHa'ra'. 

" Oh the calamity of Mansur ! in the day of odds and 
evens"- — chance (?) 

" The kingdom was wrested from him and he perishes," &c. 

And when Abul-Harith-Mansur-'bn-Niih be- 
came adorned with his brilliant kingdom, and 
received this his extreme power, he was in the first 
dawn of life, and the first days of youth, and in the 
morning of perception. And the lights of gene- 
rosity, and good-fellowship were evident upon his 
joyous face, and the marks of good fortune and 
prosperity were apparent in the firmness of his 
movements and carriage. The office of Vizir was 
confirmed to Abul-Mazaft'ar-Baragshi, and the reins 
of affairs and the general superintendence of all 
matters was conferred upon Fdlk. And Nasir- 
Addln had obtained the release of AbduUah-'bn- 
Aziz from prison, and he had gone to the higher 
provinces of Mawaralnahr, when intelligence of 
the decease of the Prince Niih reached him ; he 
thereupon incited Abu-Nasir-Ispahani to covet the 
administration of the army of Khurasan, and he 
advised him to obtain the aid of Ilek-Khdn in this 
matter, and to ask men from him, and that he 
would conquer Khurasan for him. Both of them 
accordingly proceeded to Ilek-Kh4n for the settle- 
m.ent and the arrangement of this proposition ; and 
Abil-Mansiir, with a body of chamberlains and 
their comrades, was then with Ilek-Khdn, who had 
received them as guests, and their troops and 



AFFAIRS OF BUKHARA. 205 

attendants were occupied in arranging their en- 
campment, and pitching their tents. Ilek-Kh4n 
then seized Ispahani* and Ibn-Aziz, and put both 
in fetters, and sent a message to Fiik, and sum- 
moned him to his Court ; and when he was coming 
to his presence he exhibited the greatest confidence 
in him, and received him with the utmost venera- 
tion and honour, and assigned him three thousand 
cavalry to form his escort, and sent him forward to 
the province of Bukh4ra. And when Abiil-Harith 
received an intimation of these occurrences he be- 
came confused, and his mind, from a condition of 
steadiness and security, fell into a state of weak- 
ness, and he thought that it would be best for him to 
collect all his followers and to pass over the Jihdn, 
and to leave his estate and his abode. And when 
Fdlk came to Bukhdrd he went before the throne, 
and kissed the ground, and stood in the place of 
the chamberlains, and testified much regret, and 
uttered lamentations at the removal of Abiil-Harith 
from the throne of royalty, and the dwelling of his 
kindred, and the residence of his ancestors, and he 
sent the senators of Bukhdri after him, who ex- 
pressed humility, and invited him to establish him- 
self again in the kingdom, and offered to assist in 
securing obedience and service to him. And when 
Abiil-Harith heard of these events he recovered 

* Or Isfanjani ; the points are doubtful. — M. Kasimikski. 



206 AFFAIRS OF BUKHARA. 

confidence, and exhibited reliance upon Fdik, and 
dispatched to F41k a royal letter full of praises of 
his efforts, and approbation of what had happened, 
and of gratification at all his loyalty, and the com- 
mencement of this royaL document was as follows : 
" Thou who hast acted with sincerity, God is thy 
friend. He will extend thy bridle-cords. Thou who 
art a faithful adviser, God will make all straight 
before thee. Happy is his confidence where he hath 
fixed it. This man will pass his life commended 
wherever this (i. e., confidence) is current."* 

And Abiil-Harith was very cheerful under these 
circumstances, and he sent Yaktuzun,f the Lord 
Chamberlain, to Nishapdr, for the purpose of col- 
lecting the soldiers and the military stores, and 
gave to him the surname of Sinan-Addoulat,t and 
he set forward to Bukhdrd, and F&lk went out with 
a deputation to meet him, and paid to him the 
usual compliments of service and respect ',■ and he 
came to him upon his charger to the palace, and 
thus the fire of that quarrel became entirely extinct 
(Persian Verse) 

" Beast and bird found repose in the asyliim of peace ; men 
and animals rested under the canopy of justice ; heaven took off 
the belt from the sword ; fortune remored the string from the 
curved bow ; the oppressor felt his empty liver grieved for want 
of blood, and the mouth of righteousness unfolded in smiles 
like the rose." 

* A free version. f Or Baktuzun (passim). 

i Probably Bridle Eein of the Empire. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHASNA. 207 

And between FS.lk and Begtiizun an old grudge 
existed, and a violent controversy had lasted long ; 
but the Amir Abiil-Harith exerted himself in 
appeasing and removing it ; and he reconstructed 
their friendship so that the words of both agreed 
in professing service to his Highness, and their foot 
became firm and stedfast in assisting the State. 
And F^ik relinquished his coldness, and displayed 
a readiness for agreement and concord. And the 
command of the army was settled upon Begtiizun, 
and he made the taxes of Khurasan profitable to 
the royal treasury, and he displayed zeal in procu- 
ring the regular payment of dues to the tribute. 
And the Amir thus possessed Elhurasin without 
interruption or trouble, until the demon of strife 
found the means of interrupting this tranquUlity of 
mind, and he rose up against his benefactor, and 
gave to the winds the. ancient kingdom, and the 
noble house of the family of Sdmdn, and procured 
unto himself so bad a name that the blame of those 
deeds and the shame of those actions shall exist for 
ever. 

AcCOUlfT OF THAT WHICH PAST BETWEEN THE AmIe SaIF- 

Addoulat and his Beothbe Ismail, aetee the Death 
OE theie Fathee. 

When Nasir-Addln died, and the government 
was settled upon Ismail, the army extended the 
neck of covetousness, and began to seek the largesse 



208 MEMOIRS OT? MAHMUD OF GHASNA. 

of investiture. And he divided amongst them the 
treasures of the earth, but his belt became too nar- 
row to embrace that office, and the enervation of 
his strength and the debility of his disposition be- 
came apparent, and he was not able to abide firmly 
by the rules of the government, and of the mastery 
of others. There were two causes of this, one, that 
he was in the vigour of youth, and possessed no 
experience, and saw not what was right or-wrong, 
and knew nothing of the management of afiairs ; 
and the second was, that he had no confidence in 
his brother, and was acquainted with his perfect 
haughtiness and severe manners, and was aware of 
his powerful intellect, his great virtues, his un- 
bounded vigour, strength, and majesty. And when 
the army perceived his inefficiency and weakness 
they began to stretch out the skirt of intemperance 
and importunity, and to .ask for allowances and 
payments beyond their due, and became eager for 
increased pay and allowances, until the whole of the 
accumulated treasures left behind by Naslr-Addin 
were swallowed up in the supply of their cravings, 
and the treasury became empty. And the Amir 
Ismail extended his hand to seize upon the trea- 
sures of the citadel, and the trust-money of 
Ghazna, and if the period of his government had 
been extended, he would have broken up the whole 
system of administration and of revenue, for most 
of the Court attached themselves to divide and tear 



AtEMOmS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. ^09 

up. And when Saif-Addoulat received intelligence 
of that which had happened to his father, he (first) 
adhered to the usual rules of mourning, and sent a 
letter of condolence to his brother, and dispatched 
Abul-Hasan-Hamiili * on a mission to convey it, 
(and in this letter he said), " Oiir father who was 
the Paradise of affairs and the pillar of events 
hath departed, and now there is not for me upon 
tlie face of the earth any one more honoured than 
thee, and nothing dearer to me than thy sweet life, 
and thy bright eyes ; and whatever thy wish, or 
the desire of thy inclination might seek to obtain, 
as regards authority, and command, and treasure, 
and slaves, and goods, and troops, I feel no regret 
that you should possess them. Notwithstanding 
this, my power and my experience in the events of 
fortune, and my knowledge of the minutest points 
relating to military command, and my acquaintance 
with the management of troops, and my practical 
experience in the manners of the world, may prove 
a well- compacted foundation, and a strong means 
of support for the estabhshment of thy kingdom, 
and for the perpetuity of thy authority, and if thy 
supreme power and authority should perform what 
is expected of thee in the transaction of these 
affairs, and should display firmness in that which 
appertains unto the throne, and should exhibit 

* Or Ilamioali. 



210 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

liberality in the settlement of these matters, I will 
be the most obedient and the most satisfied of all' 
men, although our father made a will which was 
affronting to me, on account of the distance between 
us, and on account of the dread of calamity, and 
on account of his being separated from a composed 
mind and a state of volition. It would seem there- 
fore fit that thou shouldst entertain thoughts of 
foresight, and shouldst recognize the way of equity, 
and that thou shouldst relinquish to me Ghazna, 
which is the rising star of fortune, and the starting 
point of government, and the strength of the chiefs 
of the State ; whilst we, on our part, will relinquish 
for thee the territory of Balkh, or we will settle 
upon thee the government and generalship of the 
arhiies of Khurasan!" 

The Amir Ismail did not receive these words 
favourably, and that which was unfortunate and 
afflicting in his road seized hold of the border of 
his prosperity, and he remained interdicted from 
the enjoyment of fortune. The Governor of Jurj4n 
sto'cid up to mediate between them, and chided 
them much, giving them many good counsels and 
pieces of advice, if by any means he might have 
held them to the observance of the rules of frater- 
nity and friendship, and might expel from the 
minds of each of them the serpent of malignity, by 
means of kindness and benevolence. And said thus 
to them : " Kindxed when so near should display 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 211 

mutual affection. It is right that you two brothers 
should be inclined to each other, and should regard 
each other, and by personal conversation and hear- 
ing each other should bring forth that affection, 
and regard, and attention to entreaty, which re- 
mains concealed within your secret souls, and that 
you should keep entirely apart from all that might 
conduce to the injury of your houses, and the 
diminution of your dignity, and to blind anger, 
and to the gratification of your enemies." This 
advice was favourably received by the Amir Saif- 
Addoulat, and he yielded to it a gracious ear, and 
he was satisfied with and concurred with it. But 
with respect to the Amir Ismail, on account of his 
apprehension, and his distrust and suspicion, he 
would not surrender himself, and turned aside from 
these good counsels, and he saw the waste of his 
most precious treasures, and the overbearing force 
of a corrupted army preponderate over the preser- 
vation of his family, ■ and the friendship of his 
brother, and of his subjects, and over all sound 
conduct. On account of the depravity which had 
obtained the mastery over his better soul, and of the 
fancy which was newly conceived in the border of 
his mind, because he had removed the reins of 
quietness and repose from his hand. And Utbi* 
relates as follows — I conveyed to the hearing of 

* Autlior of these Memoirs (the Arabic original text). 

P 2 



212 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

the Amir Ismail certain verses which Saif-Addou- 
lat-Hamaddni had spoken upon the subject of his 
brother Nasir-Addoulat, in order that he might if 
possible smooth the way to the establishment of 
the foundations of friendship, and might establish 
those brotherly relations becoming their condition, 
whereby all motive for unkindness and aversion 
might be abolished. But these verses did not 
stand before him on the wheels of fortune, and did 
not attach themselves unto the resting point (ful- 
crum) of gracious acceptance. And the verses 
were these that follow fVerse) 

" I was well pleased with thy elevation, even although I 
myself was worthy thereof, and I said to them, ' Between me 
and between my brother there is a difference, yet I by no 
means evaded taking an oath of fidelity to him, although it 
infringed upon my rights. Thus all duty was fulfilled. But, 
since thou art not content that I should be a successful peti- 
tioner, I am content that he may be the pre-eminent.' " 

And the Amir Saif-Addoulat remained unequal 
to apply a remedy to these matters, or to discover 
a way of deliverance and escape from these difficul- 
ties, since his quiet disposition and kind nature, 
and gravity, and gentleness was averse from taking 
the first step into the gate of extremities, or from 
taking the lead in opposition and determination ; 
particularly in reference to a brother who was the 
apple of his eye and a part of the liver of his body 
and soul, and the fruit of his heart, and the flower 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 213 

of the garden of his enjoyment, and the mainte- 
nance of the days of his Hfe ; but he could not 
succeed in his endeavours to seek the means of 
mending this torn garment, nor could he find any 
way to reconcile this quarrel. And in him was 
exemplified the text which says, " The last remedy 
is the actual cautery," and he began to be convinced 
that when the hand, which is the pillar of the 
body, and the most precious limb for seizing, 
wounding, or attacking, is bitten by a serpent, and 
the rest of the body, on account of its dependence 
upon it, begins to perish, there are no means of 
cure except by cutting it ofi"; and also the teeth 
which compose the mill of the body, and by the 
strength of which the meals which support life are 
broken up, when they become eaten through by 
decay, and when through the pain which they 
cause, the delights of life become impracticable, 
there is no other remedy with respect to them 
except to extract them, and to destroy them. 

Hereupon he sent a letter to the Amir Abul- 
Harith, and intimated to him the state of affairs, 
and informed him that to proceed to Ghazna was 
a matter of necessity, and that to march down to 
that quarter was an act which was indispensable. 
He therefore set off. and turned his face towards 
Ghazna, and when he arrived at Her4t he betook 
himself to write, and he brought forward words and 
fair promises, and both in kind and harsh (expres- 



214 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

sions) brought prominently forward the most 
minute points in apology for his measures. But 
nothing profitable resulted, and nothing useful 
ensued, so that the mediation between these 
powers, and the cutting off of this strife, fell to the 
sword, and the sword produced perils, and slaugh- 
ter, and battles (Verse) 

" Increased opposition was intenae between us. I related 
to him the affection of Safad and Haivarn, and when I saw that 
there was nothing definite in him I managed what was suffi- 
cient for him with the victorious contention of resistance." 

And Saif-Addoulat mentioned his grief to 
Bagrajak, and offered proposals of mutual friend- 
ship and support, and he undertook to do him ser- 
vice without stipulating for any fixed reward, and 
he sought to aid him with the ensigns of war, and 
came to Bost to help him. And the Amir Nasr-'bn- 
Nasir-Addln* was at that place. He also, with the 
most sincere friendship and the most pure feehng of 
brotherhood proceeded without delay to the service 
of his fortunate standard, and girded up the loinS: 
of obedience and readiness in the support of his 
design, and with the utmost candour, and without 
the least hypocrisy, became one of his followers. 

And when the Amir Ismail received the news 
of the march of Saif-Addoulat, and of his intention 
to proceed towards Ghazna. he used great expedi' 

* Brother of the two princes, Ismail and Mahmud. 



MEMOmS OF MAHMUD OF GB[AZNA. 215 

tion, and proceeded from Balkh to Ghazua. And 
the nobles of the kingdom, and the phiefs of his 
Highness, dispatched messages of kindness to the 
Amir Saif-Addoulat, and represented, the sincerity 
of their obedience, and began to enter into propo- 
sals of reconciliation and friendship, and the rejec- 
tion of variance. And the envoys, and intercessors 
used their utmost endeavours for the settlement qf 
friendship ; but the dispensation of heaven proved 
victorious, and the spajks of iniquity blazed into a 
flame, and the Arnir SaifrAddoulat advanced his 
'forces, and put his regiments in array. 

And he arranged rightly his left and right 
wing; and the warriors of the troops and the chiefs 
of the armies came into the field of battle like fierce 
lions, who strike the talons of war into the neck of 
fate at the time of battle when the wheel of fortune 
is suspended in the air (Verse) 

" Sword skilfully took off the edge of ,sword ; so.ulg, and 
bodies resided in them. They are messengers seeking death ; 
for doubtless between death and them there is a near relation- 
ship" (or sympathy). 

And the Amir Ismail came to meet him .witli 
his own guards and slaves, and with the coparades 
and followers of his father, apd he supported the 
centre and the wing with elephants of an enormous 
size, like dark-coloured mountains. And when the 
two armies came together, the sword becoming 



216 MEMOIKS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 

capable of speech, mounting upon the lofty pulpit 
to utter forth the decrees of destiny, summoned the 
wielders of the spear, and said, " The spear, al- 
though he is a strong serpent, when he comes upon 
the eye of a ring of a coat of mail, quivers and 
trembles, and I am a Hindi! of good family,* and 
I so bore into the eye of the body-clothing-armour 
that I enter into the object which I seek, namely, 
the red face (of warriors). By every flash of mine 
which pierces from the depth of my vigour I see 
into the treasury of the breast, and with every 
edge which is attached to my belt I have drawn 
blood (as) from the mouth of the gad-fly." All 
threw the darts and drew out the swords, and so 
great a battle ensued that the iron-hearted weapon 
wept blood at the noise of the exploits of the youth- 
ful combatants of the war, and the scorpion in the 
sky burnt his heart, and battles succeeded battles, 
and Arcturus shot forth javelins, and the two dog- 
stars began to weep, and the sky drew over her 
head the blue garment of mourning, and from the 
fire of battle the moon singed her cheek, and the 
expanse of the heavens became bent in the back 
from anxiety, and the stars spread their pUlows 
upon the carpet of the milky way, and the morning 
tore her garment (Verse) 

" By the slaughter which caused the leaves of life to fall 

* i. e. A sword of Indian steel. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 217 

and by the voice of the cock proclaiming death, the state of 
affairs converted the spring into autumn,- the sword pouring 
water like blood upon the garden of the field of battle, filled it 
with roses and flowers stained with gore." 

And the Amir Saif-Addoulat made a charge, 
and from the mist of his sword superinduced a 
dark-coloured mantle of blood over the hills and on 
the plains, and from the blood of throats converted 
the surface of the green turf into a rose-coloured 
parterre of the Argwan (Verse) 

" Whereboever thou hast thrust thy spear it reached the 
heroes of the field ; wheresoever thou hast dashed thy battle- 
axe thou didst cause the enemy to remember it, thou hast 
broken the ball of ])ardou* over the head of the lions of war, 
thou hast cut through the coats of mail which were upon the 
bodies of warriors. Unto Khusru and to Mansur arose the 
shout of battle from the sky, and from the earth came the cry 
of the enemy, saying, ' Oh, King of Kings, quarter !' every 
moment from smiling victory arose the clamour of ' Wonderful, 
wonderful is the sword in the royal hand.' " 

And the leavings of the sword sought the road 
of safety and the way of security upon the cliffs of 
the mountains, and the Amir Ismail fled into the 
castle of Ghazna, and in one of the towers of that 
stronghold was guarded against the misfortunes 
of his chiefs and the mischances of his officers, and 
the Amir Saif Addoulat, when his anger was 
appeased and the battle at an end, and the flame 
of war had gone down, forgave him, and received 

* i. e. Death, Mhen referred to Miissalmans. 



218 JlfiMOIIlS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

him under the guardianship of his protection and 
support, and forgot what was past ; and the fidelity 
of brotherhood and the sincerity of affection was 
again placed upon a secure foundation. Truly God 
is most wise in equity.* 



HisTOET OF Abul-Kasim-Simjue, and or what fell out 

BETWEEN HIM AND BeGTUZTTM. 

Abul-Kasim-Simjiir, after the death of Fakhr- 
Addoulat, became settled at Jurjan, in the Court 
of his son Majd-Addoulat, and appeared constant 
in his obedience and service to him, and the most 
eminent of the servants and the most important of 
the courtiers of the family of Simjiir betook 
themselves to him from Khurasdn, and a consider- 
able army was collected together with him, and all 
his affairs were well ordered, both as regards the 
compactness of the army, and the liberal supply of 
stores and men, and Faik, on account of the irrita- 
tion which he felt against Begtuzum, wrote soothing 
letters to Abul-K^sim, and stirred him up to 
march against Begtuzum, and excited him, and 
induced him to request the office of general of the 
army, which was the ancient dignity belonging to 
the family of Simjur, until he began to inhale this 

* Abul Farajius informs us that Mahmud and Ismail 
divided the kingdom between them, which may probably have 
been the case for some time. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 219 

breath (of flattery) and to buy this coquetry (of 
deception) and forgetfully to sell ready money for 
credit, and,. according to the proverb, "The den is 
the lodging for the lion," he set his heart upon 
being separated ,from Jurjan, and he proceeded to 
oppress and vex Begtuziim, and thus all things 
happened according to the saying (Verse) 

" I am surely one wlio leave the assembly of the generous, 
aud my cup fills with abundauce the avaricious ; like that bird 
who leaves her eggs uncovered and clothes the egg of another 
bird with her wings." 

And he sent on in advance the lawyer* Abu- 
Ali-'bn-Abil-Kasira. And he, when he came to 
Isf^rayin, arrived at a place where a detachment 
from the army of Begtuziim had taken up its posi- 
tion. He gave them battle and broke through 
them, and went on their rear as far as to Nishapiir, 
and, when they arrived at Nishapiir, Begtuziim 
sent a message to Abul-Kasim, to the following 
effect, that the business of , war rests upon no 
security, and its issue is behind the veil of mystery, 
and to, support one's self upon the prop of force and 
grandeur, and to become cheated and flattered by 
fortunate circumstances and propitious events, is a 
proceeding far removed from the system of good 
sense and the way of rectitude. And a man falls 
into the difficulties of war who finds no possible 

* Or theologian, priest. 



220 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

means of returning into the spacious and uncon- 
fined plain of peace. This is the most advisable 
proceeding, that you should halt at Kohistdn, 
which is the (ancient) portion of the house of 
Simjiir, until I send to the king, and obtain a 
grant and concession (for you) of the province of 
Herat and the districts bordering upon those 
coasts. 

Abul-Kasim, however, did not incline himself 
to these words and was entirely deceived by his 
victory over those timid youths and by the number 
of his followers, and he placed his entire reliance 
upon his force and strength, and remained indif- 
ferent to the consequences of self-will and careless- 
ness, and to the issue of rebellion and peevishness, 
and therefore he put his troops in array and ])re- 
pared for war. And Bektuzdm, when he saw his 
stubbornness in folly and in error, and that, 
through his recklessness, like the moth flying into 
the flame, he had fallen into the narrow passage of 
ruin, began also to prepare the necessaries of war ; 
and he made a prosperous commencement of the 
undertaking and set his face to carry on the war, 
and they fell upon each other at the moist desert 
at the gate of Nishapiir, and they made the social 
round of the cup of vengeance to each other, until 
their swords had drank well (of the streams of 
blood). And the sun, in terror at that battle, 
drew his round shield over his face, and the sword 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 221 

struck in attacking the young warriors, and the 
eastern rays of the sun, from shame at the western 
flash of the swords, became veiled, and the battle- 
axe recorded upon the helmet historical tales and 
exploits (Verse) 

" The rejoicing dagger streamed with the blood of enemies, 
like clods of earth which are penetrated with the force of 
moisture." 

(Arabic Verse) 

" The aimed javelins cut through livers, and thy protection 
is only to be found in the fortunate verses of the Koran." 

And at last Bektuzum obtained the victory and 
Simjur t6ok to flight, and Abul-Kasim, the Divine, 
who was the pillar of the army and the support of 
afiairs, together with the whole company of the 
other chiefs of the people, were taken prisoners, 
and Simjiir proceeded to Kohistin. This event 
happened in the month Rebia-Al-Awwal, in the 
year 388, and Bektuzum caused to run, in all 
directions, swift messengers, and gave information 
of the victory which had been gained ; and the 
chiefs of the State were exalted at that joyful news 
and proof of God's goodness, except Fdik, who was 
sorry thereat, and from vexation thereat gnawed 
the finger of spitefulness and rage. And with 
regard to Simjur he remained quiet at Kohistan, 
and began to recover from that misfortune, and 



222 MEMOIRS OP MAIIMUD OF GHAZNA. 

was engaged in the business of his investiture, and 
urged ou the collectors of taxes to be active in 
gathering the dues ; and Bektuzum began to turn 
his attention unto him, in order that he might 
wrest that province from his grasp ; and, when an 
engagement between them was nearly ajjproaching, 
all who were around them interposed to mediate 
between them and to arrange the dispute, and they 
contrived to procure a meeting bet\Vfeen them, and 
Abul-Kasim gave his son 'Bn-Abu-Sahlto Bek- 
tuzum, as an hostage, and the chief matter of 
dispute was thus cut off. And Abul-Kasim came 
to Kohist4n and Bektuzum proceeded to Nishapur. 
This accommodation took place in the month 
Rejib, m the year 388. 

But that grudge which had existed between 
Faik and the Vizir Abul-MuzafFar broke out 
afresh, and Abul-Muzaffar, from his dread of Faik, 
flew to the chief capital, and found safety in trans- 
ferring his allegiance to the Amir Abul-Hareth. 
And F4ik sent a person and demanded him again, 
in an overbearing and contentious manner ; and 
the Amir Abul Haretli returned a sharp answer, 
and Fdlk, in disgust, quitted the Governor's palace, 
and resolved to proceed towards the Turkish pro- 
vinces, but the senators of Bukh^ri exerted 
themselves to restore friendship, and they appeased 
the mind of the Amir Abul-Hareth, and they pre- 
vailed upon Faik to relax his fury, and, for the 



A[EM01RS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZSA. 223 

sake of peace, they sent Abul-Muzaffar, for a time, 
to the coast of Jurjdn, and they conferred the office 
of Vizir upon Abul-Kasim-Barmaki,* and the 
skilful lyre of Abu-Shanji thus sings of this equi- 
table arrangement, in these verses, where he says 
(Verse) 

" "We certainly, for a time, blamed (the course of) time, and 
we grieved that the office of Vizir should be given to Al- 
Balaami (the glutton). Time afterwards changed for us and 
attained from Al Balaami unto Al-Burghushi (the flea) and 
time will now unfold what it announced respecting him ■ 
(namely) that he was near unto (the appointment of) Al-Bar- 
malsi."t 

And Abul-Kasim Barmaki was virtuous, effi- 
cient, and intelligent, but, however, the spirit of 
avarice had obtained a mastery over his disposition, 
and, when he took possession of the office of Vizir, 
he betook himself to the course of injustice and of 
close calculation and scantiness towards the 
Turkish guards and officers of the army, with 
respect to their wages, and rations, and clothing. 
He was suddenly killed, by two or three of the 
guards ; and these verses (following upon the 
subject) are remarkable for their beauty, their 
cadence, and their pleasing expression (Verse) 

" There was mentioned to me an old camel, whose disposi- 

* Barashi. — De Sact. 

t It was grievous to have the glutton for Yizir but it was 
better to have the flea, for we soon afterwards had Barmaki. 



224 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

tion was mutilated and as it viere possessed by a corrupt spirit. 
Never may the tips of my fingers touch that mutilated and 
depraved old camel. He is not one who melts (into his mouth) 
wine out of gold. And a cup of silver would choke an ava- 
ricious man." 



Account of the Convetancb op the Amir Ismail feom 
THE Citadel of G-hazna. 

The Amir Saif-Addoulat brought dowTi his 
brother, by professions of peace, and kindness, and 
friendship, froiii the citadel of Ghazna, and 
extorted from him the keys of the Treasury, and 
converted to his own use the property, and the 
deposits of the citadel, and the state of weakness 
into which the army had recently fallen was reme- 
died and a state of security was restored. And he 
placed his own surveyors and collectors at Ghazna, 
over the revenue, and he replaced a strong guard 
of horse, for the purpose of guarding and protecting 
the treasure in the castle, and he came, with his 
army laden with booty, to Balkh, and communi- 
cated to His Highness (his Suzerain)* an account 
of his condition and of his famous victory, and of 
his complete arrangement of his brother's affair, 
and of his return unto Khurasan, under the canopy 
of prosperity, and he gave a message, to the fol- 
lowing effect, " If my father, who was the guardian 

* The Prince of Bukhara was still Mahmiid's superior 
lord. 



MEMOIKS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 225 

of the kingdom and the protector of the State, 
hath made a removal from the transitory unto the 
everlasting world, we nevertheless, in the service 
of the throne and in the maintenance of the rixles 
of obedience, are our father's heir, and we have 
stood firmly in maintaining our former duty to the 
King Ridha-Nilh-'bn-Mansur, and in adhering to 
the rights of A bul-Hareth, who is the next link in 
the chain of royalty, and the heir of his crown and 
of his throne, and to him we bind up the loins of 
service, and we will charge ourselves with the duty 
of supporting the chiefs of the State, and of 
humbling the enemies of His Highness." 

The Amir Abul-Hareth sent unto him the 
Sayyad Abul-Hasan-Alawy-Hamaddni, and, in 
order to congratulate him upon his arrival, sent 
by his hand a royal letter patent, confirming to 
him the government of Balkh, _and Hardt, and 
Bost, and Sarmadh. But, as to the question of 
Nishapilr and the prince-generalship of the troops, 
he, with great kindness and regard, observed, 
" Bektuziin is a servant of the State and one who 
was piously well disposed and inclined to fulfil his 
ancient duties, and for me, without some new 
cause and the allegation of some excuse, to issue a 
royal order for his removal, and thus to cut off his 
bread, would be an action far removed from the 
rules of generosity and justice." The Amir Saif- 
Addoulat charged this proceeding with the accusa- 

Q 



226 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 

tion that it had been dictated by envious and 
raaUcious opponents ; and he sent Abiil-Hasam- 
Hamwali with a message to him and despatched 
by' him, the particulars of his charge, informing 
him that both the pens of his writers and the 
intellects of his accountants were unable to define 
or to compute that communication. He expressed 
his expectation that the exalted mind would not 
change or alter the settlement to which he was 
engaged, or that the extension of mutual assist- 
ance, according to the rules of friendly intercourse, 
should receive no diminution. He said, "Those 
ties which have been established between us and 
our father, for the service of the royal throne, 
ought not to be destroyed by the violence or the 
cavils of enemies, nor ought the bracelet of affection 
be broken, or the foundation of mutual aid and 
support be split asunder, and that strength which 
has resulted and has enabled us to obtain a firm 
mastery over Khurasan, and to regulate all the 
affairs of the army, ought not to be ruined and 
undone." 

And when Hamwali arrived at Bukhara the 
cushion of the Vizirat was vacant, and they pro- 
posed to him the gratification of this office. With 
this office he was so much overjoyed and flattered 
that he began to overlook the mission on which he 
had been sent, and the negotiation with which he 
had been charged and to which he had been 



MEMOIRS OV MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 227 

engaged. And hia condition resembled that of 
which the wise speak (Verse) 

" The country was empty, so I ruled without a rival. But 
it was in misery, I was unrivalled in defects."* 

He in this office betook himself to labour hard 
in what was sinful, and to struggle in affecting 
that which was impossible, and he fancied that, by 
his own capabilities and management, he could 
untie a knot which by the revolutions of the sky 
(time) had been firmly fixed, and that, by his skill 
and wisdom, he could restore those systems which 
had arrived at old age to the freshness of youth, 
and that, through the manceuvreing and attention 
of ingenuity, he could restore newness and sweet- 
ness to the robe which, by constant wear in the 
streets and amongst the people, had become a tat- 
tered beggar's garment, and was far from thinking 
of the proverb, " That which time has made offen- 
sive the perfumer wUl, never make fresh." And 
truly does the lyre of Boshanji say of him (Terse) 

" Surely we blame fortune, through inexperience, with 
respect to Joseph and Al-Balghami, and others, until fortune 
shoots against our helmet afterwards, and we, both servant 
and master, do wrong," &c. 

And when the Amir SaifAddoulat received 
by testimony the representation of affairs, and an 



* Freely rendered. 



Q 2 



228 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

account of his weak understanding, and his failing" 
judgment, and of the clashing of interests, and of 
the bad guidance of the people, and understood 
that the kingdom was on the verge of ruin and the 
path of destruction, and that all those persons who 
are the most eminent of the State, and the chief 
officers of the Court, were engaged in benefiting 
their own condition, and in compassing their own 
ends, he set his face towards Nishapilr, in order to 
keep watch over his ancient dignity, and that he 
might remove those defacings which through mis- 
management had appeared upon the structure of 
his honour. And Bektuziin, when he became 
convinced of his intention and design, hurried 
out of the way of the course of the torrent, and 
conveyed himself and his property, and his house- 
hold, and his army out of danger, and removed 
from Nishapilr, and sent a letter to his Highness 
of Bukhdrd, and intimated his condition. And the 
Amir Abul-Hareth through the intoxication of 
youth, and the foolishness of boyhood, and because 
he had not experienced the changes of fortune, or 
tasted of the coldness or the warmth of time, col- 
lected a considerable army, and proceeded from 
Bukhdrd unto the province of Khurasdn, with the 
intention of opposition, and with the design of 
repelling him,* and came by successive marches to 

* i. e. Mahmud, at present entitled Saif-Addoulat. 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 22& 

Sarakhs.* And the Amir Saif-Addoulat knew well 
that this proceeding was caused by folly, and by 
disregard to the opinion of people of judgment, and 
an evidence of a departure from right advice and 
counsel, since this body of men were not possessed 
of much strength, nor were a match for his forces, 
for that they all would be annihilated by one attack 
of the torrent of his sea, and by one charge of 
his reserved guard would be reduced to nothing. 
However he was unwilling to tear the curtain of 
his bashfulness,f or to rend his veil, or that the 
glory of that kingdom should pass away by his 
means, and that the claims of friendship should be 
destroyed or set aside for one fault. Therefore he 
exhibited some delay and procrastination in ad- 
vancing his standards to battle, and he went slowly 
to Men! and returned to Nishapiir, in order that 
at another time he might arrange that dispute by 
means of cutting wrangling, and clear argument, 
and brilliant apologies, that thus the darts of the 
envious, and the reproaches of the opposite party, 
should find no occasion for attacking him, and that 
both the learned and the ignorant, the high and 
the humble, might perceive that he had a sufficient 

* For an account of Sarakhs and Meru, or Merv, see 
Bume's Travels in Sulchdrd. 

t i. e. Disabuse him and mortify his youthful pride, remove 
his bashfulness, by collision with others, or dishonour him, by 
encountering him in the field. 



230 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

excuse for his proceedings, therefore he proceeded 
from Merunid unto the bridge Zaghiil, and re- 
mained quiet at that place, and occupied himself in 
the regulations of his affairs, and in meditating 
upon the most equitable method of proceeding. 
And Bektuzdn proceeded to the Court of the 
Amfr Abul-Hareth, where Fdtk remained in the 
service of the throne. And Bektuziin had enter- 
tained expectations that the honours of his reception 
by the Amir Abul-Hareth would be greater than 
he perceived them (really to be), and he submitted 
to Fiik a complaint upon the subject ; and Fdlk on 
his, side re-echoed the complaint, and both of them 
used their utmost, endeavours to fix upon him* the 
imputation of errors and reprehensible actions, and 
of harshness of disposition, and roughness of de- 
portment, and of a want of popular manners. Their 
projects soon obtained favour, and they prevailed 
upon the commonalty to make a demand for his 
deprivation, and removal from office, and they found 
in all a ready hearing to their directions, and 
obedience to their guidance ; and they engaged 
together in a plot, and Bektuztfn made a petition, 
and alleged a certain important affair, for which 
there was need of the assistance and advice of 
Abul-Hareth, and by this contrivance they pro- 
cured his presence at a Court, and they seized him 

*■ i. e. The Amir of Bukhara. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OE GHAZNA. 231 

and put out his world-seeing eyes, , and tore his 
delicate beauty and his form like the new moon. 
Nor can they be considered free from the imputai- 
tion of infamy, nor their dress pure from the stain^ 
of ingratitude for benefits. But what was most 
wonderful was that in this condition he earnestly 
besought them for three necessary indulgences by 
way of existence. One was that they should 
deposit with him his wife, for the purpose of aid, 
conversation, and society, that he might not endure 
all the burden of the penalty^ and severity, and 
misery of his oflfence ;* but they, through : the 
excess of their harshness and the fault of their dis- 
position, did not grant that request, but they 
resisted in a grudging and vacillating manner 
and through these restrictions and vain longings 
the fire of his sighs and the wind of his hardship, 
became increased. 

And they placed;his brother Abd-Almalik-Ibn- 
Niih upon the throne^ and he was in the season of 
infancy and the time of perversity, and in the 
period of weakness and intellectuar deficienqy. 
And both high and low, hurnble and noble, 
stretched forth the tongue of reproof .against this 
unjust action and shameful measure, and displayed 
the utmost aversion to this audacious proceeding. 
But no sooner had intelligence arrived that ; the 

* The other two requests are not mentioned. 



232 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

Amir Saif-Addoulat had marched to the bridge of 
Zaghiil than all that party began to fly away in 
terror, like a flock of sheep from the violence of the 
lion, or a sparrow from the onset of the hawk, and 
they did not stop at any place until they arrived at 
Menl And the Amir Saif-Addoulat sent a person 
to Fdik and Bektuzdn, and made unmeasured 
complaints against them, for their infringement of 
the rights of their benefactor, and their diminution 
of the reverence due to him. And they betook 
themselves to deception, and obtained a justifica- 
tion of their proceedings from the mouth of Abdul- 
Malik-'bn-Niih, and promised additional subjects, 
and augmented power, and made liberal offers, for 
the purpose of detaching him (from the opposite 
party), and exciting avarice in the country of his 
enlarged soul and liberal feelings. But the Amir 
Saif-Addoulat, on account of his veneration for 
Islam and his jealousy for the faith, did not con- 
sider it lawful to connive at this shameful conduct, 
and persisted in resisting these tyrants and syco- 
phants, and marched out with his army and came 
to Menl, in order that this affair might arrive at 
examination atid these words might be brought to 
an end by a discussion face to face. But upon the 
arrival of his stirrup (suite) all this party were 
struck with confusion, and various kinds of terror 
and of dread obtained the mastery over their tem- 
perament, and they were ashamed of what they 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 233 

had done. And when they fell into their hands, 
and saw that they had erred, they said, " Unless 
our Lord has mercy upon us, and forgives us, we 
shall certainly be among the wretched." 

And the Lord inflicted upon .them vengeance, 
by means of Saif-Addoulat, and made them all 
examples and (proofs of) misery, according to 
their deeds and to the wickedness of their actions, 
and he stripped and pierced them all through with 
the anguish of their treachery, and with the vile- 
ness of their malice, ■*'" according to that verse of the 
Koran : " Thus hath thy Lord seized thee, when 
he seized thy back, and this is wretchedness, that 
a great calamity hath seized you.^' 

And Fdik and Bektuziin took their coursers 
and went down to meet Saif-Addoulat, and instead 
of obstinacy drew the veil over the head of confu- 
sion, and carried depression of mind and weakness 
of heart upon the loins of repentance, because they 
thought that that was a sea beyond the measure of 
their swimming, and that that was a burden beyond 
their power and strength. And from that reflec- 
tion perplexity obtained the mastery, and fear and 
terror became conquerors, and all the world became 
blocked up, no means of departing from place to 
place, no means of seeking flight, and no way of 
providing assistance (Verse) 

* MS. confused here. 



234 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

" Unto whatever action thou dost betake thyself an enemy 
thereof says, ' Despair ! this affair comes not to thee, do not 
thou come to this affair.' " 

And they began to understand that to wrestle 
with a torrent is to risk one's life, and to butt 
against a mountain is to give one's head to the 
winds, and that to strike a blow upon a bodkin* is 
to expose the hand to destruction. In this help- 
less condition they sent messengers, and requested 
delay, and with the most perfect humility offered 
proposals of peace. 

And Saif-Addoulat although he was well ac- 
quainted with the corruption of their hearts, and 
the depravity of their conduct, and although he 
well knew the depth of their baseness and treachery, 
yet in order to quiet all dispute, and establish an 
excuse (for his own conduct), to remove all appear- 
ance of suspicion, and to redeem himself from the 
stigma of rebellion, and the imputation of obstruc- 
tion and enmity, regarded their petition with 
favour, and returned a favourable answer to their 
application, and consented to depart. He accord- 
ingly marched, and when his heavy furniture and 
baggage was on the route the low followers and 
mob of their camp began to lay the hand of violence 
and enmity upon the rear of his army, and they 
plundered some portion of his baggage. And the 

* " aKkrjpov aoi Trphi xevrpa XaiCTi^eiv." — Acts ix, 5. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 235 

regular troops of Saif-Addoulat, with their excess 
of strength and augmented majesty, made a charge ; 
and they (thus) put their foot upon the serpent's 
tail and threw themselves into the way of destruc- 
tion. And when Saif-Addoulat witnessed them 
thus falHng into the ruin of error, and precipitating 
themselves into the den of fate, and beheld their 
overpowering greediness and false covetousness in 
the plundering and rapine of their followers, and 
that the chiefs and officers did nothing to repress 
the folly of their low followers, or the oscitancy of 
their mob, he began to understand that their limbs 
were in his power, and that their stillness and 
silence* would become examples of the saying, 
"The fool becomes determined when misfortune 
compels him." He accordingly ordered that a 
company of his troops should surround these mob- 
foUowers and put them all to death (Yerse) 

" Prom the abundance of slain bodies the back of the earth 
became crooked, instead of being straight ; on that. side another 
groundt gave dew."J 

And the army formed itself, and arguments of 
steel ran throughout the battle field, and well- 
ordered ranks faced the enemy (Verse) 

" Prom the hoofs of the camels, upon the border of the 
plain, the earth became six and the sky rolled eight."§ 

* i. e. Their indifference to the conduct of the plunderers, 
t i. e. The bodies of the dead. % i. e. Blood. 

§ i. e. Confounded at sixes and sevens. 



236 MEMOIBS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

" The low man, when his folly protects itself by speech — in 
him wiU be found stutterings and shameful blunders." 

And with them the two brothers Nasr and 
Ismail, and their uncle Begrajak, stood in their 
centre, and there is a place in the verses of Abu- 
Farash which contains a description of their con- 
dition (Verse) 

" Our elevation (was) on an eminence, with iutense 
(courage) therein. Truly thou didst stand firm amidst the 
trees of spears, the horsemen boiled in billows, until the firm 
earth might be deemed a sea of weapons," &c. 

And the disaffected commonalty, on account 
of the advance of his standards- and the onward 
pressure of his flags, beheld terrific sights like 
those of the day of judgment, and their affairs were 
abundantly supplied with vexation and repentance, 
and they began to blame each other for these 
reprehensible acts, and for having undertaken so 
shameful an affair. And being in the intricate 
narrowness of this difficulty they could not discover 
the egress of good advice, and being thus without 
remedy they came out from the city in gaudy 
cloaks, and splendid coats, and new festival dresses, 
and the insignia of holiday making, for they had a 
great opinion of their troops collected from the 
provinces of Khurasan and M4warannahr. Horse 
and foot then assembling, drew up in rank on the 
front of Saif-Addoulat, and they took their stand 



MEifOIES OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 237 

opposite his army, and on both sides the hand 
embraced the sword and a great slaughter ensued 
(Verse) 

" Oh heaven ! what a day was that when, from the rapine 
of the Bword and the arrow, the heavens were thrown into con- 
fusion and the earth reduced into distress ! Through the heat 
of the sword the air of the battle-field was burning ; and from 
the flame of the fight the earth of the war-plain was boiling. 
There were hearts cast down th-ough fear of death, and there 
were hearts raised up by the desire of fame. These were flying 
like the mouse and those were catching like the serpent." 

And the punishment of these vile infidels and 
of these traitors to the fidelity due to their master 
came upon them, and at one charge the army of 
Saif-Addoulat broke through them, and they took 
the road of flight, and if night had not come as a 
Veil over their aflPairs, and as a fresh resource to 
them, all would have been involved in the rope of 
destruction, and cast down the precipice of sudden 
ruin (Verse) 

" If it had not been for the darkness and its fears upon 
which they relied their neck would have passed the night 
without its prop (i. e., the body). Therefore let them praise 
the useful darkness and its advantage ; for they are in safety 
and darkness is their defender." 

And Abdul-Malik-Ibn-Niih and F&lk halted 
after that defeat at Bukhdrd, and Bektuziin came 
to Nishapdr, and Abul-Kasim-Simjur went to Ko- 
histin, and the star of the happiness of Saif- 
Addoulat arrived at the zenith of glory, and the 



238 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

height of his dignity, and the perfection of his good 
fortune exceeded that of the pinnacle of the skies ; 
and the kingdom of Khurasdn and the inheritance 
of the royalty of the family of Sdmin became pre- 
pared and concocted for him, and his rivals and 
opponents became dispersed and torn to tatters in 
the various provinces and asylums of the world 
(Verse) 

" From the claws of the lions did he bear away the 
kingdom ; from the greediness of the crocodiles he rescued the 
object of his wishes." 

And after this event he marched towards Tiis, 
lest Bektuziln and Simjur should unite together, 
and lest from their union some new injury should 
arise, and that confusion might not be produced ; 
and Bektuziin through fear of this proceeding 
went on towards Jurjan, and the SuMn sent 
Arsldn-Jadhib after him, in order that he might go 
upon his track, like the shooting stars after the 
foot-marks of evil spirits, and expel him jfrom the 
regions of Khurasin. And he betook himself to 
this service ; but the Sultdn had included Tiis in 
his computations, and therefore with most of his 
army left him for Tils, and went on his way, in 
order that he might inspect the revenue collectors, 
and renew fidelity in those districts. 

And Bektuziin seized the opportunity of the 
absence of the SuMn, and returned to Nishapiir, 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 239 

and began to advance the pretensions of Abdul- 
Malik to royalty, not recognizing the truth, that 
when the supporting columns of a kingdom have 
become decayed by the changeful hand of time, and 
when its foundations have become destroyed by 
reason of the lapse of many ages, no vain exertion 
and no fruitless endeavour can restore it ; and that 
when the natural conformation differs from the 
usual sym^metry it is impossible to restore it perma- 
nently to the, common figure.- And the result of 
all these proceedings was this, that the Sultdn was 
compelled to endure renewed trouble and reiterated 
annoyance, lest they should by one blow gain head 
and preserve it. And he went out by the way of 
Alnward, and the army of the SuMn went on his. 
track; so that he turned towards the road through 
the desert in the direction of Merd, and desired to 
fix himself in that city, and to entrench himself in 
that fortification ; but the people of Merd having 
made opposition he plundered the city, and pro- 
ceeded from the desert of Amil to Bukhdrd, and 
when the plain of Khurasan was free from Bektu- 
ziin* and; his followers, the- Sultdn sent Arslan- 
Jadhib unto Kohistan," that he might expel Abul- 
Kasim-SimJTir from those coasts, and might break 
down his expectation of restoration and prosperity 
whilst the cup was at his lips. Arslan then pro- 

* The MS. repeatedly gives YeJctuzuri, hnt De Sacy prefers 
BeJetuzwi. 



240 MEMOIRS OF MA.HMUD OF GHAZNA; 

ceeded to Kohistan, and gave Mm battle, and de- 
feating him expelled him unto the coasts of Tiis ; 
and the Sultan conferred the generalship of the 
army upon his brother Nasr-Ibn-Naslr-Addin, and 
sent him to Nishapdr, and proceeded to Baikh, 
and made Balkh his capital, and there took his 
seat upon the royal throne. And in this journey 
he went one day with certain of his guards on a 
hunting expedition to the frontiers of Meruward, 
and the Amir Ismail and Noshtagin-Kdj, who was 
one of the nobles of Nasir-Addin, was in atten- 
dance, and the Sultdn happened to look round and 
saw Noshtagin holding his hand ready upon his 
sword, and looking out for a signal and intimation 
from the Amir Ismail, and the Sultin by that 
action of Noshtagin discovered the treachery of 
the Amir Ismail, and perceived the hint he gav6 
by a glance and the winking of his eye. However 
he (the Amir Ismail) had spread the carpet of 
hesitation upon that consultation, and the evidences 
of his doubt were manifest. 

And the Sultan, when he returned, put Nosh- 
tagin to death and summoned his brother before 
him, and began to search into the particulars of 
the affair. And the Amir Ismail began craftily to 
extenuate the deceit of that traitor, and the vile 
mysteriousness of that deceiver. In consequence 
of this much discussion and conversation took place 
between them, and the Sultan perceived that it 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 241 

would conduce to the preservation of the State and 
to the peace of the times to deposit Ismail with 
certain of the nobles of the Court in some place 
where he could be kept safely and be well guarded, 
knowing that two swords cannot be contained in 
one sheath, and that dissensions arise from the 
concurrence of two kings even upon one sheet of 
paper,* and that if there are two rams in one flock 
they will begin to butt at one-another, And the 
Sultdn, at the time whqn the Amir Ismail had 
been removed from the castle of Ghazna, had, at 
an entertainment, entered upon free conversation 
with him, and had entered upon a gradual enquiry 
into his most hidden thoughts, and asked of him 
thus, — " If the accident of victory and the fortunate 
opportunity which has happened to me had' hap- 
pened to thee, and I had become a prisoner in thy 
hands, what course wouldest thou have pursued 
with me ? and in what way wouldest thou have 
thought to have acted towards me ?" The Amir 
Ismail, through the extreme mildness of his heart 
and equity of his disposition, replied, " I had this 
intention respecting you, to send you to some 
mountain-castle and to settle upon you whatever 
you might wish or desire with respect to your fur- 
niture, your attendants, your wives, and all the 
conveniences and comforts of life ; and if you felt 

* Or from the association of two kings upon one carpet, or 
board, or floor, &c., &c. 

R 



242 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

any inclination, or wish, or desire for anything 
whatever I should have freely granted it to you." 
The Sultan, therefore, took the same measures with 
regard to him, and acted towards him according to 
the judgment of his own intention, and committed 
him to the care of the governor of Jurjan, and 
gave order that he should be guarded, but liberally 
provided with all comforts, and settled and com- 
manded that all the means of enjoyment should be 
supplied to him, in the measure of his own wUl. 
And truly the Sultan was a man of perfect gene- 
rosity and amiable disposition, with which virtues 
Ms royal garment was adorned and the robe of his 
intentions wonderfully embroidered ; and he never 
alienated his brother from that place in his affec- 
tions which was due to the feelings of kindred and 
of fraternal connection. And, moreover, in his 
treatment of individuals who were obviously guilty 
of great crimes and treachery, and who, in opposing 
him and acting contumaciously against him had 
been foremost, and had rendered themselves liable 
to pay the penalty of offences and shameful crimes, 
he, in the time of power and opportunity, would 
slacken the fire of anger and indignation with the 
water of mildness and forgiveness, and would over- 
look and receive excuses, and pass over errors and 
offences ; and, if ever he took any strong proceed- 
ings in the way of punishing offenders, he pro- 
ceeded according to that blessed proverb, that a 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 243 

wise king ought to act with such prudence that, in 
a state of anger, he should inflict injury upon a 
man in such a way as that, in a state of good 
humour, he- may be able to repair the wrong ; for, 
in the destroying of anything, let Him only be 
active who is almighty to create, since it is impos- 
sible to make reparation when the spirit is over- 
powered and life destroyed, and destruction will 
not be formed again (Verse) 

" Oh do thou confer pleasure and kindness who canst retain 
life or destroy it." 

Account or the Kobe oe Honoitr ■which the Commaitdee 

OE THE rAITHlTL, Ai-KAdIB-BiLLAH, SENT TO THE 

SttltXn Tamin-Addoulat. 

The Commander of the Faithful, Al-Kkdir- 
Billdh sent to the SuMn a precious robe and a 
valuable jewel, such as no other king or sultdn had 
been honoured with, from the palace of the spi- 
ritual sovereign, and granted to him the surname 
of Tamin-Addoulat-wa-AmirirAl-miUat* a surname 
which had been treasured up in the treasury of the 
clement lord, and had been carefully preserved, for 
his sake, from being shared with others. And the 
SuMn was clothed with that robe of honour which 
had been woven for his exalted stature, and had 

* i. ^ Eight hand of the empire and guardian of the reli- 
gion. 

e2 



244 MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

been brought from that prophetical presence and 
abode of the ELhilafat for that object of generosity 
and happiness. And he sat down on the royal 
throne, and the nobles of Khurasan and the chiefs 
of the provinces at his levees, were arranged in 
ranks, and stood before his throne, and girded up 
their loins in service and obedience ; and he grati- 
fied every one with due marks of favour and sub- 
stantial ornaments, and he honoured them with 
valuable dresses and innumerable gifts. And the 
royal and kingly authority became established 
upon a firm basis, and the hearts of the nobles and 
the people, of the humble and of the great, became 
confirmed in obedience to him, and his circum- 
stances became well arranged and under the 
canopy of his rule and the excellence of his system 
the affairs of the provinces of Khurasfi,n were well 
settled, and happiness was sought under the good 
fortune of his government, and the benefits of his 
service, and the sanction of the Khildfat, and the 
porch of security, and the splendid authority of the 
people of the house (of God) and the manifestation 
of the word of truth, exhibited its mission amongst 
the subjects of this kingly family ; for every year 
Ghazna made, in the provinces of Hindostd,n, a 
free-will offering, by giving victory to the princes 
of faith, and by causing the depression of the ene- 
mies of Islam, and it became unto them the cause 
of the settlement of the State and of the establish- 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 245 

ment of the government, and of the security of his 
affairs, according to that which hath been uttered 
by the exalted and glorious Koran : " O ye who 
believe, if ye support the cause of God He will 
support you and will strengthen your feet." 



AccorNT or the Eetubn or Abdul-Malik-Ibn-Nuh vsio 
BitkhIea. 

"When Abdul-Malik-Ibn-Nuh and Fdlk arrived, 
after that defeat at Bukhd,ra, and Bektuzdn formed 
a union with them, and the opposing armies 
became united, then the dream of recovery, and 
the hope of renewed success, and the desire of 
prosperity, again obtained the mastery over their 
minds, and they again began to entertain thoughts 
of renewing the quarrel and recommencing the 
fight ; but, in the midst of this affair, F&lk, who 
was the upper packet in the matter, and the fringe 
of the garment, and the column of the whole 
building, succumbed to death, and thereby all their 
secret intentions were frustrated, and various indi- 
cations of weakness and imbecility became visible 
in their counsels. And Ilek-Khdn came to Buk- 
har&, and, for the purpose of plotting and deceiv- 
ing, pretended to display friendship and attach- 
ment to Abdul-Malik, and said, " In adversity we 
make ill-will disappear. Although, in former 
times, the uprisings of these demons have sue- 



246 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

ceeded, to a certain degree, in injuring the bands 
of affection and destroying the basis of intimacy, 
and hence some disagreeable events have arisen. 
' Truly he hath eaten his brother's meat and hath 
not invited him to eat of it.' On account of my 
kindred to this house and on account of the estab- 
lishment of causes for friendship I feel it incum- 
bent upon me to guard the safety of this royal 
dynasty, and to experience anger and indignation 
on account of the entrance of misfortune upon the 
plains of this province. And since foreigners* have 
now entered the province, and are stretching forth 
the neck of desire over the ancient house and 
inherited throne of the family of Saman, it is 
incumbent upon me to repulse such an attack, and 
to oppose it is one of the necessary duties of my 
allegiance." They bought up these blandishments 
and became fascinated with his gilded words, and 
infatuating actions. And Begtuziin and Yanalta- 
gln, and other generals and nobles, proceeded to 
meet him, and whilst they were sitting confidently 
he seized and bound them all, and gave up all 
their wealth, and beasts of burden, and furniture, 
to plunder. And Abdul -Malik, through his 
anguish, on account of this stratagem, and his 
vexation at this sudden event became distracted, 
and possessed no resource, except to take flight 

* Alluding to Mahmud, who had now, by the Khalif s 
grant, assumed the suzerainty. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 247 

and to hang his hand in the lap of trouble. And 
Ilek-Khan, upon Saturday, in the month Zil- 
Kaadat, in the year 389, arrived at Bukhara and 
alighted at the government residence, and sent out 
spies who were charged to deliver Abdul-Malik 
into his hands. And he took him and sent him to 
Urgand, and he was kept guarded at that place ; 
and thus the flame of the grandeur of the family of 
Samdn, at one blow, became lowered and their 
affairs approached destruction. " The foregoing 
ordinance of God is fulfilled in those who are des- 
titute, nor can any change be found in that which 
God ordains." 



An Account oj? the Expedition of Abu-Ibeahim-'bn- 
IsMAiii-'Bir-NcrH, and of the Transactions which took 

PLACE WITH HIM AND IlEK-KhAN, IN MaWABALNAHR, AND 
WITH THE GrBNEEAL OF THE AbMT, ABrii-MuZAFFA E- 
NASB-'sN-NASIE-ADDIN-SABAKTAofN, IN KhUEASAN. 

When Ilek-Khan took Bukhard, Abu-Alha- 
reth, and Abdul-Malik, and Ibrahim, and Abu- 
Yakub, the sons of Nuh-'bn-Mansiir, fell into his 
hands ; and he, moreover, took their uncles, Abu- 
Zakaria and Abu-Sahh, and all the other branches 
of the family of Samdn ; and he retained posses- 
sion of them all and separated the brothers from 
each other, and kept them apart in prison, lest, if 
they had been together, they should have began to 



248 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

plot and to seek the means of escaping. And 
Ibrahim took the robe* of a certain female who 
was employed about the household, and drew it 
over his head, and by means of that dress he fled 
from his residence, and his condition resembled the 
condition of that (person)f who dressed himself in 
female clothes and escaped from confinement, and 
who wrote these verses (Verse) 

" I have come forth just as an arrow comes forth — an 
arrow son of the aim, according to the force, whether it be 
direct or doubtful. 

" Upon me were woman's dresses, but beneath them was 
a manly mind ; it was like a basket full of spear-points." 

And Muntasir,|: when he had escaped from 
prison, took refuge in the house of a certain old 
woman of Bukhird, until the first heat of the news 
and the first impression of the event was a little 
abated, and until those who were seeking him put 
on the dress of despair and no longer felt anxious 
to find him. Then he went in this disguise to 
Khwarizm ; and, when he was in safety, he resolved 
to seek revenge. And the rest of the chiefs of the 
dynasty of the family of Sdman betook themselves 
to him, and collected a complete army ; and 

* Or veil, shawl. 

' c^o^. The translator is not satisfied as to the purport 
of this word. 

J That is, Abti-Ibrahim (Muntasir). 



MEMOIRS OF MAHM0D OF GHAZNA. 249 

Arsld,n-BalTi, who was his Chamberlain, made him 
return to Bukhdrd, where he took prisoner Jafar- 
tagin, with seventeen other of the principal lords 
and khans, and sent them to Jurjan. Upon this 
the others became dispirited and departed to join 
Ilek-Khan, and Arslan-Balii proceeded closely 
upon their track, as far as the borders of Samar- 
kand, and there they came to blows, and, when he 
arrived at the bridge of Kohak, Tagin-Khan, 
Governor of Samarkand, on behalf of Ilek-Klidn, 
was posted there, with a complete army, and some 
forces, which had been driven from Bukhd,rd {i. e., 
by Arsldn) had joined him ; and they with one 
accord directed their course towards Arsl4n, nor 
did ArsMn turn aside from them, but stood firmly 
to attack and engage them. And he broke 
through their ranks and carried away their pro- 
perty and heavy baggage as booty. And Mun- 
tasir came to Bukhard, and the people of Bukhara 
made great rejoicings at his arrival, and they con- 
gratulated one another. 

And when Ilek-Khan observed these events he 
assembled his army and resolved to return. And 
Arslan-Balu came to His Highness Muntasir, and 
they perceived that the proceeding most suitable 
for that conjuncture and the most prudent resolu- 
tion was this, that they should proceed to Atnil- 
Shatt, and should collect the revenues of those 
provinces, and should direct their march, by the 



250 MEMOIES OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

way of the desert, to Abiward. And th6y also 
seized for their own use the troops of Abiward 
and the territory. And from that place they 
came to N ishapiir, and outside the gates of Nisha- 
pilr there arose battles between them and the 
Amir Nasr-'bn-N4sir-Addin, but the Amir Nasr, 
on account of the number of their forces and the 
crowded multitude of their troops, resolved as a 
measure of bulwarking security, that, like a 
brilliant sun,* he would be veiled under the canopy 
of the family of Abbas. He set his face towards 
Menl on the dtisky chariot of night, and passing 
by Nishapiir, travelled during all that night at an 
elephant's pace, under the young star of darkness, 
until, when the first streak of the dawn of morning 
appeared on the eastern horizon, he arrived at the 
frontiers of Jurjan, and from that place proceeded 
to Herdt (Verse) 

" The youngt (horse) is no longer disgraced by the inspec- 
tion of his mouth (in order to ascertain his age). Truly his 
courage is known confidently upon trust." 

And when intelligence of this event reached 
the Sultan he forthwith marched, and came by a 
quick road to Nishapdr, and Muntasir when he 
received the news of the prosperous success of his 
standard went forward, and proceeded i;o Isfarain, 

* Or like Jemshid. Here is some historical allusion, 
t (Young) horseman, &c., here horse. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 251 

and wished to obtain some profit by selling the 
revenue and forestalling the taxes of that province ; 
but he did not succeed, and finding it impossible to 
remain there, he proceeded towards the province of 
Shams- Almuali-Kabds, and applied himself to pro- 
cure succour from his Excellency Shams- Almuali, 
who, on account of his former eminent dignity and 
venerable rank, was extremely pleased, and sent to 
him certain presents and donations, part of which 
consisted of ten Arabian horses with silver trap- 
pings, and with the upper part of the reins covered 
with gold, and thirty others with trappings of silver 
lace, and thirty housings of silk, and twenty mules 
with ornaments of gold and silver ; and thirty 
mules of burden laden with precious carpets and 
rare merchandize, and with the productions of 
Tabaristdn, and with furniture and vessels fit for 
royalty ; and one thousand bales, each containing 
one thousand royal direms, and thirty thousand 
dinars of red gold, and fifty wardrobes adorned 
with splendid tapestry, (and cups with concealed 
handles*) (?) and precious trappings, and raw silks 
folded up, and Egyptian books. And the army 
gave unto him twenty well-prepared guards, who 
should be ready to fiilfil his wishes, and his inten- 
tions, and (supply) his needs. And he said to him 
thus, "The most advisable plan at present ig this, 

# MS. doubtful. 



252 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHA2NA. 

that thou shouldest proceed to Ray, whilst I send 
my sons Dar& and Manuchhar to serve under your 
flag, since the throne of the kingdom of Ray is 
now undecorated (by a prince), and the affairs of 
that province are in confusion, and that province 
needs a victorious King, and a successful Emperor, 
and that a King should arise amidst them who 
might be the belt of the State. And as the army 
in that region is wavering, through differences of 
feelings, the confusion of the times, and the break- 
ing off of authority, it is needful to use the stirrup 
of severity, and to reduce those provinces again 
under ouv rule, and for one to be seated upon the 
throne of command, whilst I here quietly enter 
upon arrangements, and think of some means of 
your returning to Khurasan, and how to claim your 
hereditary house." This intimation was favourably 
received, and, after offering the prayer for success, 
he gave orders to march, and he came down over 
against Ray, and the soldiers who were quartered 
in the city of Ray came into his camp, and brought 
pavilions to meet him. And Arslan-Balu and 
Abiil-Kasim-Simjur, and the other nobles of the 
State, sent traitors and beguiled them with gifts of 
ready money, and professions of service, until all 
began to disagree. And they diverted Muntasir 
from that plan, and said, " Thy glory and renown 
is too great for thee that thou should have any (ill) 
relations with or opposition to a community who 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 253 

are thy subjects, and desire the happiness of serving 
thy flag, and who are affectionately disposed 
towards thee by the obligations of near kindred, or 
who have armed and joined thee as allies and feu- 
datories " And with respect to them the opinion 
of a man of judgment was listened to who said, 
" Kabils would take us by the hand of thy chiefs 
and supporters, and would knead his scarcely- 
leavened dough in the oven which shall be found 
in the hand of thy followers and warriors ; so that 
if the affair turns out according to his wishes, 
advantage may accrue unto him, or if (which God 
forbid i some evil eye should blight the undertaking, 
or some cause of weakness supervene, the fault 
may rest upon some person of the Court." Muntasir 
received this coloured and deceitful speech with 
favour, and marched from Ray, and proceeded by 
the way of Diraghin. And Dard and Manuchahar 
separated themselves again from his society, and 
proceeded to Jurjdn. Thus this design became 
abortive, and this decree was fulfilled, "Truly 
when God wills evil upon a people, then there are 
no means of repelhng Him ; nor is there for them 
any mediating deputy under Him." 

And when Muntasir arrived at Nishapiir, the 
Amir Nasr was there, and he (Nasr) thought that 
if he refrained from then opposing Muntasir and 
delayed awhile, it would be impossible that any evil 
eye should interrupt his project, as upon occasion 



254 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

of the first collision and the past occurrence. He 
therefore rose up and retreated towards Jurjdn. 
Thus in the month Shawal, in the year 391, Mun- 
tasir again took up his position at Nishapilr, and 
sent for the collectors of taxes, and began to demand 
money, and the produce of the revenue. And the 
General of the Army, Nasr-Ibn-N4sir-Addln re- 
quested some men from the Sultan, who sent to his 
assistance the Chamberlain Altontash, who was 
Governor of Herit, with a complete army. And 
when he was reinforced by these tfoops he went 
towards Nishapiir ; and Muntasir sent Arslan- 
Balii and Abiil-Kasim-Simjiir to fight with him, 
and between them there ensued many blows, and 
much slaughter ; and the army of the Amir Nasr 
took vengeance on the army of Muntasir, and de- 
feated them. " Yes, they have turned their backs 
in flight, and the word of God hath become effec- 
tually supreme." And the Amir Nasr came into 
Nishapiir, and the men of the city displayed glad- 
ness, and arranged ceremonies of triumph ; and 
they scattered gifts of gold and silver like drops of 
rain. And Muntasir went by the way of Abiward, 
and the army of the Amir Nasr went after him, 
until they had driven him as far as the frontiers of 
Jurjan. And the Amir Shams- Alumudli* sent on 
to repulse him two thousand men of the Kurdish 

* t. e. Kab.us, indiguant that Muntasir should have rejected 
his advice and listened to the calninnies of the people of Ray. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 255 

tribes, that they might give him his answer, and 
expel him from the frontiers of the kingdom. Into 
this misfortune did Muntasir fall, and did not con- 
sider that he had committed a great fault in his 
determination at Ray, and that in opposing Kabiis, 
and rejecting his sound advice he had lost the 
right road And he became alienated from Arslan- 
Balu on account of the contentions which he caused, 
and on account of his assumed imperiousness over 
the affairs of the kingdom and in matters of im- 
portance. And through his injustice disputing 
words ensued, and this ill-feeling and malevolence 
obtained a firm and settled hold upon the mind of 
Muntasir, and they objected to him another fault 
which took place in the defeat of Nishapilr, saying 
that through the calumnies and envy of Abiil- 
Kasim-Simjiir he refused to renew the fight, but 
resolved upon inactivity. And this was the pretext 
for the augmentation of the ill-will of Muntasir, 
and his hatred increased to such a degree that he 
put Arslan-Balu to death. . This event threw the 
whole army into confusion, and aU moved the 
tongue of disavowal and aversion towards Muntasir. 
And Abiil-Kasim-Simjiir exerted himself to repair 
that state of affairs, and to mend that ragged cloak, 
and succeeded in quenching that fire, and extin- 
guishing those burning embers, until all was quiet. 
And this uproar and disturbance was diminished, 
and they agreed to a design to be carried out in 



256 MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

the direction of Sarkhas. And the Prince of that 
country, who is called by the name of Pir*-Fakih, 
who was an ally and supporter of Muntasir, made 
in his favour offers of service, and gave him money, 
and provisions, and several regiments. And when 
they arrived at Sarkhas, and had been replaced in 
a prosperous condition by the money and revenues 
and property of Sarkhas, and by the assistance and 
abundance and liberality of the Prince, f (literally 
the bailiff), the Amir, commander of the army, 
Nasr, was convinced that their stay in that place 
was caused by their grasping covetousness and base 
designs ; therefore he turned against them with his 
army, and Muntasir confronted him with his forces. 
A severe engagement ensued between the two 
parties, but the heavenly decree, and the Divine 
determination respecting changing the state of 
affairs, and altering all that could be altered was 
triumphant, and the happy breeze of the good for- 
tune of the Amir Nasr blew from the benign quar- 
ter of the heaven abovQ, and he struck the army of 
Muntasir against the wall of ruin, and scattered 
them into dust. And they brought Abdl-K^sim- 

* Pir, literally, old man, but it is the usual name for the 
Mussulman saints in India and Affghanistan. (See the inte- 
resting pamphlet of M. Grascin de Tassy, " Sur la religion 
Musulmane dans I'lnde"). — Fakih, theologian, priest. 

t He appears to have been a kind of ecclesiastical prince. 
The Amir of Bukhard still regards himself in that point of 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 257 

Simjiir bound with a halter before the Amir Nasr ; 
and in like manner the chamberlain Tozt^sh, who 
was the arm, and the efficient friend, and the faith- 
ful supporter of Muntasir, was taken prisoner. And 
the greater portion of the army were also taken 
captive, and all conducted to Ghazna in the robes 
of reproach and shame. And Muntasir, thus dis- 
graced and ruined by repeated unlucky strokes of 
fortune, and by successive blows, became an undone 
wanderer ; whilst the Amir Nasr, placing himself 
under the canopy of prosperity and might, the 
pledge of stability and victory, applied himself to 
the consolidation of his power. And Abu-Mansur- 
Thaalibi thus speaks in commemoration of this 
event (Verse) 

" Time hath illuminated the white spot of fortune and hath 
let slip, against the followers of rebellion, the breaking of 
backs. 

" The Lord of the World hath caused these sons of des- 
truction to turn their backs, 

"And hath judged amongst them in victory," &c. 

And also this fragment was composed by Abu- 
Said, his friend (Verse) 

" Unto the Amir Al-Muzaffar, wise and just, there is vic- 
tory. G-lorious in heroism and abundance he hath possessed 
empire with conquest." 

And Muntasir after this defeat betook himself 
to the Gozz-Turks. These people greatly boasted 

s 



258 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

of their fidelity to the family of Samdn, and had 
been forward in favour and support unto them. 
They vied with each other in affording him a kind 
reception, and entered into his design with the ut- 
most anxiety and respect, and girded up their loins 
to assist and defend him, and encouraged each 
x)ther in a ready and zealous recognition of the glory 
of his ancient house and renowned grandeur. They 
accordingly proceeded in the service of his standard 
to the country of Ilek-Kh4n. And Ilek-Kh^n, 
when he received intelligence of the approach of 
Muntasir arose to resist him, and assembled a con- 
siderable body of troops out of the Turkish tribes, 
and came to the frontiers of Samarkand. The 
army of the Gozz-Turks thought upon the matter, 
and the result of their arrangements and resolution 
was this, that they chaunted the following (Verse) 

" Truly they challenged us to come down and fight, 
therefore I came down first and my flags were borne against 
him, when he did not come down himself to battle." 

And they made a night attack upon Ilek-Khdn, 
and when the ship of the morning arrived from the 
whirlpool of darkness at the shore of the horizon, 
they fell upon his soldiers, and they made prisoners 
of all his officers, and put all the other men to the 
sword, and plundered and seized their furniture 
and tent baggage, and collecting together all their 
spoil, and the wealth and property whicli they had 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 259 

obtained they returned, and they delivered up the 
prisoners which they had taken into the hand of 
Muntasir. Then a report arose that they wished 
to be reconciled (with the enemy), and Muntasir 
was alarmed and uneasy at the thought, and in the 
night-time he selected seven hundred of the most 
excellent and trusty of his cavalry, and departed 
from amongst the Ghozzes. And when they came 
to the banks of the river Jihiin it was entirely 
frozen over, therefore he ordered that they should 
strew straw over the surface — thus they passed. 
And when the army of the Ghozzes arrived it 
was daylight, and the sun had risen and entirely 
scorched (and melted away) the marks of their 
passage, and destroyed them. Thus Muntasir 
arrived at AmU-Shatt, and sent a letter to the 
Sultdn, in which he reminded him of the rights of 
his ancestors, and of the Sultan's feudal relation to 
them, and expressed many complaints of the heavy 
floods of sorrow and the large measures of extreme 
distress which had been his portion, and took 
refuge under the canopy of his kindness and 
humanity, and under the shadow of his compassion 
and favour, and gave the reins of obedience and 
guidance into the hand of his will and pleasure, 
and said (Verse) 

" For my eye, whicli hatk beheld thy portrait, thou art 
good ; for my heart, depressed by sorrow, in thy love to me 
thou art good ; with a soul which has possessed none of the 

S 2 



260 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

advantages of the Divine destiny T have looked upon all, and in 
thy love to me thou art good."* 

" If by means of the law of thy clemency and the 
volume of thy generosity I should become partaker 
of the water of life, I will wear the ring of slavery 
in my ear, and I shall gird up the waistband of 
obedience around my loins, and if thou wouldest 
retain the darkness of my misfortunes under the 
shadow of the State, then shall I stand unmoved, 
like the sun, in thy light-streaming Court." In 
this manner did he paint the pages of this 
volume, and thus did he decorate the construction 
of the volume of this letter with royal pearls taken 
from the treasury of the imagination. But,f from 
the alarm which arose at the dread of the violence 
of the Ghozz Turks, he removed, and went to 

To mine eye, on which thy goodness still is painted, thou 

art dear ; 
To mine heart, vrhich oft from misery's blows hath 

fainted, thou art dear ; 
To a soul forlorn, to sorrow born, 

Which Heaven has grudged to cheer, 
That, looking round, few friends hath found, 

Oh, chieftain, thou art dear, 
t i. e. Meanwhile, before he received the Sultan's reply. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 261 

Merd, and sent a person to Abu-Jaafar, son of 
Khahar, seeking assistance in restoring his affairs 
and relieving his necessity, requesting him to 
supply him with the gift of arms and necessaries. 
But he was one of that crowd of base and vile per- 
sons who had arrived at power in the days of the 
government of the family of Samin, and had ob- 
tained worldly wealth and prosperity. His ignoble 
disposition, mean notions, and low-born baseness, 
restrained him from performing the good action of 
shewing pity unto, and zealously bestirring him- 
self in the service of, so royal a Prince ; therefore 
he drew the hand of rejection over the face of 
his request; nor was he satisfied until he had 
departed, and he came out and displayed opposi- 
tion to him. And the guards of Muntasir in 
a furious and tempestuous onset broke him up, 
and dissevered his troops like the letters of words 
separated from one another. Muntasir therefore 
betook himself unto the direction of Abiward, and 
arrived alone at Abiward, in the year 394. And 
the Sultan displayed the most striking proofs of 
compassion, and the splendour of a most generous 
disposition, and exhibited the most glorious purity 
and sincerity in receiving his message, and treating 
his messenger with honour, and allowing him the 
recognition which he had hoped for. He sent to 
him the number of troops that were required, and 
ofave a comniission to the son of Khdhir-Zadah to 



262 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHA2NA. 

perform all that was necessary for his service. And 
by dint of necessity, and at the end of his teeth, 
girded up his loins to assist Muntasir. He there- 
fore attained his wish, without paying and without 
praising; but the spot of disgrace thus became 
apparent upon the face of his fortune, so that the 
consequences of his error and fault lasted many 
years. And Abii-Nasr, one of the lord chamber- 
lains of the Sult4n was posted at that place ;* and 
when Muntasir arrived at those borders he rose up 
to support his pretensions, and displayed the utmost 
zeal in the service of his standard. But the mind 
of the people of Nissaf was averse to this end ; 
they suspected that this movement of Abii-Nasr 
would not give content, and they wished to beware 
of the imputation of participating in his offence. 
They therefore sent a letter to the King of 
Khwarizm, and requested assistance. He accord- 
ingly sent Abd-Fazl, a chamberlain, who was one 
of the most distinguished men of his Court, in 
order that he might effect a repulse of the danger, 
and act as an expedient rectifier of the injury of 
that army. Upon this Abu-Nasr removed the veil 
from his head, and openly appearing in the service 
of the flag of Muntasir, they proceeded together 

* i. e. Abiward. 

t Probably situated on the site where the ruins of Oodec- 
nuggar are now seen, near the modern village of Darapflr, on 
the banks of the Hydaspes, — Btjenes. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 263 

side by side against the enemy. And in the middle 
of a gloomy night, when a cold and strong wind 
discharged the eyesight from the office of discerning 
individuals and distinguishing bodies (forms), and 
when the darkness blocked up the pupil of the eye, 
a battle took place between them and the army of 
Khwarlzm under Abii-Fazl. And until the falcon 
of the morning opened his wings from the nest of 
the horizon they continued to cast at each other 
swords, and arrows, and spears. And when the 
bride of day washed off the black dye of the dp,rk- 
ness, Abii-Nasr, the chamberlain, and the son of 
His^m-Addoulat Td,sh, with a considerable body 
of the allies of Muntasir, lay slain upon the 
field of battle, and the remainder were dispersed. 
And Muntasir went to Isfarayin, the inhabitants of 
which place, dreading the trouble into which they 
would be exposed by aiding him, rose up against 
him. Muntasir therefore quitted that city, and 
with a body of men who adhered as closely to him 
as a mill-working bullock to his mill, went on, and 
by the most direct roads proceeded on his return, 
until he arrived at the confines of Sarkas. Here 
they halted for a day, until the soldiers who had 
been separated from him came up to him, when 
he passed over the Jihiln, and arrived at the shore 
of the Kayta. And the General commanding the 
cavalry at Bukhdr^ went out to meet him and 
oppose him, and he not possessing any means of 



264 MEMOIRS or MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

escape halted to engage him. A severe battle 

ensued, and Muntasir himself by great exertion 

narrowly escaped with his life. And the General 

of that place (Bukhara ?) * .... and took 

with him the army stationed there, and therewith 

again expelled Muntasir from the city of Darband- 

piir. And the thread that united his troops in a 

body was broken, and they were aU dispersed. But 

the son of Ibn-Dar, who was Military Governor of 

Samarkand, arose to support Muntasir, and joined 

him with three thousand men. And the principal 

citizens of Samarkand sent unto him three hundred 

chosen Turkish soldiers, with a large sum of money, 

for the purpose of effecting a junction with him ; 

and a body of the Ghozz tribe also joined him. 

And thus by their aid he again became strong, 

and the flame of his affairs again mounted high. 

And when Ilek-Khdn received information of 

the recovery of his power, and of the consequent 

shaking of his own authority, he applied himself 

to repulse him. The armies engaged at the 

village Burband, on the border of the territory of 

Samarkand, when the Khdn was put to flight, 

and the army of the Ghozzes collected abundant 

booty and treasure beyond computation. This 

* Some obscurity in the Persian MS. ; but, from the 
Arabic, it seems that he again approached Bukhard, " fell into 
the mouth of the fire," and moved about, harassed and con- 
fused, until Ibn-Dar joined him ; but the translator found diffi- 
culty in this passage. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 265 

event occurred in tlie month of Shaaban, in the 
year 394. The Khan retreated to his own terri- 
tory, where he reassembled his army, and again 
proceeded to attack Muntasir. (But by this time 
the tribes of the Ghozzes had separated from him, 
and taken the road unto their own homes and resi- 
dences, and were occupied in the division of the 
spoil.) The troops engaged in a plain which is 
between Darak and Javas. And just as the two 
armies engaged, and the two bodies of troops met, 
Abul-Hasan-Tik, with five thousand men of his 
army, treacherously betrayed Muntasir, and de- 
serted to the party of the Khan, and Muntasir 
deprived of all hope was routed, yet he continued 
to resist the Kh^n and his army, for the purpose of 
vengeance. And from the clouds of (striking) 
swords the hiUs and the plains became full of tor- 
rents of blood, and from that body of men a perfect 
satiety of gluttony and a rich banquet resulted for 
the lions and the vultures. And Muntasir came 
to the bank of the Jihiln, and finding no boat, he 
joined some trees together, and thus escaped from 
the army of the Khdn, and passed over the water. 
And he seized all that he found in those coasts 
and cultivated lands, and shared it with his army. 
And he himself went by the way of the wilderness 
to the bridge of Zaghul. They informed the 
Sultan* of his arrival^ who commanded that they 
* The Sultan considered himself delivered from all relations 



266 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

should speedily resist Mm, before he could arrange 
affairs, or draw the matter to a head. He there- 
fore came to Balkh. And he sent Farighiin-'bu- 
Muhammad, with forty standards of select officers, 
to banish his band, and cut down his iniquity. 
And Muntasir retreated from them, and went in 
the direction of Kohistan. But in all the world he 
found no place of refuge and no prospect towards 
which he could direct himself, for wherever he 
turned his face he found the dragon of misfortune 
opening his mouth against him, and on all sides to 
which he could hasten the lion of misery extended 
his claws against him. Thus he ran round in a 
circle, and when he arrived at Kohistan, the 
General of the troops, Nasr, and Arslan-Jazib, 
Prince of Tils, and Toghanjak, Prince of Sarkhas, 
hurried after him. For fear of them he directed 
his course to Jumand, and from that place came to 
Borstam. And Shams-Almu41i-Kabits sent two 
thousand men of the royal body-guards to repulse 
him, in order that they might hurry him away 
from those countries. He accordingly retreated to 
Bibar, and from thence came to Nisa ; but the 
son of Sarkhak-Samani wrote a letter to him, and 
deceived him with lying promises, and treacherous 
words, and promised him the assistance and support 
and friendship of Ilek-Khdn. He, beguiled with 

of feudal allegiance, by the conduct of Muntasir, in ravaging 
his territory. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 267 

the hope which these blandishments afforded, 
marched into the province of Bukhfi,ri, and when 
he arrived at Chah-Hamad his army became 
wearied with their lengthened marches, and with 
the constant opposition of unlucky fortune, and 
becoming dispirited with the long continuance of 
war and battles they deserted him, and went to 
Sulaiman and Safi, who were chamberlains of Ilek- 
Khan, and informed him of the weak state of his 
horses, and the low ebb of his supplies, and scanty 
means of resistance, and of the stopping up of all 
sources of succour. And when Muntasir heard of 
this, and when many of the soldiers came around 
his tent, he for a short time remained as if intend- 
ing to await thein and resist them ; but he after- 
wards betook himself to flight. And they took his 
brothers and his chief friends and officers prisoners 
and carried them to Urkand. And Muntasir re- 
treated to the encampment of Ibn-Bahaj-Arabi. 
Here one named Mdh-R6i had been placed over 
them, on behalf of the Sultan. This man incited 
(the tribe) to pursue him. And when night arrived 
the vile Arabs of this Arab made a sudden attack 
upon him, and gave his precious life to the wind, 
and spilt his noble blood upon the ground. His 
fate is described in the following verses of Abu- 
Tamdm (Verse) 

" The youth hath perished beneath javelins and deadly 



268 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

blows. He stood firmly upon the position of victory, although 
victory failed him, 

"Nor did he die until he died striking blows with the 
sword, 

"Nor until continual thrusts of the javelins destroyed him. 

" At the last throes of death he firmly set his foot, and said 
unto her, ' Beneath thy sole is the Resurrection.' What hath 
come upon him hath come upon him, but glory is upon his 
black robe. Tet the only reward paid to him was his shroud. 
His pleasant gardens have passed away from the pure-robed 
one, nor is the banquet of the brave prolonged, since the grave 
casts upon them the evU eye. God's blessing be upon thee 
unchangeably. So I have seen that long life is not for the 
noble and warm (hearted)!" 

And they buried his remains in the marshy 
ground in the irrigated country of Mardam. This 
event happened on the first day of the month 
Rabiah, in the year 395, 

And when the news of this occurrence reached 
the SuMn, he seized the perpetrator and put him 
to a cruel death, and plundered the encampment of 
Ibn-Bahaj. Thus at one blow the lofty flame of 
the house of the Sd,minides sunk down, and the 
star of their empire fell. But God directs all 
things according to his fore- knowledge.* 

* It is to be presumed that the remaining princes of the 
famUy of Saman were massacred by Ilek-Khan and the Sultan 
Mahmud. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA, 269 

Account of the Famili of the Samanides add the 

DUBATION OF THEIE GrOTEENMENT, tTNTlL THE TiME 
THAT THE KINGDOM EETEETED TO THE SULTAN TaMIN- 

Addotoat. 

The duration of the reign and authority of the 
family of S4md,n over Khurasin, and Mawaralnahr, 
and over certain other territories of Sistin, and 
Karman, and Jurj^n, and Ray, and Tabaristdn, as 
far as to the borders of Ispahan, which were under 
their government for various periods of time was 
one hundred and two years and sixteen days. The 
first King of this family was Ismail-Ibn- Ahmad, 
who seized upon Amr-Lays, in the territory of 
Balkh, and succeeded to the kingdom early on 
Saturday, in the middle of the month Eabia, the 
last in the year 287. He possessed the kingdom 
for the space of eight years, and he succumbed 
(died) at Bukhdrd, on the night of Tuesday, the 
fourteenth of the month Safar, in the year 295. 
His son Abu-Nasr-Ahmad-Ibn-Ismail took his 
seat upon the throne in his stead. He was King 
six years and six months, and was killed by his 
guards on the night of Thursday, the twenty-sixth 
day of the month Jumadhi-Al-Akhar, in the year 
302. His son, Nasr-Ibn-Ahmad was his heir and 
successor, who for thirty years prosperously held 
the highest station and the chief authority. After 
him his son NTih-'bn-Nasr, surnamed Al-Hamid, 
took his seat upon the royal throne, reigning eight 



270 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

years, three months, and seven days, and deceasing 
at Bukh^rS,, on Tuesday, the nineteenth day of 
Rabia-Al-Akbar, in the year 343, his dignity de- 
volved upon his son, Abdul-Mahk-'bn-Niih, who 
governed seven years, six months, and eleven days ; 
and on Thursday, the eleventh Shawwdl, in the 
year 350, he fell from his horse and resigned his life. 
His son Mansiir-'bn- Abdul- Malik, surnamed Sadid, 
succeeded, and struck the relief guard (drum) of 
royalty for fifteen years and nine months, dying at 
Bukhdrd, on Tuesday, the eleventh Shaww^l, in 
the year 365. His son Niih-'bn-Mansiir, surnamed 
Ar-Eidha, sat on the musnard, reigning twenty- 
one years and nine months. He vpent to the neigh- 
bourhood of mercy, on Friday, the thirteenth of 
Rajib, in the year 387, and his son Abul-Harith- 
Mansiir-'bn-Nilh became King. He reigned one 
year and seven months, and on Wednesday, the 
eighteenth of Safar, in the year 389, was blinded 
and imprisoned by the hand of Baktilziin, at Sark- 
has, and the investiture was conferred upon his 
brother Abdul-Malik-'bn-Niih, who brought the 
city to the ground, until Bukh^rd was taken by the 
hand of Ilek-Khdn, and the kingdom of Mawardn- 
nahr fell from his hand, and the duration of his 
affair was eight months and seven days. During 
these days the victories of the kingdom and 
royalty of Yamin-Addoulat and Amin-Almillat 
commenced ; and subsequently as time advanced. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZSA. 271 

the tablet of his kingdom was gladdened, and the 
flame of his empire blazed, and the star of his pros- 
perity rose to a degree of happiness and power, 
until the pulpits of Isldm became illuminated by 
the might of his august surnames, and his decree 
was current as destiny in all tracts and portions of 
the world ; for God maketh royalty to come unto 
whom He wiUeth, and God is bounteous and wise ! 
(Verse) 

" The bridegroom of his kingdom holds her fast in his 
embrace, that she may imprint kisses upon the lips of the 
brilliant scimitar. Of a hundred heroes it is one like thee, to 
whom is given the cutting sword and the wish-winning arm." 



ACCOTTNT OF TBAT WHICH HAPPENED BETWEEN NasIE-AdDIN- 
SaBAKTAGIN AlfD KhALAF-AhMAD, both as BEaAEDS 
THBIE DiEEBEENCES AND THBIE FeIENDSHIPS, TP TO THE 
TIME WHEN THE SuiiTAN TaMIN-AdDOTTLAT WEESTED THE 

Kingdom eeom his Hands, and an AocorNT of the 
"Waeiikb Ineoads upon India which ensued. 

The retreat of Khalaf- Ahmad and his banish- 
ment from his home, and the anxious endeavours 
of the Amir Sadid-Mansur-Ibn-Niih, for the 
defence and support, and preservation of his 
kingdom, have already been brought out to mani- 
festation, up to those days when the affairs of 
Khurasin became confused and shaken, and the 
whole kingdom was disturbed. But he remained 
sitting in perfect quietude, in his own land, and 



272 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

was eminent for his worldly treasures. And the 
way of perverseness obtained the mastery over his 
intellect, and brought him from a condition of 
vigour and virtue into a state of crime. And 
when the King of India entertained designs 
against the dwellings of Islam, and Nasir-Addin 
rose up to repulse them, in the manner described 
in the contents of this book, then since Khalaf- 
'bn- Ahmad found Bost empty, he sent an army to 
that place, and caused the public prayers to be 
offered and the coin struck in his name therein, 
and seized upon all the money which had been 
collected as the revenue of that country. But 
when Nasir-Addin returned from that battle with 
Mansiir, and drew near to Bost, the chiefs of the 
city deserted Khalaf and departed. And Nasir- 
Addin was angry, on account of his carelessness 
and his treachery, and entertained an intention of 
proceeding towards Sistdn. But Khalaf sent a 
person and sought to win him by soothing excuses 
and by unacceptable words, and said, " This auda- 
city proceeded from the most sincere duty, and 
even if a garrison of cavalry did enter the city of 
Bost from me, it was done for the sake of guarding 
thy territory and protecting thy subjects ; and if 
the produce of the taxes were taken it was taken 
for the sake of thy treasury. But if, on this 
account, some dust has settled upon the border of 
the illustrious mind, I shall regard myself as 



MEMOIKS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 273 

obliged to offer expiation for this crime and to pay 
a tax for this impertinence." Nasir-Addin, from his 
extreme generosity, mild goodness, and amiable 
disposition, took the path of indifference and of 
holding himself above taking notice of such things, 
and replaced the sword of vengeance in its sheath, 
and returned to his usual state of contentment. 
But he asked for the return of the revenue-money 
of Bost, which property the other sent back with a 
good- will. Thus the state of affection was cleansed 
from the smears of hatred, and the distinguished 
mind was settled, until those days when Abu-Ali- 
Simjur gave battle at the gate of Nishapilr, in the 
manner which has been declared. And Khalaf 
displayed words of friendship, offering the aid of 
fiiends and the conquest of enemies, and good evi- 
dences of a desire for the alliance and prosperity of 
Nasir-Addin. And he girded up his loins and 
devoted himself and his army, and his property 
and his goods, to the vindication of the rights of 
Nasir-Addin. But, however he might outwardly 
assist and favour the success of Nasir-Addin, his 
inward object was Abii-All, and his aim was to 
obtain vengeance for the mutual injuries which 
had long since occurred between them. And 
Khalaf proceeded in the service and in the aid of 
the flag of Nasir-Addin, as far as to Bushanj. 
And Nasir-Addin left him at that place, and com- 
manded him to repose himself from the trouble of 



274 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

the journey, and from all annoyance of mind. 
And he took his army with himself, and went to 
Tiis, to fight with Abd-All) until he defeated him. 
And his mind became at rest from that affair, and 
he sent back the army of Khalaf with honour and 
caresses, and flattering words. And thus the path 
of their affection and the fountains of their 
friendship remained free from the mutations of 
time and the pollution of accident, from the 
disputes of deceit and the impurities of dissimula- 
tion, until the time when Nasir-Addin proceeded 
towards Mawaralnahr, for the purpose of assisting 
the Prince Eidha-Niih-'bu-Mansiir, and in order to 
repulse Ilek-Kh4n. And, under his direction, 
affairs, by the benignity of peace and security, 
remained free from open rent or violence. But 
Khalaf, in the midst of this state of things, wrote 
kind letters to Ilek-Kh4n, and began to deceive 
him and lead him astray, and to stir him up to 
attack and estrange himself from Nasir-Addin. 
And he began to stretch forth the neck of cove- 
tousness for the territory of Bost and the provinces 
annexed thereto, and it was reported that an 
expression publicly fell from him, that he repented 
of his enmity to Abii-All, and, that, in this point, 
he blamed Nasir-Addin, and said, "To attack 
noble princes and ancient royal families (is an act) 
which will never be blest, and to advance upon help- 
requiring and needy kings is odious and culpable." 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 275 

At these reproaches, Nasir-Addin was in a 
rage and determined to seize upon the territory of 
Sistan. But Abul-Fath-Bosti used his utmost 
endeavours, by means of various acts of kindness 
and indications of attachment, to put a stop to this 
ill-will and to banish this suspicion. And he 
attributed all these reports to the malice of false 
speakers, and said, " Some hearts are like birds 
which fly in the air, and whom we cannot suppose 
that we shall capture, except by the use of craft ; 
but when they fall into the snare and our object is 
joined to attainment then there is a further neces- 
sity for exertion, to preclude the opportunity of 
their escape or of letting them fly away, and that 
we may not have the annoyance of losing them. 
Such is the case with the hearts of friends, who 
may come to our hand by skiU, by the difiusion of 
manceuvreings and by the employment of manage- 
ment, and who have become bound to us by bene- 
fits and kindness. For one heart-burn they are 
alienated and the highways of affection are 
darkened." He then brought forward, in proof of 
his assertion, the following text of the Koran, " O 
ye who believe there comes to you some false 
prophet, then ye become rebellious and place 
yourselves in the way of, folly, so that you wake 
one morning full of repentance for that which you 
have done." He then mentioned to him the inter- 
pretation of these verses and further confirmed 

T 2 



276 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

them, by the evidence of various histories and 
tales, so that be began to recover of his hatred, 
and laid aside his haste for meeting and exposing 
him. And Abul-Fath-Bosti recorded these verses 
in confirmation of these counsels, and as a gloss 
upon these events (Verse) 

" If thou dost wish to win the love of a brother's heart, 

" And to gain his whole devotion and affection, 

" Then cause him to partake of the good wherewith God 
hath prospered thee, 

" And to enter into thy blessings, by the participation of 
love. 

" Dost thou not see the bird of the air ? how ,she loves to 
pick up the grain, 

" In order to divide it, bit by bit, amongst the progeny of 
her cherished nest ; 

" Even so no one possessed of mind and sense will expect 
to win the love of hearts without his grains." 

And Khalaf, upon this point, sent letters to 
His Highness Nasir-Addin, filled with excuses for 
these transactions, and with endeavours to smooth 
down his declarations. And the Amir Nasir- 
Addin listened to these apologies with a favour- 
able ear, and turned round upon him the head of 
sincere friendship and ancient regard. And for the 
rest of the life of Nasir-Addin all the offices of 
affection remained settled between them, and all 
the demonstrations of fidelity and devotion were 
preserved with unshaken truth. But after the 
event (death) of Nasir-Addin, they brought to the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 277 

hearing of the Sultdn his former intention (re- 
specting attacking Sistin), and intimated that, in 
his subsequent conduct to Khalaf, he had only put 
on the guise of satisfaction, and that he could be 
spoken of as figured in these verses (Verse) 

" Tell those who remain in this world after those who have 
passed away, that in the next world there is prepared .for them 
that \ihich is like what hath already been."* 

These words made a deep impression upon the 
mind of the Sultdn, and the arrow of this scan- 
dalous remark fully reached the middle of the 
target, and he kept these words within his heart, 
until the time when an opportunity of alluding to 
it occurred. And when the kingdom of Khurasan 
became settled in the possession of the Sultdn, and 
meddlers were removed, and the various parts of 
the kingdom were freed from the dust of uproar 
and confusion (Khalaf) then, during the sickness 
that prevailed in the kingdom, and at the time of 
the last illness that befell Nasir-Addin, sent his 
son Tahir to Kohistan, and obtained possession of 
Kohistan and Bushanj. Now Bushanj was one of 
the annexations of Herd,t, and was numbered as 
one of the estates of Bagrajak, the uncle of the 

* That is, greater success and happiness in this world will 
be the cause of greater happiness hereafter. Mahmud, 
therefore, desired to carry out his father's design, that the 
merit of suggesting it might profit him. This appears to be 
rather a Hindu than a Muhammadan notion. 



278 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

SuMn ; and, as it was one of his best sources of 
revenue, Bagrajak requested assistance from the 
Suitan, that he might release his territory from 
the hand of violence, and return a reply of opposi- 
tion and expulsion. To this the Sultdn consented, 
and Bagrajak went to Bushanj, and Tahir came 
out to oppose him. A sharp contest ensued 
between them, but the end of the affair was that 
Tahir took to flight, and Bagrajak proceeded after 
him and killed his guards, and plundered his goods 
and heavy baggage. But, having drank several 
cups of wine, the fantasies of drunkenness obtained 
the mastery over him, and the eyes of clear vision 
and of self-command, through the carelessness of 
intoxication, became unable to fight with any one, 
so that he cast himself into the precipice of folly 
and error. And Tahir wheeled round his horse 
and cast him down from his saddle, at one blow, 
and came down and took his head. Upon this, 
both armies became dispersed and put to flight ; 
but Tahir collected his own troops and came to 
Kohistan. And the Sultan was extremely dis- 
turbed upon the intelligence of this event, and was 
grieved at the affair of the son of Khalaf, and at 
the thought of his being hemmed in by sorrow, 
and darkly walking amidst the dangers of calamity, 
and falling headlong into the deep fissures of care, 
and that he should be like an ant, whose wing is the 
cause of its injury, or like the serpent, which, 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 279 

although the wrestler of death, struts as a poet in 
the streets {i. e., dances to music). ''^ And he wrote 
these paraboUc verses (Verse) 

" Have the Persians ever recorded, in their histories, any- 
thing like this ? 

" Have the Arabians, in their times, ever beheld any thing 
like this P 

" They said, ' Behold the camel, vphen his end draws nigh, 

" ' Walks round and round the well, until the rope is 
destroyed.' " 

And, in the new moon of the year 390, he 
came to Sistfi.n, in order to take vengeance, for this 
occurrence. But Khalaf took refuge in the citadel 
of the fortress of Asphabad, a fortress which was 
the companion of the sign Arcturus and a comrade 
of the skies ; the clouds pitched their tents upon 
the lap of its basement, and the stars revolved 
around the edge of its summit ; the new moon was 
like the gilded ball (or finial) upon the top, and 
the planet Saturn was like the star-shaped orna- 
ment inserted into the threshold of this castle 
(Verse) 

'' Such was its height that, from its loftiness, you would not 
be able to distinguish between a fire-eyed rocketf and the body 
of the planet Satiu-n." 

* i. e. Sports with ruin. 

"t" i^b »Jjl> (jiuT. Perhaps the use of this word may 
have encouraged the idea that artillery was known in Mah- 
mud's age. 



280 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

And Khalaf remained hemmed in -witliin this 
citadel, without comfort, and bade adieu to the 
delights of life and to sleep of the eyes, and, 
through the darkness of these circumstances and 
the horror of these events, lost all tranquillity and 
saw no means of arranging the affair, except by 
lamentation, and the resignation of his kingdom, 
and humiliation. He therefore offered to the 
Sultin, by way of a preliminary offering, six 
thousand dinars of red gold, and, in addition, any 
suitable pledge, and, at the same time, entreated 
an accommodation. The Sultan, although he was 
determined to obtain full possession of Sistan, yet, 
for the present, in order to secure a better time for 
the design of conquest which he entertained, 
resolved to accommodate that affair, and accepted 
that redemption money from Khalaf, and loosened 
the reins, and turned his face towards the countries 
of India, and set forward unto the territory over 
against Parshawar,* in the midst of the land of 
Hindustan. And intelligence reached him that 
Jaibal had collected and equipped an army, and 
had set forward to meet the standards of Isldm. 
Upon this, the SuMn marched forward, for the 
protection and support of Islam and religion, with 
fifteen thousand chosen cavalry, and proceeded 
onwards with firm intention and sincere confidence. 

* Parshawar or Parashawar, i. e., Peshawir. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 281 

But this vile infidel advanced in opposition to tlie 
standards of the SuMn with, eight thousand cavalry 
and thirty thousand infantry, and three hundred 
elephants. The earth groaned under the pain of 
their boots. And he was bewitched by the multi- 
tude of his troops and the strength of his army and 
forces, so as to forget the victorious power and 
strength of God (may His majesty be glorified), 
and the wondrous influence of that verse of the 
Koran, " As for you with a small troop you have 
vanquished a large troop by the word of God." 
And when the distance between the two armies 
was but small, the infidel began to delay the com- 
mencement of the battle and the onset, in order 
that the rear of the troops, and those men of the 
army who were coming up behind the others should 
arrive. The Sultan perceived this stratagem, and 
hasted forward, and wrested the power of choice 
from his hand. Upon this, the ranks arranged 
themselves, and prepared to march forward, and 
begin the fight. Throughout the atmosphere a 
veil of pitch proceeding from the hands of the 
balancing warriors was drawn overhead, and the 
wishes of the male spears of Islim, in demanding 
in marriage as wives the lives of all on that field, 
received a perfect accomplishment, and their earnest 
intentions in thrusting through the breasts, and in 
pressing forward the front ranks of those accursed 
wretches attained reality. Thus at the time of 



282 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

mid-day nearly five thousand carcases of the infi- 
dels cut in half by the sword lay upon the field of 
battle, as food for dogs, and as a gift for wolves, 
and fifty elephants were cut down by the stroke of 
arrows and of swords. Moreover, they seized 
Jaibal, with all his family and children and kindred, 
and a considerable number of his intimate officers, 
in the snaring rope of violence, and brought them 
as prisoners before the Sultin. (Verse) 

" The fire of the dread of the king produced smoke in the 
land of India, and from that smoke their cheeks became as 
black as pitch." 

And SO many necklaces were taken from the 
necks of the children, set with precious stones, 
glittering pearls, and valuable rubies, that the 
appraisers valued them at two hundred thousand 
dinars of red gold. In like manner, similar pre- 
cious stones were found on the necks of the 
wounded and the slain, so that the army of Isldm 
obtained abundant wealth and unlimited riches 
from their booty, and from their spoil, and near a 
hundred thousand children and young people and 
girls were obtained from that country, and aU those 
provinces of India submitted to the SuMn which 
are on the side of Khurasan, inclining towards the 
kingdoms of the west. This victory took place on 
Thursday, the eighth of the month Muharram, in 
the year 392, and the news of it proceeded through 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 283 

the most distant horizons. And after the cessation 
of the blaze of war and the extinguishing of the 
coals of engagement, the Sultdn was of opinion that 
he might dismiss the cursed one, with the brand of 
disgrace and the robe of loss and captivity, into the 
provinces and huts of his country. And he made 
friendship with him, and took fifty head of elephants 
from him, and took his son as a hostage for the con- 
firmation of his promise, and dismissed him to his 
own country. And when he arrived at the midst 
of his own territory a letter came to his son, stating 
that his father had become afilicted with the disease 
of regret, and that he had clothed himself with the 
robe of calamity, and that his fortune had become 
polluted with the spot of inferiority and the distor- 
tion of shame, and that he would drink the cup of 
death, and be boiled in the hot water of hell. Now 
in mid-India it had been a long time established as 
a rule that if any king fell as a prisoner into the 
hands of the Muslims he should no longer hold his 
kingdom, and that no more allegiance or duty 
should efiectually appertain to him. Jaibal for this 
reason drew away his skirt from the power of hold- 
ing the kingdom, and shaved his head, and threw 
himself into the fire, and went unto the lowest of the 
pits of hell. And the SuMn for the second time 
renewed the enjoyment of the racy wine of con- 
quest and the gladness of sacred warfare, and 
desired to add a fellow to that victory, and a pledge 



284 MEMOIRS OF MAIIMUD OF GHAZNA. 

to that golden deed. He therefore commanded the 
army to fly forth into the provinces of Hindustan, 
and took possession of those territories. And with 
regard to all the soldiers of India in the hills and 
the castles of those frontiers who stirred up vio- 
lence, and wickedness, and perverseness, he made 
them all the food of swords and the subjects of 
justice ; and lie claimed the imputation of merit for 
having entirely purified those places from their 
filthy ungodliness, and thus with glorious victories, 
and illustrious conduct, and solid power, and dis- 
tinguisted conquest, he arrived at his capital, 
making the rosy cheek of Islam brilliant with the 
rosy blush of victory, and he broke the back of 
these innovators* and idolaters with the sword of 
vengeance. 

In the midst of all these transactions, Khalaf- 
'bn-Ahmad appointed his son Tahir to be his heir, 
and entrusted unto him the keys of his treasuries, 
and gave him up the keys of his provinces, and 
became a hermit, and betook himself to the service 
of God, and requested to be allowed the ragged 
habit, and asked to be released from the kingly 
ofiice ; for he saw that this was the only contriv- 
ance whereby the cup of the calamity-encircling 
(anger) of the Sultan might be driven far away 
from him. But, when these events were passed, 

* The Musalmdns declare that idolatry is an innovation 
upon original Monotheism. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 285 

he began to repent of what he had done, and felt 
remorse and shame for having left royalty and 
declined the throne, and felt unable to endure or 
to support the public declaration and revelation of 
his error which had taken place, and of the event 
which had occurred. He, therefore, contrived 
another trick, and feigned himself sick, and called 
his son before him, in order to renew his will, and 
in order to communicate some explanations, 
together with his last farewell. And he placed 
some of his chief officers in ambush, until the time 
of his arrival ; and they came like a dream to the 
edge of the mountain-path, and bound him fast, 
and cast him into a dungeon. And one day they 
took him dead out of that prison, and said that he 
had kiUed himself But Tahir-'bn-Zainab, and the 
other chiefs and generals who beheld that event, 
began to be extremely averse in their minds from 
Khalaf, and in their inmost hearts inchned to 
hatred to him and his family, and bound around 
their foreheads the garland of rebellion against 
him, and seized upon the city which was the seat 
of his government, and caused the public prayers 
to be celebrated, and the coin to be struck deco- 
rated with the titles of the Sultan,* and published 
a document, recognising his claim. And they sent 

* The history of Khalaf has been extracted from Mirkhond 
and published; Mirkhond quotes Utbi and his Persian Trans- 
lator. 



286 MEMOIRS OF MAHM0D OP GHAZNA. 

a declaration of all these events to the Sultan, and 
implored him to afford them the opportunity of 
entering into his permanent service. And the 
SuMn received their entreaty with favour, and he 
called them all to his presence, and addressed kind 
words to them. And, in the year 393, all these 
provinces became enrolled in the royal registry and 
taxation-books of the SuMn.* And he enter- 
tained a design of proceeding in the direction of 
Sistan, in order to cut off the primary source of 
these disputes. 

(And he especially addressed himself to the 
destruction) of certain lofty fortresses, each so high 
that from its summit the sign of the virgin could 
be seen, and the angelic hymns could be heard, 
and surrounding each a moat or ditch of immense 
depth was dug, that if the crane were to penetrate 
to its bottom he could reach to the fountain-reser- 
voir of the waters that supply the whole globe of 
the earth. And the army of the Sult4n surrounded 
this fortress, as exactly as a circumference encircles 
the centre, and, by the assistance of their own 
hands, they heaped together abundance of thou- 
sands of hardsfuU of dirt, and branches and arms 
of the trees which were around that place, and 
filled up the depth of that ditch, and enlarged it so 

* Thus Sistan, as well as BukharS, fell to the iSultdn, but 
he addressed himself to complete his conquests by the capture 
of the forts. 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OE- GHAZNA. 287 

as to be a pleasant circus* for cavalry and infantry ; 
and the horses and the elephants of the Sultdn 
earnestly exerted themselves for the destruction of 
that castle, and in making a breach in that wall, 
and each one of them put on the girdle of unpar- 
alleled zeal in his endeavours to seize that fortress. 
But the followers of Khalaf exerted themselves to 
repulse them, and all the excess of iniquity blazed 
forth ; but the greater number of the elephants 
joining together dragged away the gate of the 
citadel by mere force, and cast it up into the air, and 
a considerable number of the officers of Khalaf 
were slain, but the rest fled into the interior (keep), 
and stood up to repel the attack. And Khalaf 
came from the place where he was to contemplate 
the event, and to witness the affair. And he saw 
the ruin of the place, and the obstinate defence of 
the forts, perceiving that the whole surface of the 
earth was like a stormy sea of waves of human 
demons, and embodied devils. And he saw that 
every one of the elephants took with his trunk 
before his eyes an individual by his decorated back 
and threw them up into the air the height of two 
spears, and when they descended they divided 
them whilst in the air into two parts, and crushed 
them beneath their feet ; and they made a fulcrum 
with their shoulder, and struck against the fortress, 

* i. e. open clear battle-field or area. 



288 MEMOIRS OF M\HMUD OF GHAZNA. 

and took it from its basis. And when Khalaf saw 
all this transaction, his soul nearly went out of his 
body, from his extreme fear and terror, and he 
cried out for help and asked for quarter. And the 
Sultdn, through the generosity that was innate in 
his pure disposition, gave him quarter, and placed 
the sword of vengeance in the sheath. And 
Khalaf stretched forth his hand full of jewels and 
ornaments and gifts, and cast himself before the 
Sultdn, and rubbed his white hairs in the dust, and 
filled the carpet of the presence chamber with the 
offerings of jewels, and scattered around so many 
pearls that the light veiled the brilliancy of the 
sun, and made the eyes dim-sighted. And more- 
over, in praising the good actions of the Sultan, 
and in expatiating upon his renewed mercy and 
returning favour, Khalaf unfolded the book of self- 
blame and the exhibition of his Majesty's pardon 
and forgiveness to the utmost degree. And the 
Sultd,n, in the generosity of his dignity and in the 
exaltation of his rank, displayed the marks of his 
merciful breath, and restored Khalaf to his honours, 
and drew the pen of forgetfiilness over the surface 
of past evil deeds, and. he relinquished to him all 
the claim to the treasures in the citadel. And he 
resigned to him the chief part of the property and 
provisions of that place, in order that he might 
carry out whatsoever he wished, according to his 
free choice, and might make himself happy in his 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 289 

residence, and in his abode, and (consented) that 
his home might be in any of the provinces of the 
Sultan that he might wish, and they left it to the 
convenience of his choice, and to the computation 
of his preference, and to the calculation of his for- 
tune. And he chose the territory of Jurjan,* on 
account of the convenience of che air and the water 
of that country. And the Sultdn sent him to that 
place with the utmost respect, and he reposed for 
a space of four years under the shadow of that 
peacefully-quiet region. And after that time the 
flattering advance which he had written unto Ilek 
became known, and the Sultan,' in order to pre- 
serve the peace of the State, sent hira unto the 
fortress of Jurdin, and there he remained until his 
appointed time according to the Almighty's will 
arrived, and the volume of his life received its last 
seal in the month of Eajib, in the year 399, And 
the Sultdn gave a royal order that all the property 
which he had left behind him should be given up 
unto his son Amir Abu-Hass. And Abu-Mansur- 
Thaalabi in his poem, descriptive of all these aft'airs 
of the diminishing of the dignity and the diminu- 
tion of the kingdom of Khalaf, says thus (Verse) 

" (There are some whose obstinacy age will not wear down ; 
there are some whose prosperity the hand of time will not 

* Eather Juzjan, both here and elsewhere, on the authority 
of M. de Sacy, who declares that Jurjfo is a great error in the 
MSS. Juzjan is on the road between Herat and Balkh. 

U 



290 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 

render gentle and meek). Dost thou behold Khalaf, Senator 
of Kings in might ?— now a slave unto him who hath con- 
quered the impregnable fortresses of his country. Yesterday 
he was a king unequalled, to-day a prisoner, whose captivity 
shall never be removed." 



The Amir Khalaf was one of the greatest kings 
of the world, celebrated for a generous, noble, and 
liberal brilliancy of glory ; his gifts rendered his 
Court useful and profitable to the wise and inge- 
nious, and the worthies and poets of the world 
opened out the tongue in praising and commending 
him, and the renown of his merits dwelt on the 
tongue of the high and low. He assembled the 
learned of his time, in order that they might make 
a complete collection of interpretations of the 
glorious Kordn, compiled from the words of inter- 
preters, and the expositions of ancient and modem 
commentators, with the explanation of the reasons 
of readings, the cause of grammatical constructions, 
and the derivations of words. It was laden with 
witnessing examples and verses, and interwoven 
with the citation of tales and stories, and it was 
reported from confidential quarters of the Court, 
that he had sunk twenty thousand dinars of red 
gold in providing for the compilation and composi- 
tion of this book. A volume of this interpretation 
was treasured up at the Sabiini College at Nisha- 
p\ir, until the occurrence of the conquest took 
place. At present this perfect and complete volume 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMI7D OF GHAZNA. 291 

is at Ispahan, among the books of the family of 
Khajand CHeaven help true Moslems by their sur- 
vivors, and have mercy upon their fathers who 
have passed away). This poor author (*'. e. Utbi\ 
at the time when he had been expelled his native 
place, and was for some time settled at Ispahan, 
became familiarly acquainted with this gainful 
garden, and borrowed light from the beams of its 
subtleties and mysteries. This is a book of one 
hundred volumes, written in different hands, so 
that a lifetime would be absorbed in the endeavour 
to copy it, nor could such a result be possible ex- 
cept in long years, nor could it be successfully 
carried out but by the assistance of copiers and 
writers in divers characters. Utbi thus avers, 
the Shaikh Abiil-Fath-Busti told me, once it 
happened that there fell into my mind three v6rses 
in his praise, which I had no intention should 
reach his Highness. They fell into men's mouths, 
and reached him by the tongue of quotation. One 
day, a confidential officer came to me from him, 
and brought me a present of three hundred dinars 
of red gold, as a reward for these verses, and he 
requested me to excuse him for the amount ; the 
verses were as follows (Poem) 

" Khalaf-'bn- Ahmad will be praisewoi'fchy beyond his suo- 
cesBora, but he abounded in defects beyond his predecessors ; 
Klhalaf^'bn-Ahmad in truth is one, but he is the guardian of 
thousands. He clearly showed to the family of Al-Lays the 

U2 



292 MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

way of kindling the sparks, as the prophet to the family of Abd- 
Munaf." 

I replied, this story is similar to that which 
occurred with regard to Ibrahiin-Sdbi to whom, 
at Bagdad, a messenger came on the part of Saif- 
Addoulat-Hamadiini, requesting a poem from him, 
expressing verbally the sincere desire of Saif-Ad- 
doulat (for this poem). Sibi delayed preparing it, 
until the time for the departure of the messenger 
drew near, when the latter came to S^bi, and as a 
matter of great need, urged him to comply with his 
request, and to accomplish the object sought. Sabi 
speedily improvised these three verses (Verse) 

. " If for awhile I appeared faithless in my attachment to 
him, 

" And appeared to vituperate the renown of Saif-Addoulat, 

" I was seeking some one who might be supposed a partner 
in his greatness, and I was ignoring the truth of his absolute 
singularity in merit. 

" I swear an oath that, looking into the depth of the 
matter, 

" That to him who is so great in what is due (i. e., devotion 
or dehf) 

" One would not wish to add any increase." 

The next time that the messenger came to 
Bagdad he presented him with three hundred 
dinars of red gold as a reward. The Shaikh Abiil- 
Fath-Busti composed this Kasidah in his praise 
(Verse) 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 293 

" He who would seek greatness, glory, and renown, 

" He who hopes that fortune may incline to him, and give 

him eminence above all, 

" Or he who hopes to obtain rank from Q-od, 

"And that there may be bountifully granted unto him 

familiarity with the illustrious and high, 

" Or he who seeks to be confirmed in religion," &c., &c. 

Utbi says — " I have heard from Abii-Jafar that 
the following was written upon the door of his 
palace : ' Let him who has been gladdened by the 
sight of Paradise but look at these porticoes.' 
' If he has been delighted by the Heaven of works, 
let him by the aid of his eyes only look at this 
building.'" 

And when the Sultin had obtained firm posses- 
sion of Sajastdn, when the stars of confusion had 
set, and the state of that country was peaceful and 
secure, and the longings of the children and kindred 
of variance was cut short, the Sultan came to 
Ghazna, the fame of this important victory spread 
through the lands, all allowing that at no time, and 
for no king, had such fortunate events occurred 
with regard to captured fortresses and portioned 
kingdoms. And Abd-Mansiir-Thaalabi thus speaks 
of the conquest of Sist^n (Verse) 

" Fortune hath blessed thy face witli the white mark (of 
victory) 

" And the people have been decorated by thy safety. 

"The thoughts converse with thee amongst their high 
reflections. 



294 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

" Wherewith the intelligent and the thinking are assisted," 
&c., &c. 

And the SuMn appoiated to the Yizirat of 
Sajasthdn, Kanajl, the Chamberlain, who had been 
one of his privy counsellors and royal deputies. 
He, in guiding the subjects and ruling the country, 
displayed vestiges of justice and equity, and exhi- 
bited good morals and pleasing manners. Then a 
company of vile wretches and odious scoundrels, 
through their agreeable condition, and wide field 
(of comfort), and the insolence of ease, and their 
devilish rebelliousness, rubbed themselves upon the 
wall of misfortune, and became receivers of trouble 
and misery, and in their ill-will, and iniquity and 
opposition^ drew the sword from the sheath, and 
openly declared themselves rebels to the Sultdn. 
And when the Sultin knew that the course of the 
government of his Nuwwib was traitorously inter- 
rupted by the ugly wickedness of those lost ones, 
he came to Sistdn with ten thousand men. And 
the Amir Nasr-'bn-Nasir-Addin, and Altontash- 
Hdjib, and Abii-Abdullah-Tdl, an Arabian chief, 
assembled beneath the shadow of his standard, and 
he besieged those men in the citadel of Ark. And 
when he had brought the strength of his army to 
surround them, and had consigned the sides of the 
fort and the troops of their chief to the singular 
Amirs and special heroes of his army, upon Friday, 
at mid-day, in the month Dhdl-Hajjah, and in the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 2^5 

year 390, the battle began. And the generals for 
a time returned the onset, but when they beheld 
the eminent strength and incomparable fury of the 
Sultan's army they were frightened, and fled within 
the walls of the fort, and when the Dhiil-Karanin 
(the Alexander) of the sun descended into the 
darkness of night, and black streaks began to 
appear upon the white cheek of day, all of them 
submitted to the Sultan's will, and his soldiers 
shouted at the watchword of his royalty, and the 
enemy leaving the way free, they fell upon the 
castle, and scattered heads down from the fort like 
the leaves of autumn. "Then they were like 
demons after the morning draught." " And they 
wore the amulets from the carcases of the slain." 
And the rest cast their swords into the wells and 
fountains of the land. And this country was de- 
livered from their foulness and iniquity, and these 
tribes of malignity fled from the streets and pools 
of the kingdom, and these coasts were emptied 
from the power of these scorpions, and the noxious-- 
ness of these locusts. A certain ingenious person 
says, in narrating this victory, " Oh ! thou art a 
king who strikest out a high flame from thy tinder. 
Thy mouth never ceased its vigour (in encourage- 
ment) until thou didst win the pass." 

And the Sultdn gave the country of Sist4n unto 
his brother Nasr-'bn-Nasir-Addin, and annexed it 
to the territory of Nishapiir, and the crown of 



296 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

Khurasdn. And the Amir Nasr appointed as his 
deputy in that administration his Vizier Nasr-'bn- 
Ishak, who distinguished himself in the govern- 
ment of this country, and the regulation of those 
deserts, by vestiges of peace, by the lights of pro- 
tection, the niceties of administration, and the 
Regulations of security. But the SuMn returned 
to his capital at Balkh, with the intention of a war 
which, if God will and ordain, shall appear in its 
place. 



Account oe SHAMS-AL-MtrALl-KABus-'BN-WASHAMefB and 

HIS EETUEN TO THE ThkONB, AFTEB A LONG AbsEKCE AND 
SETEEE EkDUEANOE. 

Shams-al-Mu41i-Kabiis remained eight years at 
Khurasin, and displayed patient attention to the 
transaction of affairs, and thus passed his days and 
the events of his life. He was not deficient in 
manliness or highmindedness, and lost nothing of 
the splendour of his station, or the perfume of his 
position. There was none of the great lords of 
Khurasdn, or notables of the State, who was not 
courted by his gratifications and recipients of his 
favours, and no one saluted him on the road who 
was not rendered happy with some gifts, liberalities 
and portions, and there was not one either of the 
nobles or of the people, who did not clothe himself 
in a dress of glory or honour from him, or who had 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMTJD OF GHAZNA. 297 

not drank of the cup of his gifts in places and 
dignities. And the Princes of the house of Sd,mdn 
endeavoured to raise him to their own desirable 
state and grandeur, and that they might make his 
happiness and eminence lasting, and that by pro- 
moting his power and aflfairs, he might wrest the 
sceptre of precedence from the Kings of the earth 
and Sultdns of the world. But by reason of the 
heaven-descending calamities, the eventual trials, 
and hindrances of the times, and the contingencies 
of fortune, the arrow of their intention never at- 
tained the desired object. He stood indeed like a 
mountain against the force of the hurricanes, and 
the beating of the moving waters. And he knew 
by experience, that the disquiet of the pain of 
suffering is an overflowing disquiet, and from th6 
wrestlings of the world's events nothing but distress 
and anguish are produced. And these distiches 
are the result of his thoughts, and the effect of his 
reflections (Verse) 



"Say unto those who, as well as we, are enduring the 
changes of fortune, 

" Did fortune ever act adversely to the worthy ? 

" Dost thou behold the sea, how its waves boil up on the 
surfaces, but in its deepest abysses the pearls remain un- 
moved ? 

" It may be that the hand of time may become young, and 
may smoothe with pleasant things the kisses of adversity. 

" In the sky are stars unnumbered, 

" But none are eclipsed except the sun and the moon." 



298 MEMOIUS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

And when the Amir Nasir-Addin arrived at 
Khurasan, and had sent out Abii-Ali from thence, 
he displayed gladness at a meeting with Kabiis, 
and wished to establish and preserve his rule by 
his aid and assistance. A journey to Balkh inter- 
cepted his intentions, and the occupations of his 
time hindered him, until the afiair of Abu- AH 
arrived at cessation, and by reason of Abiil-Kasim- 
Simjiir, an opportunity for returning to Khurasdn 
again fell out ; there was a fresh treaty of aid, and 
they displayed great kindnesses on each other's 
behalf. And Fakr-Addoulat-AH-'bn-Boyah, who 
was the possessor of Jurj^n, had a powerful army, 
and came with a great army of Kurds to support 
Badr-'bn-HusnavI, and Nasir-Addin wished, in 
order to meet them, to bring an army of Turks. 
And for the purpose of assisting and supporting 
them in the promotion of this affair, in a stronger 
manner, he sent the Grand Chamberlain, Alton- 
bfi.sh, to Ilek-Khan, and asked an auxiliary force 
of two thousand horse, so that he might send them 
to Jurjin, with Shams-al-Mu411, and himself depart 
to his capital of Balkh. And he remained looking 
for and expecting the arrival of these auxiliaries. 
But the Divine decree coincided not with his pro- 
posal, and Nasir-Addin, before the return of his 
messenger, changed his abode for Paradise. And 
between the SultS,n and Shams-al-MuS,lI, by means 
of a great quantity of money, a reconciliation was 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 299 

defined, that the Sultdn should hold his territory 
at peace from the inconvenience of rivals, and that 
he should confirm the possession of his rank and 
dignity to the other. It was also stipulated that 
this sum should be dehvered to the Sultan's trea- 
sury after two months. He asked a delay of this 
space of time, because some of this settled amount 
must be obtained from the revenues of Juijd,n, and 
Shams-al-ma^li did not wish to squander the ryots' 
money by collecting those customs then. And the 
Sultdn, on account of the death of his father, and 
the disturbed state of Ghazni, desisted from that 
proposal, and went to Ghazni, and Hs w^ 
was thus delayed. And Abill-Kasim-Simjiir was 
established at Koms, and when Fakr-AddouMt 
died, he sent one to KibiiSj and communicated the 
news of his death, and of the flame that was 
spreading over the surface of the country, and ex- 
pressed a wish to settle the country peacefully upon 
him. And they had sent Firzdn-'bn-Al-Hasan, 
from Ray to Jurjdn, with a great army of Kurds 
and Dalamites. But when Kabiis came near to 
Juij^n, they wrote from Bukhdrd a letter to Abiil- 
Kasim-Simjiir, and gave unto him the country of 
Kohistdn. And he then abandoned K^biis, and 
acted contrary to his promises, and cared not for the 
path of contention and repugnance to his engage- 
ment, and the falsification of his word. So he came 



300 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

to Isfardln, and thus Kabils returned privately,* 
and came to Nishapilr, and there remained in ex- 
pectation of happier days, and a more decided 
opportunity. And when he became aware that 
the affairs of the family of S^mS.n were day by day 
falling to ruin, and from every corner and every 
side new imbecility and decay existed, and that to 
hold on in expectation of their good fortune was to 
be deceived by the glitter of the mirage, and that 
to be occupied with their aflFairs was to engrave 
Upon the surface of the water, he sent As-Af hahad- 
Shari5.r-'bn-SharwIn to the country of Sharlar, to 
seize upon that country, and Rastam Marz-b4n,f 
Khal-Maj-Addoulat, Abu-Talib Rustam-'bn-Fakh- 
Addoul^t was posted at that place. And Asafahad 
engaged him and defeated him, and obtained great 
plunder from his army. And in those coasts the 
Khutbah was offered in the name of Shams-al- 
Mu^li. And Banl-'bn Said in the midst of a 
troop of cavalry was fixed at Isfand-Yd,r, and often 
double-heartedness appeared in them, and his heart 
and soul were full of ill-feeling to Shams-al-muali- 
Kabils. And Nasr- ' bn- Al-Hasan-Firilzan, by reason 
of a famine which had lately appeared in the land 
of Dilem, fell upon their country, and became 
rapacious there. And he sent an army against 

* Privately, MS. doubtful. 

t Marz-ban, Q-uardian of tbe Marches, Marquis. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 301 

them, and expelled them all. And he took Asa- 
fahad-Abul-Fadhl and imprisoned him, and he was 
in prison until he found an opportunity (of escape). 
And Bini became a friend with Nasr, and both 
placed their Jieart upon the possession of Amll. 
Now Abiil-Abbds, the Chamberlain, was at Amll, 
and with him one thousand men of the army. And 
when Abill-Abbds was too weak to resist them, 
and was defeated, they took Amll by stratagem. 
And BS,nl wrote a letter to Kabils, and gave him 
an account of the particulars of that victory, and 
expressed a readiness to submit to him, and as a 
mark of true attachment intimated to him an 
intention of uniting their standards. And Bdnl 
separated from Nasr, and came to Isterabfi,d, and 
declared for the claim of Kdbiis. And of the 
cavalry army all who were incUned to K^bils pre- 
sented themselves before him. And Shams-al- 
Mu^li-Kabiis wrote to Asafahad that he should 
proceed to Bdni, and give his whole attention to the 
task of repairing the friendship and re-uniting the 
favour of his Highness to Bdni. And Asafahad, 
pursuant to this order, reconciled Kdbils with Bdnl. 
And when Flnizdn-'bn-Al-Hasan heard the 
intelligence of their alliance and union, he set out 
from Jurjdn, with a view to make war with them. 
A sharp battle took place, in the plain of Isterdbdd, 
and Bani was very nearly defeated, until a body of 
Kurds and Arabs, from the army of Firdzdn, 



302 MfiMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

shouted forth the war-cry of Shatns-al-mudll, and 
joined the side of Bam ; and the army of Bdnl 
came after him, and took Flrilzdn, with twenty of 
his chiefs and generals. The remainder of the 
army took the road to JurjI-n, and, when they 
arrived there, Salfi,r-Kharkds, who was one of the 
kindred of Kabils, came there, and stood up to 
oppose (the fugitives). 

And they were defeated; and these good 
tidings came to Kabus, and he became happy and 
glad in heart, and was conscious that the days of 
sorrow had passed over, and the time of fortune 
had arrived ; and, with heart at ease and exhila- 
rated breast, he turned his face to Jilrjdn ; and he 
took his seat upon the musnud of his empire and 
settled grandeur, in Shaabin ; and, in the year 388, 
one of the poets of the time says, in congratulating 
him (Verse) 

" There is an exertion whieli no fruitless glory distin- 
guishes ; 

" There is a nobleness which no contemptible endurance 
adorns. 

" The generous, when prosperity fails, 

" Satisfies his wishes with the excuse of constancy of soul. 

" Glory to the illustrious, whose maddened ardour 

" Draws his eye over his rough standard ; 

" Glory to the wounded, to the suffering and tearful heart ; 

" Glory to the slain and the marks upon their sword ; 

" Glory to the poor, without vice or guile ; 

" And glory to the rich, to the days which Providence has 
given," &c., &c. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 303 

And when this army in their flight returned to 
Rai they met with much blame^ and they cast dis- 
graceful reproach and finger-pointing scorn in their 
faces. And Abii-Ah-Husain-'bn-Hamiilah was 
Vizier ; he collected two thousand men, Turks 
and Arabs, and natives of Dilam, and Mamlchhar 
'bn-Kdbiis, and Bayaston-'bn-Kardoyah, and Abiil- 
Abb^&-'bn-J4hl, and Abdul-Malik-bn-Bd,kdn, &c., 
proceeded to Jurjin, to join his standard. And 
this army consisted of the nobles of the State and 
nawwabs of the people of Dilem. When, then, 
they came to the country of Shahriar, Shams- Al- 
Mu4H fixed his heart upon meeting them, and his 
hope upon the assistance of the Almighty and His 
favour to the fortunes of his empire. And Abii- 
Ali-Hamillah felt uneasy, on account of Nasr-'bn 
Al-Hasan-Flniz4n, and his aid and friendship unto 
Kabiis, and, to secure his favour and support, 
employed subtlety and repentance, and said, " The 
various relations of kindred that exist between you 
and Majd-ad-doulah-Abii-Tahb render it impera- 
tive that you should resolve to preserve his well- 
being and his dominions. And you should not 
make a difficulty in helping and aiding him, and if 
you thoroughly come into this design and exhibit 
a wish to shrink from that party to which you now 
adhere, and draw off from the string of his service, 
whatever may happen in the way of position, ful- 
filment of your desires, honours, gifts, dignities, 



304 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 

and pre-eminences may be acquired, and the con- 
dition of Koms will be exalted by your support, so 
that you will be established there, and the ideas of 
benefits, with regard to yourself, will be perfected." 
With this glance of lightning {i. e., hint), Nasr-'bn- 
Al- Hasan became a mutilated limb (i. e., a 
detached member) and decamped. And when he 
arrived at Sdriah he passed Jurj^n on the left, and 
came on the right side ; and, when he arrived at 
Koms, he openly declared the secret of his 
thoughts, and laid before his followers the idea 
which he entertained within, with respect to 
embracing obedience to Majduldoulah. But their 
voices were discrepant, so that some went to 
Isfandiar and some towards Jurjan, and Nasr, 
with the rest of his army, proceeded to Koms. 
And Abii-Ali-Hamillah sent a person and 
requested a fort from him, that he might protect 
himself therein, and might send his baggage and 
his heavy furniture and money thither. Therefore 
he gave him the castle of Jomund, and he went 
and sent his packages there.* But when Abil-Ali 
heard of this defection, which was the consummat- 
ing victory of his usual ills and hard calamities, he 
betook hirnself to Sahiyah, with a design to pass 
by Jurjdn ; and, when he arrived at that place, 
Manuchhar sent one secretly to him and expressed 

* This was probably before Nasr's treason was known. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 305 

a readiness to shun the exhibition of disobedience, 
and neglect of duty. And Abii-Ali felt some 
apprehension respecting Bayaston-'bn-Bejdsab and 
his followers, on account of his kindred with Kabiis 
and their having been brought up together, as well 
as on account of the interwoven relations between 
them, in the connexion of former artfulness and 
inclinations, and his past affection to K^biis, so he 
seized him and sent him to Eai. And he went on 
to Jurjdn, and the people there presented a strong 
heart for struggling and fighting, and from 
morning to evening they were engaged in measur- 
ing the garment of strength and pushing the cups 
of perfect (bravery). Two months passed in 
repeated endeavours to transact this business ;* 
and a famine arose in the trenches of Jurjdn, and 
no food was found, and the allies of Kdbiis, in this 
distress, contented their noble souls with a scanty 
portion, and whatever they had succeeded in 
obtaining they stored up. But the army, on the 
part of the martyrdom -seeker,! on account of 
their straitened condition and scarcity of provi^ 
sions, and the intercepting of supplies, sat down 
before Muhammadabad, in order that they might 
be able to fill their hands from the magazines of 
pay. I But, by reason of the continual rains and 

* i. e. To take Jurjan. 

t The martyrdom-seeker, i. e., of the besieger. 

J i. e. Food, allowances, &c., as part of pay. 

X 



306 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

the difficulty of the roads, cares and anxieties 
replaced the search for pay and provision ; but a 
storm arose, and they became too weak to contrive 
or arrange the means of conveying maintenance or 
fodder, and the force of thunder and lightning, and 
the vehemency of the west and north winds, over- 
threw the tents. And when the partizans of 
Kabiis saw them in this confusion and. distress, 
they came out from the citadel, and, with edges of 
their well arranged swords cut off the cheeks and 
necks of this multitude, and, vdth furious and 
repeated strokes, inundated the foimtains of their 
livers, and with the sickles of battle cut off the 
members of these wretches from their united frame, 
until sixteen hundred men became bedfellows of 
the tombs, and food for vultures and crows. And 
they took prisoners, Asfahs4Mr-'bn-Gorangiz, and 
Zarin-Ghol, and Saj4n-'bn-Askali, and his brother, 
Hajder-'bn-S414r, and Muhammad-' bn-Masiid, and 
they obtained as booty all the followers and horses 
of the army of Dilam, which the finger of confisca- 
tion sufficed not to estimate ; but its reality was 
less than its reported value. And Shams-al-Mudli, 
in attending to the wounded of the army, and in 
care of the sick, and the regulation of prisoners, 
and the liberal distribution of generosities and 
honours, and the special assignment of all kinds of 
gifts, displayed the conjunction of the footsteps of 
generosity and the lights of disposition {i. e., his 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OE GHAZNA. 307 

inherent generosity and enlightened disposition) 
and the true decree and foreknowing order of the 
Almighty was displayed in the most beautiful 
manner, in ordaining and bringing success upon 
tbis happy event. And Abii-Mansiir-Thadlabi, 
in commemorating this victory, says — 

" Oh regulating Victory, oh Fortune ! causing smiles, 
" And oh Prince Shams-al-Muali, all graciousness ; 
" Oh expansive Justice and Eight, that receives its own, 
" The people are restored and violence is extirpated, 
" The keys of the world have fallen to the king, 
" In whom energy and honour never ceased to confide," 
&c., &c., &c. 

And when Abii-Ali-Hamula arrived from 
that defeat at Koms be wrote a letter to Nasr- 
'bn-Al-Hasan-'bn-Plrdzdn, and summoned him 
to come by the road of celerity, in order that he 
might occupy himself in expediting the matter and 
fulfilling tbe affair, and in beginning the prepara- 
ticHi for battle. And he invited him also zealously 
to stop up all the recent fractures (and excisions) ; 
but he could not do so, on account of his dread of 
the army of Kdbiis, at Koms, so he decamped and 
came to Rai, and Nasr-'bn-Hasan came as far as 
Basmandn. And when he arrived at Abi there 
he halted, and wrote to Majdaddoulah and 
requested support. He (Majdaddoulah) however, 
postponed the effectuation of this proposition and 
remained some time waiting, until, after a long 

u 2. 



308 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

period, they sent the son of Yaktagin, the Cham- 
berlain, with six hundred Turkish cavaky, unto 
him, who succoured his position. And Kdbiis sent 
Bdnl-'bn-Sald to join in the war against them, and 
wrote to Shahniar that he should set himself in 
array, in company with him. And IBini marched 
against Nasr, but was persevering and cautious, 
and was never slothfully forgetful of the most 
trifling minutiae of circumspection and self-com- 
mand. And Nasr, perceiving that manceuvreing 
would not effect his object, fell back and observed 
the roads prepared and zealous for battle, when sud- 
denly Bdni arrived, and the army which was with 
him had no intelligence of the halt of Nasr, and 
was careless and divided, and in the rear confused 
and broken, so his army, by the hand of Nasr and 
his chiefs, came to ruin. This victory made a deep 
impression upon Majdaddoulah. But the position 
and rank of Nasr was established, and Majdad- 
doulah sent his uncle, Rustam-'bn-Marzbd,n, with 
six thousand men in aid. 

And Asafabad obtained the possession of the 
country of Sharejar, and Nasr came to meet him, 
?is far as Dam^ward, opposing and resisting him, 
so that the country was taken from him. But 
Asafabad proceeded to Shahryar, and took refuge 
with Manuchabar-'bn-Shams-al-Mudli. And, in 
the midst of the people of Karim, a great scarcity 
appeared, on account of the passage and re-passage 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 309 

of the armies, and the searching and plundering of 
harvests and provisions, without money and 
without a request. And for this cause Nasr held 
off from Rustam, and separated himself from asso- 
ciation with him ; and Asphabad, when he found 
that Rustam was deprived of the support and 
assistance of Nasr, began to turn round against 
him, and expelled him from his country. He 
came, afflicted and hurried, to Rai, and Asphabad 
possessed himself of and seated himself in the land 
And, in these days, Abil-Nasr-'bn-Mahmiid-'bn 
Hdjib, for one reason out of several, had betaken 
himself to the country of Shams-al-Mudli ; and 
Shams-al-Mudli, in dealing with him, displayed 
eminent artifice and bribery, assisting him with 
much wealth and many bounties, and, in circum- 
stances both of need and prosperity, displayed the 
thoughts of an exalted temperament, and sent him 
to oppose Nasr ; and he betook himself to this 
emergency, with strong heart and faithful eager- 
ness, and several times ran against the chief troops 
of Nasr, until he dispersed and scattered his 
soldiers. And he took prisoners Hasdn-'bn-E,il 
and Pisar Hindii (or the Hindu son) with several 
of his nobles, and Nasr, in his flight, halted at 
Samndn. Now Nasr-'bn-al-Hasan, on account of 
the splendour of his ancestry, and the antiquity of 
his rank, and the number of the bands of his 
comrades, exercised tyranny, and was known and 



310 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

noted for rebellion and inimical conduct ; and his 
country lay in the road of the Grand Kaaba, and 
the honoured Haram (Temples of Hatlm and 
Zamzam) ; and he every year oppressed the com- 
panies and caravans of the pilgrimage by various 
kinds of delaying requisitions, and successive im- 
posts, imtil his iU-name became dispersed abroad 
throughout all the lands of the earth, and foul 
shame was written upon the page of his illustrious 
lineage and splendid rank. And in the confusion 
and tumult of his affairs, the prayer of pilgrims, 
and the aversion of the wronged, became a marked 
cause of his humiliation, and of the shame of his* 
empire's flag. But after this failure he wrote let- 
ters continually to E6, and implored protection 
through aid and support. And they wrote in reply 
letters of great length, and admonitions of exten- 
sions (Verse) 

" Admonitions, like the mirage of the track-sought desert, 
from day to day and from month to month." 

And after the establishment of peace between 
MajdaddovJdh and Kabiis, the subject of Nasr 
was brought before them, and for their reconcilia- 
tion with each other it was deemed a desirable 
device that they should seize Nasr. And they 
arrived at a complete understanding with regard to 

* His, i. e., Majdaddoulah's flag, Nasr being a vassal of 
Majdaddoulah. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 311 

his affiiirs. But Nasr was observing these trans- 
actions, and began to be suspicious of their faith- 
fulness. , But in the midst of these events, news 
arrived that Arslan, the Hindi!, son of the Prince 
of Kolustd,n, who was one of the lords and chiefs 
of the Sultan, had assaulted the head-quarters of 
Abiil-Kasim-Simjilr, and had cast him into the 
country of Jundbudh. Nasr went after him, and 
sought aid from an alliance with him, and incited 
him to march in the direction of R6, and deluded 
him with an idea of his power of successfully oppo- 
sing Majdaddoulat. And Abiil-Kasim was de- 
ceived by this crafty arrangement, and gave the 
reins into the hand of Nasr, and so came to ruin. 
He marched from R^ with a complete army before 
him, but the possibility of restraining these heroic 
servants and lion-cub soldiers by his own will was 
embairassed and hindered. And when he witnessed 
the ranks of those lions, and the onset of those 
braves, he began to bite the finger of repentance, 
and experienced the shame and remorse of the 
words "pauperized," "injured." And Shams-al- 
Mu^li sent a party of those tracking demons and 
biting devils to meet him, and they cut them off 
from those frontiers. And when they arrived at 
the borders of despair, and the world was narrow 
to them, they fixed their heart upon the service of 
the Sultdn, and upon preserving themselves by the 
rope of his strength, and therefore betook them- 



312 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

Selves to his presence. But the circumstances of 
Abiil-Kasim, in the service of the Sultdn, came to 
that point, that he fled from the presence, for a 
reason which will be given in the sequel of this 
exposition. Nasr however remained long attached 
to the service, and the Sultdn gave him Bidr and 
Jundbudh. He went to his fiefs, but found the 
extent of the country confining to his immense 
nobleness, and lofty ideas, and could not be content 
therewith, and through this aimless notion he made 
a disturbance, until they of Re beguiled him with 
various kinds of contrivance and deceit, and drew 
him into the snare of treachery, and bound him 
when sentenced by the rope of captivity, and sent 
him to the fortress of Astondwand. And Shams- 
al-Mu^li i)repared to recover the fortresses of those 
regions, and obtained possession of the whole, and 
by means of his faithfal ones his wish was accom- 
plished, by seizing the head and the forelocks of 
those citadels into his grasp. 

And Asphabad-Shahydr in the midst of all 
these affairs began to pour out the drops of the 
rivulet of strife, and became deludedly fascinated 
by his numerous army and abundant wealth, and 
collected numerous sepoys. To engage him they 
sent from Re, Rustam, warden of the Marches, 
with the Princes of Dilem ; and they sent 
Byaston-'bn-Baj^sab, who had before been taken 
as being well-affected to the pretensions of Kabiis, 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMtJD OF GHAZNA. 313 

hi the body of this army. They defeated Aspha- 
had, and took him prisoner. And Rustam, the 
March Warden, proclaimed the formularies of the 
acknowledgment of Kdbiis, and on account of the 
savage hatred which he entertained in his heart 
towards the people of Re, he interwove the Khut- 
bah with the decoration of the name of Shams-al- 
Mudli. He wrote also to Kdbiis, narrating his 
proceedings in securing obedience to him, and true 
fidelity, and by these affairs Byaston found the 
pupils of his eyes gladdening his soul, and became 
happy in heart by his return to his native land, 
and the restoration of his people and citizens, and 
his association with the service of the prince of 
generosity. And he annexed the kingdom of the 
country of GMn to those of Jurjdn and Tabristin. 
But Shams-al-Muali gave Gildn to Manuchhar, his 
son. After this the province of Rumdn and SdWs, 
and the borders of Isfandiyah were entirely reco- 
vered, and became adorned by justice, generosity, 
and peace in the efficient right hand, and excellent 
government of Shams-al-Mudli. And Shams-al- 
Mu^li occupied himself in founding an edifice of 
affection, and strengthening the motives of love 
with the Sultdn. And. he sent envoys to arrange 
a state of friendship, and expressed his wish to 
concur and aid in a care for the empire, and a 
reverence for the honour of the SuMn. And that 
the bond of friendship and regard might be firmly 



314 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

decreed, he transmitted gifts and presents. He 
thus united and arranged the causes of confidence 
and sincerity. Thus Jurjan and Tabristan, and the 
country of Dilem^ as far as the sea-coast,* became 
subject to his decree, commanding or forbidding, 
binding or loosing. And Shams-al-Mudli-Kabiis 
in his days was highly renowned amongst all other 
princes of provinces and chiefs of territories, on 
account of his noble soul, generous disposition, en- 
larged intellect, excellent character, perfect virtues, 
and brilliant energy. He was distinguished for 
expanded judgment, and abundant religion. And 
from his inclination to all kind of pure and liberal 
notions of external and internal (religion) recog- 
nized the truth that amusement and sovereignty 
are opposed to each other, and that their union, 
according to unchangeable and eternal rules cannot 
be ideaUzed. Abd-Bosti, in confirming this senti- 
ment, says (Verse) 

" Where a king is occupied in amusement, 
" There he hath pronounced upon his kingdom a sentence 
of sorrow and war. 

" Dost thou see when the sun sets in Libra 

" That the stars of the zodiac begin to sport and play." 

And Shams-al-Mu41i-K4bils was adorned with 
the impress of justice, kindness, and equity. In zeal 
in the welfare of his ryots, and in attention to the 

* Caspian Sea. 



MEMOJJiS OF MAHMUD OP OHAZNA. 313 

advantage of his dependents, he was eager, and in 
various sciences of learning and morals he was pro- 
found. He was unparalleled for uniting skiU with 
the sword and skill in the pen. His epistles were 
famed and celebrated throughout the regions and 
coasts of the world, and his perfect eloquence and 
excellence in adorning and embellishing his words 
were well known, &c.* 



ACCOTJNT OF THE ALLIANCE OE THE SuLtInWITH IlEK-KhaN, 
AND THEIB SUBSEQUENT EsTEANGBMENT. 

When the Sultdn had cleansed the Court of 
Khurasin from his adversaries, and had reduced 
the enemies of the family of Simiia. to non-exist- 
ence, Ilek-Khdn succeeded to Mdwardhnnahr, and 
obtained the princes of the family of Sdmdn, their 
children and comrades. And these regions were 
entirely stripped of aU that race and pearl-stock. 
And he wrote to the SuMn, and congratulated 
him on his inheritance of the kingdom of Khurd- 
sdn, and proposed a reparation of good-will and 
the thread of friendship. An alliance was made 
between them, and motives of good inclination and 
attachment were established. And his discrimi- 
nating nature advanced from a sincere affection to 
a sincere unity ; and, at the time when the Sultfi,n 

* An elaborate Arabic epistle bere follows, wbicb is 
omitted. 



316 MEMOIRS OF MA-HMUD OF GHAZNA, 

went to repulse the attack at NisMpilr, lie had sent 
the Imdm Abdl-Taib-Sahal-'bn-Sulaimdn-Assala- 
oki, who was Imdm of Hadis (or of the sacred tra- 
ditions) upon an embassy to Ilek-Khdn, and sent 
(also) Tugdnjuk, Prince of Sarkas, to hinj, and 
expressed a desire for a noble alliance with his 
nobles (or noble race) and presented before his 
greatness, his army and his fortress, curious valu- 
ables of pieces of pure gold, with jacinths and 
rubies, and chains of great and small pearls, and 
gifts of robes and eggs of amber, and vessels of 
gold and silver full of perfumes of camphor, and 
other productions of the provinces of India, made 
from frankincense-bearing trees, and Damascus 
scimitars, and war elephants adorned with many- 
coloured trappings and jewelled bits, in describing 
all which gems the mind would be confused, and 
in specifying all which incomparable things the 
eyes would become turbid. And celebrated horses, 
with ornaments and head-trappings of gold, and 
various other choice and desirable things. And 
when the Imam Abiil-Taib arrived at the Turkish 
territory they exhibited much agitation and eager- 
ness at his approach, and expressed extreme readi- 
ness to pay homage and respect to his dignity, 
partly on account of their honour toward His 
Majesty the SuMn, and partly on account of the 
superabundant and excelling virtues of (the envoy) 
in all kinds of science, he being the singular 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 317 

scholar of his age. He was sound in controversial 
tact, and in casuistical divinity, and lunar calcula- 
tions. He thus attained to the object desired,* 
caused seeking to be joined with finding, and 
returned, having with diligent industry fully 
accomplished his pilgrimage ; and he presented the 
unequalled pearl, which, as a diver, he had sought 
and found in Turkistd,n, before the SuMn's 
presence, with valuable specimens of the purchased 
articles of Turkistdn, pure gold and silver, sweet 
musk, high-bred horses, moon-faced slaves, well- 
featured girls, white falcons, packets of peacock- 
feathers, ermines, and tawny skins, with exquisite 
china vessels, and many other beautiful fabrics, so 
that, between the two kingdoms, an interwoven 
aUiance and affinity became fastened, as with nails, 
and between them, as between artificers and , 
officers, a partnership was estabhshed in the 
adjustment of benefits and union. For a long 
period affairs continued to be fitly ordered and 
duly arranged between these Courts, until, through 
the hateful anger of fate, the straight road of 
affection became damaged by ill-will, and by the 
interlopings of Satan the stream of the fountains 
of love became diminished, and the bonds of that 
sincere regard became untied. Some of the 
beauteous words of Abiil-Taib have been cited, and 

* i. e. To demand a daugliter of Ilek-Klian for the Sultan, 
in marriage. 



318 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

at the end of this chronicle several of the subject- 
nobles of the Sultan (who in their paths were like 
bright stars, and in their fixed (orbits) like con- 
stellations, each one being a star of the stars of the 
age, and a moon of the moons of virtue, and a 
column of the pillars of science) will be commemO' 
rated. And these words are from many of the 
niceties of the judgment and novelties of the 
language of Abiil-Talb : "He who offers himself 
before his time offers himself to the air," And 
this apothegm is taken from " The Words" of Abu 
Mansur, the divine: "Even a dog has high 
thoughts, and he is of the lowest extremity of 
baseness in whom there is a seeking for power 
before the times of power," Sec, &c. 



AcCOrKT OE ABU-NASB-'BN-AHMAD-'Bir-ALI-'BN-BBGtATELf, 
ONE OE THE PEINOIPAL SUBJECTS OE THE StJLtAn. 

The Amir Abii-Nasr was an agent of the 
Sultan, a dignitary of the State, and a shaikh of 
the kingdom, adorned with abundant virtue, illus- 
trious morals, exalted dignity, and expanded emi- 
nence, and well supported by great and incalculable 
real and personal estates, and possessed of the 
qualities of a modest mind, vigilance, penetration, 
and efficiency, who, if he wished, could divide and 
distinguish substance from accident, and to the 
acute vision of whose clear-sightedness veiled con- 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 319 

ceptions and secret ideals became bright and clear. 
He composed verses full of delicate phrases, 
expressing intelligent meanings. These verses are 
some specimens of the births of his genius and the 
unique productions of his mind (Verse) 

" There is a building of magnanimity, and glory, and 
goodness, and virtue, 

" Kjiown as the building of the generous ; 

" It is not a building lined with mortar, 

" It is a structure lined with kindnesses. 

" Love to the generous, whose purse is never full ; 

" Thanks to the liberal, whose hands never collect," &e. 

It was one of the glorious boasts of Abii-Nasr- 
BegdyeM that he had two sons, each of them a star 
in the heaven of superiority and a moon in the 
horizon of prosperity : one, the Amir Abiil-Fazl 
and the other the Amir Abu-Ibrahlm. They were 
as two bright constellations in the high step (of 
knowledge) and two lights in virtuous renown. 
And Abill-Fazl was more excellent in Arab plea- 
santries and of more distinguished manners. His 
verse and rhythm are like the paintings of skilful 
artists, and the round cheek of the specially beau- 
tiful. This is a section from his collection of 
sayings : " The arrival of the book of the Shaikh ! 
how did our hearts yield to its beauty, by confess- 
ing and following its (excellent) words, in compar- 
ing it to the rarest representations. One may 
affirm that it is the enchantment of meeting (with 



320 1[EM0IES OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

the loved object) it is the purity of nature. One 
may show that it is the necklace of the new moon, 
the clasp of Aurora, and the collar of Paradise," 
&c. 

Account of Said Abuzzakat Abt5 Jaapab 'bn Mousa 
Abul Kasim Hamza 'bn MorsA 'bn Jaafae 'bn 
Muhammad 'bn Ali 'bn Al Husain 'bn Ai,f 'bn Abi5 
TaIiIB. (May heaven be satisfied with them !) (Verse) 

" Their race is illuminated by the shining sun, 
" And built upon the morning dawn." 

This Said, although he possessed a residence, 
property in land, and furniture, at Nishapiir, was a 
native of TtIs, and, in the time of the princes of 
the family of Sd,mdn was of the number of the 
^elect ones of the Court and one of the body of 
state nobles, so directing himself that he becanae 
admitted to sit and converse with their viziers and 
writers, and became embued with the impression 
of their brilliant dignity and sentiments, and flou- 
rished in the orchard both of serious and jocose 
acts, and in the verities of virtue and excellence, 
and, from his gentlemanly conduct and glistening 
pearls (of speech) and agreeable subtleties, and 
pleasing gifts, and peculiar skill, obtained, as a 
result, every complete happiness and a perfect 
position, which he procured by the sharpness of his 
tongue and the firmness of his eye. And he 
excelled in readiness and in discussions, through 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 321 

his possession of power, and great fortune, and 
strong condition, and extended means, and affluent 
estates, and extensive rank, and his complete 
attainment of all kinds of elevation ; and in the 
" book of pleasing morals," from the compilations 
of the works of chief historians and poets, several 
of his works are described. And of these, several 
witticisms of his verse and composition confirm 
(this opinion) and are an evidence of his innate 
excellence and sweet eloquence, and exalted force 
•and dignity". These words are an example of his 
salt pleasantry : " The state of a simpleton in edu- 
action is like the state of the ass, who has no 
thought except for his feed, for his straw, and for 
his access to the she-asses." This assemblage 
belonged to the illustrious ones of the Court of the 
Sultdn.* There were many others, excellent 
doctors and artistic poets, who are arranged in 
numbers in books and lists, to explicate the aflFairs 
of every one of whom would be alien to the object 
of this book, and would cause tedium and weari- 
ness. Let us now resume the course of the history 
and conquests of the Sultdn, and the effects of his 
sword and spear in the provinces of the Turks and 
Hindds, at successive periods. And the portion of 
the story where it again joins on to the wars of 
Ilek-Kh^n is a theme which we will fully and 
amply (hereafter) treat, if God will, 

* Some further account of these worthies omitted. 

Y 



322 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

Account oe the Conquest of BiHAxfH. 

When the Sultin had concluded the settlement 
of the affairs of Sistdn, and stilled the droppings of 
dispute whicli flowed in those regions, and had 
dispersed all the incidents of that emergency, he 
determined to bring to fixed conclusion his design 
respecting the conquest of Bahdtlh. He drew 
then a full army under his protected standards and 
brave captains to those parts. He passed over 
tbe Sihiin* and the province of MiHt^n, and 
encamped before Bahatlh. This city had a wall 
whose height could be reached only by eagles. 
Its sentinel, if he wished, might hold converse 
with the stars, and its watchman, if he desired, 
might give kisses upon the lip of the planet 
Venus. Its top was equal in loftiness to 
Heaven's height and was parallel to Pisces. It 
had a moat like the girdling sea, with a deep and 
wide abyss, and a broad border was drawn around 
it ; and they were supported by men of energy 
and war elephants for the defence of its territory 
and country. And the Prince of these accursed 
ones, according to the well-known course of rebel- 
lious obstinacy, relying on his lofty hill and drunk 
with the pride of his numerous followers, came out 
of the city and, trusting in the might of his heroes 
and the majesty of his fortune, stood to the 

* The Indus. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 323 

engagement. For three days, successively, the 
Sultan, with the splendour of the lightning of his 
swords and the flashes of his well-aimed spears, 
baked them in the fireplace of ruin and the oven 
of destruction, and, on the fourth, by means of his 
galling arrows and hair-splitting spears and scimi- 
tars, he darkened and blackened the pages of the 
life of these despicable wretches, and, when the 
ship of the sun arrived at the midst of the ocean 
of the sky, the cry of " God is great !" raised by 
the possessors of the faithj reached the ears of the 
family on high (and the family of Ali) and, in the 
name of truth and verity, and with a resolve to 
win victory for their religion, they made a charge, 
such that the blackness of those infidels was wiped 
off from the white page of that time, and on the 
scene of those onsets and attacks not a vestige of 
those cursed ones remained. And the Sultdn, Uke 
an enraged male (elephant) and a tossing sea, 
wielded a two-handled scimitar and cut a man in 
half, together with his casque and coat-of-mail, and 
seized several elephants, which were the body- 
guard of the infidels. Thus the gale of victory, 
from the kind care of Providence, began to flow, 
and the standards of the SuMn and the ensigns 
of the faith attained satisfaction in exaltation and 
elevation; and the means of gratification and 
satisfaction were thus prepared. But most of the 
enemy fled into the fortress, and sought protection 

t2 



324 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

and security in the walls of their castle. Then the 
champions of religion withdrew the reins of volition 
from their hand, and seized upon the passages to 
the fort. And the young men of the army filled 
up the moat, and assisted each other in widening 
the narrow passages and ope'ning the bolts; and 
Bijera, during the heat of the battle and the 
lightning and eye-striking fire of the spears (whilst 
his followers were suft'ering their punishment 
before his very eyesight) by means of a rope from 
his harness, betook himself to an intervening 
(chasm) of the mountain, and sought a refuge in a 
certain wood, The Sultan sent a star of the stars 
of his army to track his footsteps, that they might 
environ him like a collar, and fix a scimitar in him. 
But he, in alarm at that lightning death, and terror 
at what had happened, drew his piercing khanjar, 
and falling, resigned his fearless life and impure 
soul, and went to receive the retribution of denying 
ones and the portion of inhuman infidels for all 
eternity, and amidst the ranks of hell and the 
orders of 'Gehenna was punished with the scalding 
water and miserable pain of the verse, " This is the 
portion of the infidels." As for the rest of the 
army the greater part passed through the sword. 
A hundred and sixty elephants augmented, in this 
victory the stables of the royal stud, with an enor- 
mous booty in money and weapons. And the 
SultS.n made that place a station, that the country 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF &HAZNA. 325 

might be cleansed from the odiousness of that 
idolatrous people ; and he spread the carpet of the 
Muhammadan religion and law, and drew the 
people of those provinces into the bond of Isldm, 
and arranged the construction of mosques and , 
pulpits, and appointed imdms, for the purpose of 
instructing them in the precepts of religion and the 
laws of Isldm, and in the method of distinguishing 
and seeing what is lawful and forbidden. And, 
with his victorious flags and prosperous banners, 
he turned his face to Ghazna. And thus began 
the season of his rain (of glory and multiplied 
perils) and a long road of mischances lay before 
him, when men and baggage were destroyed. And 
many of his servants and armies perished in 
disgrace and fear (although) Heaven guarded the 
noble being and precious life of the SuMn from 
the misfortune, reproach, and ruin of that thread 
of events. " He is the friend of the guileless 
good." Abiil-Fath-Bosti, his confidant, gave him 
excellent counsel and refused (his approval) to his 
passion, which led him to such aims and directed 
him to such resolves, and with decorated mind and 
firm solidity directed his words, according to 
Heaven-decreed justice, and by the shuttle (or 
loom) of equity. However, having turned his face 
to a point worthy of his mighty sword, of the fury 
of Mars and of the imagination of a Hon, he 
inclined not to deceiving words, advice that 



326 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

blamed, and the full pages from pens. Abiil-Fatli, 
in confirmation and corroboration of this hint, says 
(Verse) 

"The most faithful advice from men hath been fully 
imparted to the Sultan ; 

" Love and an experienced judgment hath (invited him to) 
follow it. 

" Thou hast passed, in rank and glory, the sun's altitude ; 

" Thou hast in violence humiliated all who have reigned. 

" Thy (onward) motions will no longer continue to foUow, 

" For when the sun is at his altitude he moves not." 

For this question had been a matter of dispute 
with the first men of science. Some said, " There 
is no motion in the point of the ascendant altitude 
of the sun ;" the truth of which position they 
endeavoured to establish by proofs from the 
schools ; and some in establishing its motion dwelt 
upon the measure of other altitudes. Heaven 
however knows. 



AoOOirifT OF THE CAPTrEE OE MuLTAIf. 

AbiilFutah, Prince of Multan, was notoriously 
characterized as one of malignant craftiness, deceit- 
ful treachery, dubious fidelity, and detestable incli- 
nation. He set up a claim over the people of the 
Khutbah, {i. e., the chief sovereignty) of Multan, 
to deal with them according to his will and plea- 
sure, and cast the people into the lubricity of his 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 327 

error, and the ruin of his folly. They signified the 
case to the SuMn, whose reverence for Isldm* and 
jealousy for the faith stirred up and excitfed him 
to a sufficient examination into this crime, and into 
the subject matter of this error. And in this point 
he sought God's direction, and consigned all his 
thoughts to this religious consideration, and pre- 
pared for the affair. And he assembled a nume- 
rous company and brave army of the first men of 
the faith and obedience of Isl^m. And when that 
artist Spring had delineated her paintings upon 
the tracts of mountain and plain, and the emperor 
Sun had clothed all the districts of the earth with 
precious dresses and embroidered robes, taken 
from the treasury of his glorious palace, he raised 
the cry, " To MilMn !" And because the river 
torrents and superfluous rains had filled the ferry- 
ing places of the Jlhiln with divers fuU channels 
and overflowing torrents, and the road was thus 
obstructed and affording room for excuses, he sent 
to Andbal, who was King of India, a person 
to request of him that he would permit a passage 
through the midst of his kingdom that the army 
of Islam might pass. He, however, placed the 
hand of repulse upon the face of the SuMn's 
request, and took the road of stubbornness and 

* The Sultan regarded it as a religious question, since he 
had himself receired the sovereignty and right of Khutbah from 
the Khalif. 



328 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 

obstinacy. For this cause the SuMn was enraged, 
and conceived the design of a double conquest, and 
began to assign two voices to sing one theme, and 
was resolved that before he concluded his first in- 
tentions he would by the shout of victory give to 
the winds the substance of that King's kingdom 
and the nest of his empire. So he commanded 
that they should extend the hand of plunder, and 
levelling, and destruction, and burning unto his 
villages and cities. And they cast Jaibal or 
Andbal forth from one strait unto another, and 
from one path to another ; and they stripped all 
the provinces of his country, and cut off the roads 
and resources of his kingdom, until they expelled 
him to the province of Kashmir. And when Abiil 
Fut&h, Prince of Multin, witnessed that with 
Jaibdl, who was his high mountain and blocking 
pass, that hope had departed, he learnt that he had 
entered a well* {whence he could not extricate him- 
self), and that it was impossible for flying hares to 
compete as travellers with foxes, and that he ought 
not to frame an imagination of the possibility of 
resistance (Verse) 

" The experienced knows when the moonlight flashes upon 
the sword striking hand, that the sword is not distant from his 
breast more than the measure of a cubit." 

He therefore packed up his treasures and hiB 
hoards, and transported them on the back of camels 

* Conjectural reading, MIS. illegible. 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 329 

io Sarandib, and relinquished Mult^n. The SuMn, 
when he had arrived at tliose provinces, and had 
made a full discovery of the articles and attributes 
of the point, seeing that all were involved in this 
mad error and vain folly, confined those citizens 
who were inhabitants and natives, in the fort, and 
treated them with rigour, and pinched and cor- 
rected them with the food of punishment, (fining) 
them twenty thousand loads of a thousand direms, 
and placed upon their neck the redemption money 
of foes, and the tax of the rebellious. The account 
of his stand for religion and for the illustration of 
the knowledge of the (orthodox) demonstrations 
passed to all cities, and even arrived at Egypt. 
And the dread of his sword was of effectual advan- 
tage in the land of Hind and Sind, and the main 
source of heresy, and infidelity, and perversity in 
those parts was intercepted and cut off, and some 
verses of Abu-Tam^ni-Tdlnl are suitable to this 
event, and correspond with this period (Verse) 

" Thy victory and thy cavalry hath yesterday made thee 
glorious. 

" This is but a trifle, but the Khutbah is not a trifle, 

" (Which thou didst vindicate) when the skin of the sky 
was not green, 

" And the aspect of winter not cheerful,' &c., &c. 



330 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

ACCOTJITT OF THE PASSAGE OE THE JfHlJlT BT IlEK-KhaN. 

The state of a sincere alliance between the 
Sultan and Ilek-Khin remained firm, until the 
creeping scorpions of iU-wiU, and the disturbing 
manoeuvrers of hatred, cut off the progress of 
affection, so that the flames of dispute blazed 
up. And Ilek watched an opportunity of with- 
drawal and flight, and when the standards of the 
Sultan were far distant he made an expedition into 
the frontiers of Multin, and the extent of Khura- 
sdn was destitute of the protection of the State, 
and the guardianship of government, and he sent 
Sabfi,shltagin, who was general of his army, with an 
abundant force to Khurasan, and entrusted the 
capital, Balkh, to Jaafartagin, with a band of 
warriors. And Arsl^n-Jazib, Prince of Tds, was 
estabhshed at Her4t, having received orders before 
from the Sultan, that if any new attack should 
occur on his weak part, and if loss should be pro- 
duced on both sides, he should take up his posi- 
tion at Ghazna, march from Her4t, and come to 
Ghazna. And Sabd,shltagln came to Herdt, and 
sent Hasan-'bn-Nasr to Nishapiir, to enquire into 
the property, and to value the sources of wealth. 
And the majority of the nobles of Khurasdn 
encouraged them with friendship and aid, on ac- 
count of the prolongation of the days of the 
Sultan's absence, and the interception of intelli- 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 331 

gence, and the concbalment of his footsteps, aud on 
account of the trembling of earthquakes (confu&ed 
rumours), and contracted feelings, and daily re- 
ports, and vain words. And Abiil-Abds-Fazl-'bn- 
Ahmad, in order to guard the paths and govern 
the provinces of the kingdom, arrived from 
Ghaznd, as far as the frontiers of Bamian, with the 
preparation for a complete intercepting cordon. 
And he committed the passes of ingress and egress 
of that country to men of action, and a cautious 
corps of observation. And quick messengers ran 
through the whole extent of the kingdom to the 
Sultan with tidings of the conduct of Ilek. And 
the Sultan laid aside all care for other regions, and 
like striking lightning and a furious wind travelled 
that expanse over the plains and through the war- 
riors, over the deserts, and through the tribes of 
people, and in a short time arrived at Ghiizni, and 
aiforded aid to the sons of the Empire, and the 
nobles of His Majesty, by his horses, mules and 
riders, and assembled from the great spearmen a 
body of glorious soldiers (Verse) 

" Angels upon angels, or, if they were human, such as 
embroidered by the needle." 

And came like a raging sea to Balkh, and 
Jaafartagin went out from this contingency, flying 
like a devil from exposure to the storm of ashes. 
But the Sultan sent Arslan-Jazib with ten thou- 



332 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

sand cavalry on his road. And Sabdshltagln when 
he arrived at the bank of the Jihiin, and beheld 
that foaming sea and roaring torrent, turned aside 
and came to Merd, in order to march through the 
desert. But the summer was hot, so that the wells 
were filled up, and the roads obhterated, and the 
path difficult to determine ; therefore he began to 
move towards Sarkhas, But Muhsin-'bn-Tabak, 
who was one of the Gozz chieftans, seized the road, 
and bestirred himself to resist him. Sabdshitagin, 
therefore, finding no possibility of making a stand 
against the army of Arslan, and not"even an oppor- 
tunity of bathing (i, e., from the hot pursuit), was 
deprived of the power of proceeding (literally, 
diropos')^ and went therefrom to Nisd. And as he 
was about to collect his baggage and march, upon 
occasion of one of his marches, ArsMn- Jazib came 
down, and on account of his baggage, and the enor- 
mous weight of treasure and of goods which he had 
derived from the provinces of Herit, he was unable 
to retain those appendages, or to cope with those 
heroes. In order to preserve (this property) he 
wandered right and left until the conclusion of the 
affair was that he made it all the means of preserv- 
ing his existence and a matter of life. Therefore 
he cast all this transported burden and heavy load 
from his back, and struck in towards Nishapiir. 
The other army kept close after him until he halted 
at the frontiers of Jurjan. He threw himself 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 333 

amonjjst the cliifs and thickets of that land, and 
the surrounding people of Gildn struck him with 
the hand of slaughter and plunder, and brought to 
bear their killing strength upon his comrades and 
his troops. Several of his army fled to the safety 
of the protecting shadow of Shams-al-Mu41i. He, 
by the route of Damistan, came as far as Nis^, and 
sent the remainder of his baggage to Ali-'bn- 
Mamiln-Khw^rism-Shah. And on the part of Ilek- 
Khdn he entrusted him with the charge thereof, 
and enjoined him to preserve it, and earnestly re- 
commended him to guard it from the impurities of 
treachery. And with respect to all the camp-fol- 
lowers and the relics of the force, he dismissed them 
to the service of that Prince, and started for Meni, 
by way of the desert. The Sultdn halted at Tils, 
for the inspection of the booty of Arsld.n-Jazib, and 
upon the arrival of intelligence that Sab^shitagin 
came out by way of the desert, he turned on the 
road by which he might meet him, in order that he 
might perchance overtake him, and draw him into 
the snare of vengeance. But when the SuMn 
arrived he had passed to the desert. Upon this 
the SuMn despatched after him Abdullah-Td,ln, 
with an army of Arabs which was in his care ; and 
his condition was such as Said-'bn-Hass^n describes 
(Verse) 

" I fled from a flowing rivulet and its scantiness 

" Unto a superabundant water and its confused streams ; 



334 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

" And I was like one who eagerly rushes into a canal, 
"When desiring to escape the thunder-rain." (i.e., the 
gentle summer rain ?) 

And, in the midst of a desert wherein there 
was no water, except Satan's sahva, and nothing 
brightly green (sheen) except the flat of swords, 
they laid the sword upon his company and they 
took prisoners his brother, with seven hundred of 
his distinguished chiefs and captains. And the 
Sultan commanded that they should tie each one's 
sword below him, and place it upon his heel, and 
carry all to Ghazna, that all the world might take 
example from their misfortune and distress, and 
the fallaciousness of their confidence (Persian 
Verse) 

" I have often contemplated and still no thought arrived, 
but this good one, 

" Happy he who directs himself (to serve) this Lord. 

" Let him who would be at ease implore Grod to make his 
burden light. 

" The head of every one will be cheerful whose foot is on 
that threshold." 

Sabdshitagin, with a few individuals, saved his 
life, and passed the Jihiin, and appeared before 
Ilek-Kh^n, who had already sent Jaafartagin, with 
six thousand horse, towards Balkh, in order to 
divert the Sultdn from the pursuit of Sabdshltagin. 
But the Sultan regarded them not, until he had 
concluded his immediate engagement. Then he 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 335 

turned his reins towards them and suddenly- 
assaulted them, and sent the Amir Abdl Muzaffar 
Nasr, with his hunting forces and reaping troops, 
who held on to tjiem until they were all expelled 
from the territory of Khurasdn. 

As for Ilek Kh£n he could not rest from this 
calamity, and despatched a " letter of succour" to 
Kadir-Khan, King of China, imploring aid. And 
a sea of Turkish forces came like a torrent, and 
occupied the utmost parts of his kingdom and 
cities. And the army of Miwarannahr came, in a 
body to join them, and five thousand bridles passed 
the Jihiin, madly proud of the resources and 
strength of Kadir-Khdn, of his great numbers, 
extreme bravery, established abihty, and extensive 
power (Verse) 

" Around him is a sea, which dashes with its billows and 
wears out the margin of the cliff. 

" The stone from a small hill comes to them, 

" It smooths thereby the shore, 

" Until it joins the fragments of misfortune and arranges 
them in order." 

The news of their arrival reached the Sultan, at 
Takhristan : he packed up and went to Balkh, that 
the food of their covetousness might be cut off from 
those regions, and the road of provisions and pay 
might be closed ; and the Sultdn was occupied in 
arranging the means of war, and he collected a 
numerous army, of various tribes of Turks, Kha- 



336 MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

lajes, and Hindiis and Afghans, and the - Uozz 
troops, and they met at a wide place, four farsangs 
from Balkh (Verse) 

" The fifth of the east of the earth and the west responds, 
" And their murmur reaches the ear of Gremini. 
" Therein are assembled all people, 

" Nor can they understand the news without an inter- 
preter. 

" Oh G-od, at the time of the way of sorrow thou seest it, 
" And (when) the warriors and lions survive not." 

Ilek then marched down with his army to 
battle, and for that day the young men of the 
army only boasted and swaggered, until the carpet 
of night was spread, when they separated, with the 
promise to fight with each other on the morrow. 
And the Sultan was occupied in arranging the 
order of battle. He assigned the centre to the 
Amlr-Nasr, brother of the Prince of Jurjdn, Abu- 
Nasr-Farighonl, and Abii- Abdullah -Taini, with a 
body of his picked Curds and brave genii. He 
sent the right to the great S4hib, the Amir Alton- 
tash, and charged ArsMn Jazib with the left, and 
strengthened the force of the centre with five 
hundred elephants. And as to Ilek Khdn, he, 
having stationed himself in the centre, had Kadir- 
Kh4n, with the army of Chin, on the right, and 
Jaafartagin on the left. Thus they engaged, and 
the earth resounded with thunder -like shouts and 
blows, and was in a blaze, from the terrible 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF OHAZNA. 337 

lightning of swords, and they sewed patches of 
dust upon the blue lining of the heavenly vault^ 
and rendered the field of battle brilliant with the 
torches of arms and the tapers of spears, and 
sprinkles of blood began to rain from those 
lightning scimitars. And Ilek-Khd,n, with five 
hundred Turkish ghulams (quasi grenadiers) fought 
so skilfully that in the front of the army they could 
split a hair with their arrows, and could take a 
mountain from its place by the strokes of their 
swords. Then the sea of war was raised to a storm 
and the ground of the field was shaken as by an 
earthquake. And the SuMn, when he witnessed 
the mighty strength and terrible power of that 
body, came down to a small hill and implored the 
Almighty to strengthen his right hand and forgive 
(his errors ?) and he placed his hand upon the end 
of the skirt of Heaven and trusted in God's 
guardianship, and asked victory from Him ; and he 
made vows of offerings and engaged himself to 
give pious alms, and humbly submitted himself to 
God (imploring) that He would speed on victory 
and conquest. Then he mounted his own special 
elephant, and, with clear mind and sincere assur- 
ance, made a charge upon Ilek-Khdn's centre ; and 
his elephant seized the standard-bearer of Ilek- 
Kh&n and tossed him into the air, and, with 
weighty fury and extreme might humbled the 
men under his foot, and with his trunk hurled 



338 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

them from the back of horses, and tore them to 
pieces with his teeth. Upon this the chiefs of the 
Sultan boiled with the eagerness of opportunity 
and the gladness of victory, and bestirred their 
scimitars to strike the mass. Then came the tongue 
of reproach and cursing, and they compelled the 
troops of the Turks to leave (original, Tarh) their 
position, and to take the path of flight, and the 
Sultan's army with fury and madness cast them 
back to Mdnardnnahr, and not a trace of them re- 
mained in Khurasan. And again, these verses of 
Salami contain a description of the event, and a 
delineation of the impress of the Sultan's deeds 
( Yerse) 

" Oh sword of the religion of Grod {i. e., the Sultdn) thou 
art not pleasing to the enemy, even although thy sword like 
thy rectitude, cuts rightly" &c., &c. — opdoTOfiet. 

And when the Sultd,n had concluded this great 
victory, and had allayed the heat of his anxiety, 
and had put an end to the series of these accidents, 
he determined to carry out his design of attacking 
Nawastah-Shdh, (or, Zab-Sais). This Prince was 
one of those sons of some Kings of India, unto 
whom the Sultdn, having displayed to them the 
profession of Isldm, had intrusted several of the 
provinces which he had won from the infidels, and 
had given the reins of the government of regions 
unto the hand of his fidelity, and had confidence in 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 339 

him, and had left him deputy and viceroy in those 
countries. But he divested himself of the collar of 
religion and the robe of IsMm, and put on the 
cloak of infidelity, and became an apostate. The 
Sultdn twisted him from his position by one direct 
attack, and expelled him broken and discomforted 
from those limits, and a second time adorned 
Bahjat-Milik with that kingdom, under his own 
sovereignty. These two great victories, and im- 
portant affairs, presented a clear demonstration and 
a cutting proof of the exalted dignity of the Sultdn, 
of his perfect fortunes, of the support of God, and 
of the aid of heavenly kindness. And thus, beneath 
the canopy of empire and of victory he turned his 
face towards Ghazna. " For this grace of God 
makes to believe whom He will," for God has 
great grace. 



ACCOTJNT OF THE CaPTUEB OP THE FoBT OF BAHfM BY 

Stoem. 

After these two famous victories he came to his 
capital, Ghazna, with a view to enjoy repose and 
refreshment, in order to give some days' relaxation. 
Then, however, when he found that the pole of his 
quiescence began to be in motion, and when he saw 
the star of his repose begin to travel, then his mind 
turned to the choice of expanded boundaries, in- 
stead of limited ones, to the deeds of swords and 

z 2 



340 MEMOIRS or MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

glory, instead of self-pleasure, and rebellion, to a 
repulse of every attachment to amusement, and 
unto God's will, instead of a perverse disposition. 
And all his times being thus devoted and conse- 
crated unto the building up of perfect renown, and 
gaining an abundant recompense ; he, by reason of 
this gracious resolution, determined upon another 
conquest, whereby the colours of IsMm might be 
exalted, and the flags of idolatry and denial of 
religion might be subverted and overset. When, 
therefore, the month Rabi'al-Ackhir of that year 
had passed he marched forth. And when he 
arrived on the bank of the W^mund, W4b41-'bn- 
Abdbil came to confront him with a numerous 
army. And from the time that the falcon of morn- 
ing took his flight from the nest of the horizon, 
until the crow of darkness closed her wing, the fire 
of battle burnt, and the pieces of men's bodies 
hacked by the sword coloured the earth as if by 
anemones. And it had nearly happened that the 
army (of the Sultin) were wounded (worsted), and 
that the infidels had obtained the high hand. 
However the promise respecting victory to the 
words of Isldm were fulfilled, and the Sultd,n with 
his own guards made a charge, under which the 
feet of the infidels were unable to stand. They 
were therefore routed, and sixty head of elephants, 
which were the guard of that mountain-like temple, 
by the river passage of those infidels, fell into the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 341 

SuMn's hands, and they drove them amongst the 
black hills and deep passes. And the Sultdn 
moved his soul in seeking those vile wretched ones, 
and cast to the ground many of those false felons. 
And then he arrived at the base of the fort of 
Bahin Bara (Baghra, or Naghra) .* This is a castle 
in the midst of the water, very moist, high as a 
mountain, and an inaccessible pit (keep ?) con- 
structed there. And the people of India made it 
a treasury for their great idols, and load upon load 
of precious goods and jewels had been transported 
there, for the purpose of obtaining salvation, and 
for the sake of a nearer approach to Heaven, and 
for oblations to the Almighty. The Sultdn closely 
surrounded this fortress. And they began to fight 
in defence of this castle with devoted strength and 
resolute fierceness. But when those people beheld 
the power of those stirrers-up (lit. pokers) of war, 
and the majesty of those exciters of burning fuel, 
fear and horror grasped hold of them, and dread 
and terror seized the expanse of their breasts, and 
their enemies' exploits bound the bandage of dis- 
grace over their eyes. And the Sultin threw the 
snaring rope of conquest over their head, so that 
they capitulated, and consented to serve in war 
under the banners of the Sultdn. Then they 
opened the gate, and humbly offered service to the 

* Bahim Baghra, or Naghra, near Naghrakut, iii Lahore, 



342 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP QHAZNA. 

SuMn's stirrup, and cast themselves upon the 
ground. And from the benefits of this possession 
prodigious fruits and abundant flowers accrued to 
the Sultan, and he found such an amount of exqui- 
site gems, brilUant jewels, and precious stones, and 
rare treasures, that the fingers of the scribe, and 
the account books of the calculators, would be un- 
equal to the task of catalogueing and numbering 
them, and with the Prince of Jurjin and his private 
attendants, he went within the castle. And he 
committed the guardianship of the gold and silver 
and other (like) valuables to his two Chamberlains, 
Altontdsli and Istargin, but determined that he 
would himself undertake the care of the treasure of 
jewels, and transport the whole on the back of men 
and camels. And as far as it could be brought to 
computation and account, the treasure consisted of 
1,070 packets of royal dirhims, and 700,400 mans 
of gold and sUver bullion. And as to the robes, 
and cups (or basins), silk and cloth, &c., they were 
so many, that the seniors of the empire and clerks 
of State were quite unable to arrange them, and 
acknowledged that they had never beheld such 
robes, both as regarded the beauty of the workman- 
ship, and its delicate excellence. And amongst 
other discoveries they found a large house made of 
silver, sixty cubits long, and fifty wide, with broad 
flooring, so arranged, and so contrived with ropes, 
that the whole could be thrown together, or could 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 343 

be separated into divisions ; that it could be folded 
up or expanded, let down or raised up with ease ; 
with curtains of Grecian brocade, and two golden 
statues, and twb silver statues. The SuMn then 
left several of the gravest and most trust-worthy 
of the State to protect that fortress, and with the 
pledges of victory, and beneath the canopy of 
power, turned towards Ghazna. And when safely 
settled in his glorious abode and expanded Court, 
he ordered that a carpet should be spread in the 
midst of the serai, and that they should ponr upon 
it, those pearls bright as stars, those jacinths 
coloured like flames, those fresh green emeralds, arid 
those packets of perfect crystal stones. The chiefs 
of countries arid deputies of provinces were there, 
who took the finger of astonishment into their 
mouth. And the envoys of Togha-Khdn, King of 
the Turks, were present, and all confessed that a 
sight of this kind could not be contained within the 
compass of thought, and that the treasures of 
Kardn could not have amounted to a tenth part 
thereof Heaven knows, however. 

Accorsx OF THE Family or PAEfauK. 

The country of Juzjdn had for a long time of 
the reign of the family of SdmSn appertained unto 
Farigun, the inheritance descending from grand* 
father to father, and brought down from predeces* 



344 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

sor to successor. Their beneficent and generous 
dispositions had deserted the path of ill-will (or 
suspicion) with regard to people, and the poor 
and good of those regions sought, as an object 
to be attained, their protection and favour. 
Hence their wealth was an opportunity for hope 
(to dwell upon). Their land became the plain and 
meadow for the relaxation of all noble hearts, 
and the reward of poetry bore a high price 
in the market of their humanity, whilst their 
liberality was always forward and engaged in 
mending that which was broken, and in freeing 
that which was captive ; and the virtuous examples 
of the world were eager to receive the beauty and 
ornament of their benefits. And Abil-Harith-'bn- 
Muhammad was one of the most illustrious princes 
of his dynasty, and the glory of aU the race, and 
in their very embroidered border he possessed 
saintly beneficence, a broad canopy of protection, 
and a well ruling sceptre. The Amir Sabaktagin 
had requested favour after favour in behalf of his 
son, and for his son Abii-Nasr he had procured an 
incomparable pearl (one of his daughters in mar- 
riage ?) from the glorious ocean, Nasir-Addin, so 
that the ground (the existence) of a union in 
temperament had been established between their 
two Highnesses. Moreover bonds of kindred and 
confidences of affinity had been fixed and inter- 
twined between them. And when Abii-Harith 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 345 

died, the Sultdn confirmed his son in the possession 
of that territory, and specially aided and tended 
him, until, in the year 401, he migrated from the 
house of earth to the house of retribution. And 
Badi-Hamadd,nl when he presented himself to 
their Majesties threw this fragment of poetry, when 
he was introduced, before them (Verse) 

" A book and the sea, if I have never seen them I hare 
heard an account of them ; 

" A lion ! if I have not met with him I can imagine and 
portray his nature ; 

" A just king ! if I have not fallen in with him his character 
hath fallen in with me, and whoso hath seen the effects of his 
sword hath seen his greatness," &c., &c., &c. 

And when he left the presence he composed 
the following, as an offering of thanks for his 
reception (Verse) 

" Dost thou not see that in my journey I met with my wish, 
■with riches, with the Amir ; 

" And whilst thou beholdest I was light and cheerful upon 
the earth, 

"And I was an important person, who smells perfumes," 
Ac, &c. 



346 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

Account of the CoMMAiirDEE of the Faithful, Kadie- 

BlLLAH, AND HIS KhilIfAT AFTER Tit, AKD HIS InAUGIT- 

eation, and the Teansaotions that occueeed with him 
AND the Sultan Yamin-Addoulah and Biha-Addou- 

LAH. 

*The Amir Biha-Addoulah-wa-Zi4-Al-Millat, 
considering that tlie Commander of tlie Faithful 
Al-T4i-Billah evaded his just counsels in the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of the empire, and in 
various matters acted in opposition to his satisfac- 
tion and consent, and that from this cause ruin 
presented itself, and dissensions originated on all 
sides, applied all his thoughts to the proposition, 
that he should choose, for the throne of Khilafat, 
and for the investiture with the faithful Imimship, 
some one whose fitness for this great business, and 
weighty matter, he himself knew, and who would 
acknowledge it to be an absolute duty to govern in 
a salutary manner the high and the low ; one who, 
in guarding the apple of the eye of Isldm, and in 
faithful regard to the centre of religion would be 
far from following his own passions, or from the 

* De Sacy remarks that this account of a revolution in the 
Khilafat is unconnected with the history of Mahmfid of 
Grhazna ; but perhaps Utbi inserted it for the following reason : 
Biha^Addoulat was one of the princes of the family of Boyah, 
or Buwwoyah, over which Mahmud was Suzerain, and the 
author, therefore, probably designed to indicate the influence 
of Mahmud, as superior lord of one who could depose and 
nominate a khalif at his pleasure. 



MEMOlJtS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 347 

choice of the will of self He watched his oppor- 
tunity for carrying out this design, until the month 
Shaabdn, in the year 381, he deposed him from the 
Khilafat, and transferred his property and trea- 
sure. And having sent to Tdih, he summoned the 
Commander of the Believers Al-Kadir-Billah, Abii 
Ishak-'bn -Ahmad-'bn - Ishak - Almuktadir - Billah, 
Commander of the Faithful, who resided there, to 
Bagdad, and invested him with the Empire. Thus 
the task of mending the broken affairs of the State, 
and reestablishing the people was settled upon him. 
He arrived at Bagdad in Eamadh^n of that year. 
All classes of men, on account of the veritable evi- 
dences of his character, and their unmixed confi- 
dence in him, were eager for his inauguration, and 
invoked blessings and prosperity upon his Imdm- 
ship, and Khilafat, since his virtues were hke 
stars shining brightly upon the whole earth, and 
his deeds like flowers displayed upon the surface of 
time. And he, in the burden of that stewardship 
and obligations of that office of Imdm, resolved 
upon such a course of conduct that all who knew 
him allowed that such an Imdm as he, both in full- 
ness of intellect, and gravity and dignity and 
superabundance of sedateness, and, purity of man- 
ners, had never sat upon the throne of the Khila- 
fat. For his modesty, and decision, strength of 
heart, liberality of disposition, his splendid dignity, 
the terror of his sword find spear, his eloquence of 



348 MEMOIRS OF MiHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

language, and the regular generosity in distinguish- 
ing merit and desert which was a peculiarity of his 
noble nature, were qualities which had never be- 
fore been united in any one of the race of Abbess. 
And on account of their kindred origin, and 
through the influence of the affinity of Tdl to him, 
he alleviated his deposition, a.nd took him beneath 
the canopy of his care and kindness, and honoured 
him specially with his association and companion- 
ship, and introduced him as a particular comrade 
into the chamber of his favours and generosity, 
and forgot not that during his festival of power 
and season of autocracy he had suffered misfortune 
and wounds, until Fate who cuts off sport, and 
tears up sociability sat down between them, and 
dissevered them. Abii- Alhussain-Muhammad-Ibn- 
Hussainl-Al Musa, in his elegy upon Tdi, says 
thus (Verse) 

" If this was a great rock it hath fallen, after having been 
raised high and widely, 

" Though in height, and width, and length it was a mansion 
for the vault of the stars in motion," &c., &c. 

Moreover the orators of Irak, and poets of 
those countries came troop after troop fco present 
themselves to His Highness the Khalif, and offered 
compositions, and verses, and encomia of the Com- 
mander of the Faithful, Alkadir-Billdh, his noble 
sentiments, and his illustrious kindred who were 



IIEMOIRS OF MAIIMUD OF GHA.ZNA. 349 

the fountains of right, the corner-stones of gene- 
rosity, the lanterns in darkness, and the convincers 
of the people. Their long and short poems were 
collected, and their narratives personal or designa- 
tive, clearly explicated and declared. And Abii- 
Muhammad-'bn-Abdiil-IsMm-'bn-Muhammad-'bn- 
Al-Halzam, who was one of the Im4ms of Khurd- 
s^n relates, when the Commander of the Faithful, 
Al-Kadir-Billah, was inaugurated as Khalif, T rose 
up at his feet, and composed this oration (Oration) 

" Praise to God, ]jossessed of might and victory, whose 
reproofs are undeniable and his bounties evident, vrhose 
goodness is common to all, whose kingdom is eternal, whose 
glory is gentle, whose decree can never be repelled, and whose 
gifts cannot be hindered," &c., &c. 

" And lo ! Grod's favour hath given us the happiness to 
tread the carpet of the Commander of Believers, praising God 
for the benefits he hath given us, by (recognizing) the royalty 
of the Commander of Believers, Mahmud-'bn-Sabaktagin, 
whose conduct is as his name (i.e., laudable, illustrious). 
And we pray (jod that the peace of the Commander of the 
Believers may be everlasting, and that his hopes may be ful- 
filled in Abul-Fazl, Prince of the Law of Muslims, he who 
conquers in God, son of the Commander of Believers, and that 
God may cause to follow upon him the happiness of his just 
fathers, and good and pure ancestors. So praise to God, Lord 
of both "Worlds, and benediction upon his Prophet Muhammad 
and all his family." 

Now when this oration had come to an end, 
the Commander of Believers ordered that they 
should make a copy of it, and preserve it in his 
treasury. And when the pulpits of Khurasdn were 



350 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

adorned and decorated with the inspection of the 
august succession of Alkadir-Billdh, the Sultdn 
displayed marks of obedience, and peculiar affec- 
tion, and special proofs of confirmed fidelity, and 
the Commander of Believers, Al-Kadir-Billah, 
gave a supreme diploma, ordaining that in the 
commendatory commemoration of the country they 
should recognize the right of his son, Al-Ghalih- 
Billdh, and signified his wiU that his surnames 
should be conjoined with those of his father in the 
pulpits of Islam. And the Sultan strictly imposed 
this diploma, by a similar one, and made it a mat- 
ter of obligation,, and on all days of festivals and 
congregations caused the Khuthah to be illumi- 
nated and adorned with both these two surnames. 
And now let us again turn our narrative to 
Biha-Addoulah, and the exposition of his adven- 
tures. With respect to his affairs subsequent to 
the decease of Azduddouldh, they are so fuUy con- 
tained in the book entitled, " Connected Compila- 
tions respecting the transactions of AzduddouMh, 
with the son of his uncle Bakhtyar, until (he?) 
took and killed him, and sent his head to Azdud- 
douldt," that it would be profitless to repeat it. 
The Amir AzdaddouMh died in the year 327. 
And in those days his brother Muyyad-Addouldh 
was fully occupied in the war with Hasdm-Addou- 
Mh-Tdsh, and Fdik, and the army of Khurasdn, 
therefore the sons of the Empire and chiefs of his 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 351 

Court invested his son Sams^m-Addoul4h-wa- 
Shams-Al-Millat with the government, and girded 
themselves to obey and follow him. And the 
Commander of the Faithful, Al-Tdi-Billdh, with 
warm regard, commanded the ceremony of condo- 
lence (tazit) to be performed (for the late Prince), 
on the banks of the Tigris, the people of Bagdad, 
being spectators of that concourse and , assembly. 
And when Tdi came near Samsdm-Addouldh ran 
from his pavilion, and exhibited every indication of 
humility and allegiance. And T4i said, " May God 
aid the face of the departing one. May God grant 
thee a succession that is durable ! May condolence 
be offered, after that succession, to thee, not for 
thee, and a succession devolve upon thee, not from 
thee." Upon this tears came into the eyes of 
Samsim-Addoulah, and he kissed the ground of 
respect. And when the days of mourning were 
accomplished he took his seat in the room of his 
father, and occupied himself in arranging his king- 
dom and ruling his subjects (literally, feeding his 
flock). But Abul-Fawaras-Sharzi, who was his 
elder brother, was settled at Karm^n, in the city 
"W^shlr. When intelligence of the decease of his 
father reached him he came to Fars, and seized 
All-'bu-Nasr-Hardn, who had been Vizier of Az- 
duddoulah, and took possession of all the treasure, 
and of the residue of the revenue which wa;S at 
his disposal. Then he came to Haw4z, and dis- 



352 MEMOIRS 0¥ MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 

possessed his brother Abiil-Hasdn-'bn-Ahmad-'bn- 
Azdaddoulah of that province. He then came to 
Basra, and, in Kajib of the year 375, took Basra 
by capitulation. He then proceeded to Bagdad to 
obtain his father's place. And when intelligence of 
his approach arrived, Sams^m - Addoulah, by dint of 
his great finesse, began to go round, to go from side 
to side, to vacillate, to endeavour to evade the savage 
temper and to shift from the hatred of his brother. 
Yet he learned that the sheath and repository 
cannot hold two swords, and that he ought not to 
conceive the idea of shooting two arrows from one 
bow ; for Abul-Fawdris abused, and insulted him. 
Then he seized him, and sacrificed his eyes, and 
sent him to the fort of Karusan to his uncle, and 
took quiet possession of the kingdom. And the 
Commander of the Believers, At-T41-Bill4h, con- 
ferred upon him the title of Sharaf-Addoulah-wa- 
Zain-Al-Millat. He reigned two years, and in 
JamMl, Al-Achir, of the year 399 ( ? ), he died 
suddenly. And Shdlnsh4h-Biha-Addoulah-wa-Zia- 
Al-Millat-Abii-Nasr'-bn-Azdaddoulah seized the 
kingdom, and displayed a white hand in retaining, 
administering, and governing all things, in adjust- 
ing the carpet of justice, and in settling the king- 
dom advantageously. He displayed good features 
(of character^, possessed perfect intelligence in mer- 
cantile affairs, and an extreme far-sightedness as to 
the issues of events. But a body of the army of 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 353 

the Turks coming to the fortress of Fars, released 
Sams^m-Addoulah therefrom, and proclaimed him 
Amir. And thus his memorable happiness, con- 
veyed him from amongst slaves, and exalted him 
to high rank, from the castle where he had been 
imprisoned. Thus he became chieftain over the 
kingdom of Fars, and seized the wealth and reve- 
nues, and availed himself of the treasure which had 
been provided. Afterwards all the Turks rebelled 
against him, and brought out Abii-Ali-'bn-Abill- 
Fardwiz, and entitled him. Sun of the State and 
Moon of the Faith (Shams- Addoula-wa-KdmrAl- 
Millat) and proceeded to claim the kingdom by way 
of force. Sams^m-Addoulah addressed himself to 
repulse them, and defeated them, so that they fell 
back with loss and distress to BagdM. And Blha- 
Addoulah resolved to oppose Samsdm-Addoulah, 
and some warlike meetings fell out between them, 
and during the time of these confusions Basra was 
reduced to ruin, and the greater part of the terri- 
tory of Hawdz was exposed to destruction. And 
the sons of Baktyar were in the fortress of Majds, 
and a body of royal Curds, in order to stir up the 
flames of discord, and from their bias unto crime 
and malice, brought them out. Sams^m-Addoulah 
occupied himself in repelling them, and gave them 
general repulses. But in the end he was killed in 
one of those battles, and became a martyr. And 
Biha-Addoulah, from motives of affectionate kin- 

2 a 



354 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

dred and near affinity, drew the sword of vengeance 
against those forces, and expelled them all from his 
kingdom. And their General and Amir Niir-Ad- 
doulah was a son of Baktyar, and his affairs came 
to that extremity that he was reduced to levy pay- 
ments for protection, and to stop merchandize on 
the road, and by payments therefrom hoped for 
wealth {or* caused fear to them). And Blha- 
Addoulah sent an army after him, which came up 
with him at the city gate (of Daru ?) and killed him. 
And of the corps of guards of Blha-Addoulah 
there was one who took possession of his head, and 
bringing it presented it to that Prince, who was 
extremely angry, and commanded that they should 
flay that soldier from head to foot, that others 
might take example, nor display such zeal in killing 
kings. And he sent the General of the Army to 
Bagddd, that he might settle the collection of the 
imposts, and the salutary direction of revenue, and 
the preservation of the affairs of the empire, and 
the fitting order of the kingdom. And in this busi- 
ness he displayed agreeable conduct, and by his 
mild proceedings in his. government carefully re- 
garded measures of prosperity, and means of full 
justice, and gained an enviable name and fame. 
Thankful acknowledgments to him were published 
and proclaimed in the mouth of the select and the 

* MS. doubtful. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUB OP GHAZNA. 355 

popular ranks, until his life came to an end. His 
successor was the 7izier of Viziers, who surpassed 
even the General of the army in gaining good 
deeds, and in laying up generous actions, and in 
guiding his people, in his manner of taxing, in his 
opposition to falsehood, in his exaltation of the 
custom of gifts, in stopping the avarice of de- 
vourers, in his goodness to the body of the people, 
and in his zeal for healing the crudities of wicked- 
ness, and in setting right the followers after confu- 
sion. And the kingdoms of Fars and Karmdn, 
with other provinces, were annexed to the dominion 
of Biha-Addpulah, and the fires of discord went 
down, and afiairs were joined in due order, and 
universal peace and perfect tranquillity appeared, 
and the people found the days of an interval of 
deliverance from the hardships of oppression and 
wrong. Thus during the life of Azduddoulah- 
-^bd-Ali-'bn-Alife, and his possession of the coasts 
of Karmdn, that country through the power of the 
Samanides and their supremacy in those frontiers 
could hold itself firm, without sufiering or repulsing 
attack. 

And because he beheld a determined disposi- 
tion in his son, and remarked the evidences of 
ambition in his understanding and imagination, he 
sent him to one of the fortresses of Karm^n. Here 
he was imprisoned for some time. And in this 
castle were several of the family of his father's 

2 a2 



356 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

Court : they cast an eye upon tlie imprisoned 
Prince, and pitied his condition. Therefore they 
tied their veils together and let him down from the 
top of the castle. And when the army became 
aware of the escape of the Prince they all 
assembled and joined him, and during all the days 
of his father they wearied him with measures (and 
propositions) of trouble. And Abd-Ali sent a 
message to the chiefs of the army and notables of 
the people, and desired to know the cause of their 
hatred and ground of their fierceness, and em- 
ployed gentle and friendly words. But he received 
no healing reply and saw no result, except the 
necessity of propitiating His Highness.* For all 
released him from governing, and absolutely 
required that he should separate himself from the 
country and towns of Karmdn, and divest himself 
of all desire for those regions. And when he saw 
the vehemence and obstinacy of these forces he 
perceived that there was no remedy, but in gentle- 
ness and in quitting his lordly tone. Therefore he 
collected the property and moveables which he had, 
and took the road to Bukhdrd ; and he sent his 
son, 'bn-Mahdi, and Barmash, the Chamberlain, 
to the other son, in order that, by the aid of their 
perfect intellect, they might expedite his affairs. 
And when Abii-Ali arrived at Bukhara he used 
the utmost endeavour, by seeking and visiting, to 

* His Highness, i. e., of Bukhara : the dates are confused. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 357 

obtain splendour and distinction for his rank, and 
was a constant attendant at the presence of the 
King, until, in the month Shaivdl and the year 
356 (?) he was committed to the grave. And his 
son Allsa obtained possession of the kingdom of 
Karman ; and his affairs met with perfect success, 
and his authority was consolidated and advanced. 
His brother Sulimdn was settled at Jarjdn, for 
the viceroyalty of that place had been committed 
to him. He stirred up his son 'bn-Mahdi- Allsa 
to attack him, and said that he ought to lay hands 
upon him before his disjointed affairs were fully 
put in order, and his condition settled. Alisa then 
summoned his brother from Jirjdn, under pretext 
of consulting him upon some weighty business. 
He however sought to hold back, by means of false 
excuses and deceitful words. And Allsa became 
grieved at this refusal, and conceived a suspicion 
of him. He therefore attacked and defeated him, 
and seized all his property and baggage, heavy and 
light, and Sulim^n went to Bukhdrd. But the 
history of AHsa turned out eventually according to 
the saying, "The ass seeking two horns, lost his 
two ears." The explication of which proverb is this, 
when he arrived on the frontiers of the country 
of Fars, a detachment of the army of Azduddoul^h 
went to offer service to him. He caressed them 
greatly, and gave them dresses of honour. But 
then several of this body fled, and came into the ser- 



358 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZWA. 

vice of Azduddoulah. For this cause Alisa became 
suspicious of the fidelity of the remainder, and made 
them all an example. Then most of his army went 
into the service of Azduddoulah, who abundantly 
honoured them. And the army witnessing the dis- 
ruption of these two bodies became alienated from 
Ahsa and hated him, and at one stroke a thousand 
men of the chiefs of Dilem severed themselves 
from his troops, and attached themselves to His 
Highness, Azdaddoulah, in the province of Istak- 
har. After this company after company attached 
themselves to him, until the whole of the people of 
the army were dissevered. And he, with his slaves 
and body guard, went to Washar, and twisting to- 
gether his light and heavy baggage, went to 
Bukhird. Upon this Azduddoulah was soon at 
Washar, and succeeded to the kingdom of Karniidii- 
He removed Gorangirln-Hassan to become his 
vicegerent and lieutenant of that place, and betook 
himself to the direction of Fars. As for Allsa 
when he arrived at the confines of Kohistdn;, he 
left aU his baggage at Hawin, and in the hope of 
succour went to Bukhdrd,. His exalted rank and 
honoured dignity was highly regarded in the royal 
presence, and favoured in the Court, and he was 
specially admitted into familiar intercourse and 
society with the King. But on a certain day, 
during a social meeting, when the course of wine 
had seized the reins of self-command from his hand. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 359 

he introduced a freedom of speech beyond that 
which his rank authorized, and uttered the follow- 
ing expressions : " If I had known that the disposi- 
tion of the house of S^mdn shrank from aiding the 
grieved, and succouring the anxious, and that my 
hope of obtaining the prospect of encouragement, 
and an asylum from their Highnesses, would have 
been disappointed and belied, I would have sought 
refuge in some other direction, and requested sup- 
port from some other quarter." The harshness of 
these words moved the King, and they seized him, 
and sent him to Ehwdrism. ,And Abii-AlI-'bn- 
Simjiir sending to Ha win, took possession of all his 
baggage, light and heavy, and all his bedding, 
coloured clothes, and changes of raiment. 

This loss constituted bitter intelligeiice to Alisa, 
at Khw^rism, and he could not patiently endure 
that measure of affliction. And in his extreme 
anguish and disgust lifted up his finger and tore 
out the pupils of his eyes, and by this, in the issue, 
he laid down his life. As to the sons and followers 
of AHsa, they afterwards chanted the pages of 
misery, and none of them saw Kirmdn except in his 
sleep. Kirmdn then was fully settled upon 
Azduddoulah, until he went to the home of mercy, 
and Biha-Addoulah inherited the kingdom. These 
regions were adorned by his justice and equity. 
And when the SuMn seized Sistd,n, and the duty 
of neighbourhood and contiguity of dominion was 



360 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

observed between them, he openly declared and 
uttered an assertion of his noble attachment and 
eager aifection towards the Sultin, and sent to him 
gifts and presents, worthy of his exalted mind and 
illustrious descent. And the Sultan reciprocally 
commanded that double kindnesses should be ren- 
dered to him, so that the source of mutual hospi- 
tality, and the fabric of friendship, was settled 
between them. And the senators of the two empires, 
by means of their compositions, exerted themselves 
to interweave as the motives for constancy, the 
bonds and claims of neighbourhood, and to nail the 
foundations of affection by the nails of alliance and 
affinity, so that unity and intimacy resulted between 
these two sovereigns, and the advantages of their 
union, and the fruits of their alliance, extended to 
the people of Islam, and to the whole world. 

ACOOTJNT OF THE StOBMING OF NAEDftf. 

The Sultdn, in order to fulfil his previous vow, 
commanded a brisk march unto another conquest, 
which might be the margin of the ornamented 
title page of other victories and settlements, the 
record of which might adorn the page of time, the 
weight of whose glory might be a heavy load (of 
merit), and might be a cause of confirming the ad- 
vancement and approximation of His Highness to 
glory, and of exalting his greatness. He therefore 
set off unto the lands of Hind, with the supporters 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 361 

of truth, and chiefs of IsMm, who are the stars 
of rehgion, and the stoners of devils (Verse) 

" In their (the Hindu's) tumults the sword-edge stopped 
their fury ; 

"As to their people indigestion was appended to their^ 
wholesome food. 

" The lion eats not of the limbs of their herd, 

" On account of his gain of broken bones" {of men). 

And upon arriving at the provinces of India, 
they began with open hand to devastate the lands, 
to punish the infidels, to overturn the idols, and to 
make an example of high and low; and as to the 
prince of those doomed ones, and the chief of those 
insignificant ones, they sent him abject and prostrate 
to hell, and for his viler followers scattered and dis- 
persed them like leaves exposed to the wind. Thus 
he returned to Ghiizna, safe and rich. And when 
the King of Hind witnessed the marks of the wound 
of the Sultan's standard in the nearest and most 
distant part of his kingdom, and ascertained his 
weakness in resisting the army of Islim, he sent 
the chiefs of his kindred and the flower of his 
guards on an embassy to ofter submission to the 
Sultin, and humbled himself, and bound himself to 
tribute and fidelity, and appointed sixty yokes of 
elephants to be sent by him as a service to his 
beloved fortune, and assigned a payment to be 
mutually arranged, which should be sent yearly by 
the nobles (freeholders) of that province, and the 



362 MEMOIRS OF MAHM0D OF GMaZNA. 

people of that district, to his treasury. And that 
by way of acting as Viceroy, he should keep two 
thousand men at his Court, and that at all recurring 
days, and returning months and years, he should 
express fidelity to these conditions, and that the 
successors and sons of every^one who should occupy 
royalty, and obtain command in India, should pro- 
ceed upon this decree, and should obey and follow 
this law. The Sultdn, for the glory of the faith and 
honour of Islim, was content with these conditions 
of pacification, and dispatched trustworthy persons 
to collect these revenues ; and this secured tax be- 
came a fixed source of revenue in the book of the 
finance court of the Empire. Thus the road for 
caravans and merchants between the districts of 
Khurasan and Hind became open. 

HiSTOET OP THE CjiPTrEE OP GuB. 

The Sultin began to reflect and to be disgusted 
with the districts of Giir, with the insolence of the 
inhabitants, and the insults (of those people) in the 
neighbourhood of his kingdoms and centre of his 
empire's circle, and began to be jealously indignant 
on account of their crimes and wickedness, and 
infidelity and disobedience, and their heavy imposts 
(by lying in wait) upon caravans and travellers. 
For he saw it not fitting that a people destitute of 
Faith's decoration, and marked with the brand of 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 363 

infidelity, should through the prestige of their 
munitions of mountains and repelling cliffs, in the 
neighbourhood and vicinity of the powerful throne 
of royalty, display such arrogance and pretensions, 
and take upon themselves such enmity and for- 
wardness. He resolved to correct and pinch them, 
and drew a considerable army of infantry a,nd 
cavalry to those confines. And he appointed to 
the command of the army Altontash, his Chamber- 
lain, who had been Prince of Herat, and Arsl^n- 
Jazib, a well-known and celebrated man of Multdn. 
And they, in folding up those passages and halting 
places fell into straits, for all the people of the army 
of Giir were entrusted with the guardianship of 
those defiles, and great battles took place between 
the two divisions, and they obtained not a hand's 
breadth of footing, except by the scimitar, and no 
other weapons were of service, and the swords took 
nothing, except to wait the opportunity of cutting 
to pieces, and daggers only fought with throats. 
And the SuMn, informed of this, forthwith arose, 
with a body of his own special slaves, and came to 
their aid, and step by step drove those wretches 
far from the defile, and their places of asylum and 
(repositories) of wealth, until he had scsittered them 
all from the protection of their narrow passes and 
the benefit of their diflficult ground, and opened a 
way for his infantry, and made a road to arrive 
close to the stronghold-nest of the king and chief. 



364 MEMOIRS OP MAHMU0 OF GHA2NA. 

whose name was Ibn-Sdri, and by a ravine (or 
village) named Ahingiran ( ?) came over to the 
sides of his fortress. He then issued out with ten 
thousand men, and drew up in line of battle against 
the Sultd^n, and by his opportunities of entrenching 
himself behind walls, and by reason of the aid he 
derived from his strong places of retreat and deep 
ditches, resisted half the day. Thus they con- 
tinued striking on both sides in stubborn fight, and 
confused shootings and blows. But the Sultdn 
ordered that they should turn their backs, as 
though his army were yielding and descending. 
These doomed ones were deluded with this decep- 
tion, and the Hindu no longer held firm (to his 
ground) but, fascinated by a desire for plunder, 
came into the open plain, to see the flight. Upon 
this the Sultdn wheeled round, and laid them all 
on the couch of sweet sleep, with death as their 
bedfellow. He took the son of Ibn-Silrl prisoner, 
and carried away as booty wealth and arms, which 
chief after chief and infidel after infidel had be- 
queathed, as inheritance. Thus the ensigns of 
IsMm were displayed in those regions and coasts, 
and the renown of these great victories travelled 
throughout the world. Thus the SultS.n, on the 
wing of success and the upraised pinion of good 
fortune, set off for Ghazna. As to the son of Sholi 
{i. e., Siirl) when he saw himself disgracefully 
caught in the snare of imprisonment and the halter 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP QHAZNA. 365 

of ruin, and when he saw the people of IsMm lords 
of all the deposited wealth of his castle, he sucked 
a poisoned ring that was on his finger and resigned 
his soul to the Supreme. 

Account of the PAMnrE at NfsAprjE. 

In the year 401, in the province of Khurds^n, 
generally, and in the city of Nis^piir, particularly, 
a wide-spread famine, and a frightful and calami- 
tous scarcity occurred, such that the girdle of 
patience was too narrow to bear the measure of 
that distress and the pressure of that misfortune, 
so that, from the difficulty of finding food no 
strength remained, and every one ate the grain of 
the heart (i.e., original sin, or misery) like the 
grains of the pomegranate from the skin («. e., 
innate corruption appeared in its effects). All con- 
veyed within their dwellings the vegetation and 
sprouts adapted for animals, as delicious food, until 
all cheeks withered, and all bright faces scattered 
their freshness like autumn leaves ; vacant eyes 
fell into a pit and sweet lips were ruined. The 
nerves of articulate speech were unable to express 
clear chants by the organ of the tongue, and pearl- 
like teeth, from the saliva of inward fever, became 
yellow ; sweet-scented mouths sent up to Heaven, 
from the burning flame of hunger, continual sighs, 
and life, from the desolation of its lodging-body, 



366 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

laid itself down at its halting-place or inn. Grains 
of wheat were more valuable than grains of pearl, 
and the Virgin's ear of corn in the heavens envied 
the esteem afforded to the ears of corn on earth. 
The granaries of those who laid up in store were 
as empty, i. e., forlorn, as the heart of the mother 
of Moses, and the stomachs of the wealthy were as 
void as a drum : no trace of bread remained ; and 
that which all coveted was annihilated. Such was 
the extent of the calamity that, in the district of 
NisS,pTir, nearly 100,000 men perished, and no one 
was at liberty to wash, coffin, or inter them, but 
placed them in the ground in the clothes they had. 
Women and men, old and young, uttered cries for 
help, and, exclaiming " Bread ! bread !" lay cold (in 
death) upon the spot. Some arrested their last 
breath by means of grass and hay, until all susten- 
ance from sown fields and cultivated things were 
cut off, and that resource was also drawn beneath 
the veil, until they took the bones from the ceme- 
teries, and broke them into small pieces, and boiled 
them, and, as when a butcher slaughters, the poor 
quarrelled for the bloody portions, and therewith 
quieted the cry of hunger and struggle to ward off 
the last agony. However every one who partook 
of these impurities fell upon the spot and yielded 
up life. Otbi says, I knew a man whom they were 
seeking and enquiring for, as heir to property that 
was falling in, but possessed not one grain of 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZSA. 367 

wheat in reality or prospect. This man of noble 
feelings and high rank could in no way obtain 
grains of corn, so destitute had he become. And 
the intensity of this distress was so great that 
mothers ate their children and brothers made 
brothers', flesh the means of preserving life, and 
husbands killed their wives and boiled them, and 
cutting their members and limbs into pieces, dined 
upon them; and they seized men in the streets, 
kUled and ate them, and people separating the 
flesh from the fat, would talk familiarly in the 
market and hold them up with the fingers, show- 
ing which of the joints and pieces of human flesh 
would best melt together (or cleaned the best 
joints and pieces of human flesh) and sold them in 
the market,. And they seized many for this 
offence and found in their houses men's bones, and 
carried them to execution. But the source of this 
misery was not cut off, and no more animals, as 
dogs and cats, and such like, remained. And no 
one was so bold as to stir far from his house or to 
go far into the city, unless in company with others 
and well armed. A clever man, a theological 
Imdm, went to visit the Imdm Taib-Salaoki. The 
Imdm Abii-Taib said : " It is long since you have 
set foot in my house or have directed your will 
towards me, what is the cause ?" He replied : 
" My story is a strange story and a wondrous inci- 
dent ; if the Shaikh Imdm, on account of its sin- 



368 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 

gularity, will allow me a hearing and grant me his 
illustrious attention I will tell a tale, how God, in 
my behalf, hath granted a solid favour and a 
generous interposition, and hath saved my life 
from the precipice of destruction." The Shaikh 
said : "You must tell the story, by all means." 
Then he said ; " I was passing, at night-time, 
through such a street, wheji suddenly a snaring 
noose fell upon my neck, and, with successive 
stretchings, so compressed my throat that my 
breath was stopped, and from the violence of the 
strangling I became a prisoner, and went as the 
rope (pulled me) until it drew me to a certain lane, 
and an old woman ran out of the house, and both 
of them struck their knees upon the lower parts of 
my stomach, until from those injuries I became 
insensible, and had no knowledge of that which 
afterwards followed, until after a while, by means 
of fresh water which was thrown upon my face, I 
recovered, when I saw several sitting by my pillow 
and treating me kindly. They represented to me 
the conduct of these deceitful and designing people, 
and removed the curtain of concealment from the 
secret of the description of the event. Thus I 
became acquainted with the certainty of that affair, 
namely, that at the juncture of time when that 
man was dragging me, they were proceeding 
towards their residences and abodes, and that 
impure wretch was sharpening a knife to murder 



MEMOIRS OF MjVHMUD 0¥ GHAZNA. 369 

me, when, being alaijmed at them, he left me in 
that condition and fled, and after a Uttle space- 1 
recovered my breath, and went home ; but, from 
the horror of that affair, I was some days upon my 
bed, until Heaven was so gracious that the pain of 
that injury ceased. And when the marks and 
proofs of convalescence were perfect, I went, at the 
hour of dawn, to fulfil my religious duty at the 
mosque ; and I went, at the time of the proclama- 
tion of prayer, to the minaret, to a seat, awaiting 
the hour of the proclamation. Suddenly a noose 
was in motion by my side, directed towards my 
throat. However the mercy of the Supreme inter- 
posed, and this attempt at injury missed my neck, 
and my handkerchief was the preservation of my 
life, and my turbg-n remained in the knot of the 
noose. I ran down fi-om the mizanat (place where 
the Muezzin stands to proclaim the hour of prayer) 
and made a vow that, for the space of this calamity 
and the days of this distress, I would never come 
from the house, except in bright day, and would go 
for all necessaries before the sun began to incline 
to twilight. These were the circumstances which 
hindered my service and prevented my presence." 
"When I had concluded my tale all expressed asto- 
nishment at that blow and astounding event, and 
I sought the benignity of God, and fled to the 
canopy of his guardianship and compassion. And 
Master Abdul-Malik- Walz, who was one of the 

2 B 



370 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

pious Tmdms and esteemed for his good conduct, 
relates that on one day, during that distress, they 
carried four hundred from the streets of the city to 
the hospital, that I might arrange for them to be 
put into coffins and buried. (And another said) 
at evening prayer a baker, who was settled at the 
station of the flag of my serai, came to me and 
said : " To-day four hundred md,ns of bread remain, 
which no one demands." At this state of things I 
was surprised, that, even at times when food can 
be obtained, if God issues his decree and appoints 
the (prophetic) mirror of death for the people it is 
impossible to avert his judgment and to obstruct 
his preordaining decree. The talented of that time 
put forth poems, in commemoration of this scarcity. 
Abii-Mans^r, of Eal, the scribe, says (Verse) 

" Oh what happened to men during the famine ! 
" What alternatives during that calamity ! 
" He who remained fixed at home died of hunger, 
" Or (he who went abroad) witnessed others eating him" 
(who had died so). 

And Abd Lekani says (Verse) 

" Do not on any account go forth from the houses, whether 
there be need or whether there be no need ; 

" Easten thy gates firmly with the bars, 

" Lest the famishing hunt for thee and cook thee into 
broth." 

And the Sultan during those days commanded, 
and sent an edict into the provinces of the king- 



ilEMOIRS OF MAHMUI) OP GHAZNA. 371 

dom, ordaininof th;it the revenue officers and 
magistrates should empty the fjranaries of corn, 
and distribute amongst the poor and wretched, 
and thus save them from the claws of destruction, 
and the talons of want. And that year came to 
an end in the same state, until the produce of the 
year 402 arrived, when the fire of that calamity 
was extinguished, and that extremity was remedied, 
and God sent down mercy, so that the appearance 
of seeds and the blessings of increase returned in 
their accustomed course. " What mercy does God 
open to man, and he will not take hold of it, and 
what does he hold and (man) wiU not send to him 
after it, although he be the mighty Ordainer.'' 
(Kur^n). 



Account or the two Khans, aftee their Eetuen feom 
Mawaeannahe, and the Ambassadoes whom thet sent 
to the Stjltan. 

The Sultan, after defeating the Turkish army, 
came to Jdmdsdn, and commanded that they should 
examine and spy the proceedings of Ilek-Klh^n and 
his brother, Togdn-Khdn, and the latter expressed 
some inclination towards the Sultdn, and began to 
allude to the covenant and compact which had 
existed between them in former days ; , and by the 
tongue of messengers made overtures respecting a 
full discovery of the proceedings of Ilek-Khan, and; 

2 b2 



372 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

entered into treacherous (proposals) of gradually 
approaching and suddenly attacking his territory, 
and the parts about. And when Ilek-Khan became 
aware of these intrigues of his brother, and of his 
traitorous acts, and kliew his baseness and rebellion, 
he determined to carry out abbreviated counsels as 
to him, and first to cut off the germ of all distress, 
a domestic adversary. He therefore marched with 
the army of M4warannahr towards his territory, 
with the intention to encounter him. And when 
he passed Awazkand there was nmch snow, and 
he saw that the roads were obstructed, therefore he 
feturned, until, at the time of the breaking of the 
weather, and the retrogression of the planets, and 
the opening of the winter, and the intercepting of 
the cold, and when the melting spring dissolved 
the silver of the snow upon the heated ground, 
and the hero Earth put off his mailed coat of ice, 
and the abundance of fresh herbage gave forth 
perfume, and the world became quite young, Ilek- 
Kh^n became eiager for victory, and with his com- 
rades marched forth towards his brother. Each of 
them had sent eiivoys to the court of the SuMn, 
who hdd much discussion and conference, and many 
disputes arose between them upon the subject of 
this treacherous proceeding. The SiiMn displayed 
indifference to their abundant words and excessive 
series (of complaints), whilst they were knocking 
their heads together. After this he sent them an 



MEMOIUS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 373 

invitation, and ordered that the bang[ueting room 
should be decked for horse, races, and elephant 
fights. Around the circuit of the whole space there 
were two rows of Turkish Mamliiks and GhoMms 
in full splendour, so that if Kariin had seen them 
he would have said (Verse) 

" Oh that I had what Mahmiid doth possess ! 
How great mast be his happiness !" 

The following is adescription of this assembly: — 
two thousand young Turkish Officers were arranged 
in rows opposite one another, dressed in embroi- 
dered coloured robes, and five hundred of his own 
guards were stationed near the company, in vests 
of silk, and girdles of gold set with pearly, resting 
upon their shoulders Indian scimitars in golden 
gheaths, forty yokes of elephants were arranged in 
front of the assembly, in trappings of Grecian silk, 
harness of woven gold, and metal appendages of 
new gold set with valuable pearls and gems. Then 
behind each of the two rows were seven hundred 
camel elephants, like mountains in appearances and 
devils in make, in splendid housings and painted 
trappings, with collars of gems. The body of the 
army was clothed in coats of mail worthy of David, 
.and drew Frank helmets over their heads, and the 
infantry of the army advancing on the green 
space (?) drew their swords, and fijfied their javelins, 
and the whole company of ithe Chamberlains stood 



374 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

before the SulUn like the sun and moon, and 
reaching their hands, grasped their scimitars, fast- 
ening their eyes and ears upon the (least) sign of 
the Sultdn, and they introduced the envoys, who 
from awe at this array, exhibited the expressions 
of the most perfect devotion to the throne, and ful- 
filled all the established rules and duties of service 
and obedience, and they introduced the envoys to 
the head of the table, into the palace of hospitality, 
when they saw a paradise adorned with fish ponds, 
with gold and silver ceilings, furnished with jewelled 
vessels, and lofty courts, and beautiful furniture. 
Before the Sultan's throne was a golden peacock, 
and the slabs of the throne were joined with gold 
wire, and silver nails, the carpets were of Greek 
and sewed silk. At the upper part of the assem- 
bly room was placed a dais, at the edges of which 
were partitioned off closets, square, hexagon, and 
circular : every closet was filled with different 
kinds of jewels, so that the rays of their brilliancy 
clouded and confiised the eye, and all acknowledged 
that during the whole time of the Khosroes of 
Persia, the Caesars of Greece, the Kails of Arabia, 
and the Rajahs of Hind, they had never heard the 
record of any such precious gems as these. All 
around the assembly room were placed boxes of 
musk, amber, Romaic camphor, pure aloes wood, 
dried citrons and oranges dipped in fragrant per- 
fumes, and various kinds of golden fruits and dates, 



MEMOIKS Off MAHMUD OK GHA2NA. 375 

with clusters of grapes made of rubies, and wlien 
they introduced the wine, the private cupbearers, 
like veiled jewels and treasured pearls, caused to 
circle merrily wine bright as the eyes of the cock. 
The envoys expressed astonishment and amazement 
at the decorations of this banquet, and when in due 
time they requested their audience of leave, the Sul- 
tdn expressed to them his sincere wish for the pros- 
perity and glory of their Sovereign. And thus the 
dust of dispute between the two brothers was laid, 
whilst the Sultan continued to mediate between 
them, and their affairs were thus decided, and 
settled, so that each replaced the sword of ill-will 
in the scabbard, and remained contented with his 
own territory. Their entire history shall be com- 
pleted in another place, if God will. 

Account or the Captube oi' KasdAe. 

When the Sultan's mind was at rest from the 
quarter of the Turks, and had chaunted respecting 
their condition the verse "Their power is great 
between them, if it is united, but their hearts are di- 
vided," (Kurd,n), and had testified, in those events, 
the veracity of the fortunate miracle of the verse, 
" We have sent between them enmity and hatred 
for ever;" so that the trace of the (external) 
enmity of the two brothers was plucked up by his 
firm bravery ; he determined to march towards 



376 MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

KasclS,r, in order that the vain pride of the Prince 
of that country, which he had long endured with 
sfelf-restraint, might be stripped off from his intel- 
lect by the (sharp) snuff (or sneezing powder) of 
the sword, and that the demon of darkness, who 
had displayed masterful and rebellious (inclina- 
tions) by intercepting money, might be confined in 
the bottle* of victory, by the tingling of Indian 
scimitars ; and that his fine cliffs and commanding 
mountains, which were the motives of his rage, and 
the cause of his ambition, might be marked like a 
withered branch by his sweetly- sounding drum- 
stick, and might be given, as stirred-up dust, to the 
wind. He commanded the army to move from 
Ghilzna, by way Of Bost, so that a report was 
spread that his intention was to attack Herdt ; 
but a turning took him to the territory of Kasddr. 
And the Prince of that country was disturbed from 
the couch of sleep before the shining of the eastern 
flames of the sun, by the heavy forces of the Sultdn 
around his castle, and was conscious of death be- 
fore him, and ran out to seek his patronage, and 
threw himself at the hoofs of the Sultan's horse, 
and took upon himself five hundred packets of a 
thousand dirams which were due. Part he paid in 

* Bottle of victory : perhaps alluding to the bottle or 
casket in which a rebellious Jin was imprisoned for centuries, 
which is an incident in One of the Arabian Nights' Entertain- 
ments. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 377 

ready money, but the Sultdn demanded the re- 
mainder with reproaches, and seized fifteen yoke of 
elephants, which he had stored up for times and 
seasons of war, and compelled him to pay dutiful 
submission and obedience, and to engage that he 
would facilitate the coUedtion of the revenue, and 
settle the payment of the imposts. And thus he 
gave the signal to display his banners anew, and 
with the fulfilment of his Avishes, and completion 
of his happiness, set forward to Ghdzna. 



Account or Shab Abu-Nasb-Muhammad-'bn-Asad akd his 
Son, the Shae AbIj-Mdhammai). 

They call the king who guides the affairs of the 
people of Garjlstan (Georgia) the Shdr, as the 
Turks, Hindus, and Greeks call their respective 
.princes the Khdn, the Rai, and the Czar. The Shar 
• of Garjistdn was Abii-Nasr, until his son Muham- 
mad arrived at manhood, and he, by the power of 
youth, and the favour and consent of his comrades, 
became ruler of the kingdom, which his father, 
going into retirement, resigned to him. This 
'Prince, by reading books and conversing with the 
worthy, became highly accompUshed, and enjpying 
the sweetness of learning, was not content with the 
pleasures of royalty, or the luxuries of earth. The 
honourable of the world, and the industrious of the 
■age, regarded his Court as the object of their hopes, 



378 MEMOIES OF MA.HMUD OP QHAZNA. 

and the true Kaaba of petitions and requests. 
They resorted to him from all portions and districts 
of the world, as the direction of the, thought of 
success, and the brisk market of petitions. And 
Abil-AH-SImjur, when he began to rebel against 
King Niir, wished to take Garjlstan under his own 
direction, and to bring the Shdr under obedience to 
himself. But both the Shirs placed the hand of 
repulsion in the face of bis desire, and declined all 
idea of submitting to any other individual's sway, 
in the room of that suzerainty of the family of 
S4ixidn ; obedience to whom had been their per- 
fume and livery, and under the protection of whose 
sway so long a time had passed. Relying therefore 
upon the defence of their castles, and the rugged- 
ness of their country, they sent a reply to Abii- All. 
And Simjiir sent Abiil-Kdsim, the priest, with a 
body of the lords of the fief and nabobs of the state, 
to oppose them. And this army, in traversing the 
space between the two regions, cut through seve- 
ral mountains on a level with the heavens, and 
parallel to the horizon, and passed some defiles 
narrower than the eye of a needle, or than the 
pressure point of a swaddling band, and stood 
against them in several stations, engaging them in 
battle, and many heads were scattered like leaves 
from the trees, and blood flowed like a stream upon 
the surface of the earth. And they turned the two 
•Shars from difficulty to difficulty, until they com- 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 379 

pelled them to take refuge in a castle at the extremity 
of their kingdom, so lofty that the ropes of the 
clouds would be broken in reaching it, and the 
eagle's wing fractured in rising to it. And Abiil- 
Kisim took this country, and laid hand upon their 
treasure, their magazines, and their goods, and took 
all into his grasp, until the Amir Nasr-Addin came 
to the defence. Then Abd-Ali became occupied in 
heart, and summoned back Abiil-Kdsim. And the 
two Shdrs joined the body of the Chiefs of Nasr- 
Addln in supporting the sovereignty of Niih. So 
they revenged themselves on Abil-All, and saw him 
subject to their wish, and came to the head (posses- 
sion) of their kingdom and territory, and there, in 
short, passed their time in peace and quietness, 
until the time of the Sultdn Yamin-Addoulah. 
Utbi relates : When the lords of the provinces 
bound themselves to allegiance to the Sultd,n, and 
at the coronation hurrah reached forth their hands 
in expressing obedience to him, and decorated the 
pulpits by the commemoration of his titles, they 
sent me to the Shdrs as an envoy to receive their 
homage. And when I arrived there they met me 
with perfect honour, and with sincere eagerness and 
true zeal, proclaimed him on the top of the roof, 
and placed on the edge of their coined money the 
august name of thfe SuMn, in the year 389. And 
during my presence (at the Court) letters arrived 
from the parties who had been defeated at Merd (?) 



380 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

in which a request was made for reinforcements 
and succour in the war. And the two Shfe being 
summoned to the war, the Shar Abii-Nasr wrote 
letters to me, and sent a note to me, supphcating 
that I would send his kind respects to the Sultan, 
and assure him of his firm and dutiful attachment 
to His Majesty, and his opposition to all the adver- 
saries of the empire I in reply wrote this extract 
to him, "I hoped that God would prolong the 
continuance of the Sh^r," &c., &c. " And praise to 
God who hath caused the swords of our lord the 
■Sultan to be proclaimed in the pulpits of the God- 
fearing."* 

This affair indeed fell out according to the 
settled conclusion of my discernment, and in the 
end the news arrived that Ilek-Khdn had come to 
Bukhdr4, and was made king, and had taken cap- 
tive the greater part of the army, and put them in 
chains, and the rest of the people were scattered 
and dispersed. And I, on account of the request 
of the two Shdrs, sent letters to the Sultdn, and 
their condition was in the end safely settled in the 
most satisfactory manner, and their affairs fell out 
happily, and their rank became well grounded, and 
their (welfare) was bound up by the Sultan with 

* The design of TJtbi, in this letter, was to give an obscure 
intimation of his want of confidence in the Shdrs, and to convey 
a hint of the consequences which would follow any treachery to 
the Sultan. 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 381 

the absolute necessity of things. And the son of 
this King Shdr came to pay his respects at the 
Sultan's throne, and found the most perfect accessi- 
bility and freedom. He was for some time attached 
to the Court, great and honoured ; but he moved 
plans of wickedness and foUy inconsistent (with 
this treatment), and unbecoming words of deceit 
and treachery towards the kingdom appeared to be 
uttered by him, that in kings' courts are the cause 
of punishment and reproof. By this crime he be- 
came like aL dissevered branch to His Highness the 
Sultin, who however looked with an eye of pardon 
and connivance upon his error, until he requested 
his dismissal, when the Sultan presented him with 
suitable gifts and a valuable dress of honour, and 
thus he found who was the supporter of his honour 
and the strengthener of his glory. Thus he de- 
parted, and affairs for some time remained in the 
same state. Until he conceived the design of further 
conquest, and wished to collect a numerous army 
from all quarters, and to be reinforced with great 
numbers and strength. He therefore dispatched 
an edict to the Shdr, and expected great benefits 
from him, in requital of the solid and generous 
favours which the Sultd,n had granted to him. 
But the hand of factiousness had seized his skirt, 
so that he interposed senseless excuses, and weak 
pretexts, and took the path of delay and torpidity, 
until his rebellion became plain. And the Sultan, 



382 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA; 

passing by his immediate business, addressed him- 
self to this affair, and giving a reply to Shams, 
departed for that expedition upon the horse of 
victory. And mutual letters passed between him 
and the Shir, and the Sultin summoned him to 
trial, and in the midst of the royal order which had 
appointed the cause to be tried, he commenced 
some overtures towards reconciliation and approxi- 
mation ; recommending the Shar to institute 
humanity for harshness, and to surcease from such 
a display of suspicion and alienation; "that he 
wished not, that the conduct which he had dis- 
played towards him should become ineffectual 
through a single error, and that the plant of kind- 
ness which he had fixed in his behalf should 
through one slip be rooted up by him." The Shir 
became still more alarmed at this gentleness, and 
by Heavenly decree bound the garland of destruc- 
tion upon his brow, until he appeared in open 
rebellion against the Sultin. The Sultin sent to 
engage with him the Lord Chamberlain Altontish, 
and Anslin-Jazib. They directed their course 
towards his territory, and they carried with them 
Abiil-Hasan, who was Prince (literally, bailiff) of 
Merdnid, on account of the famiharity possessed 
by him of the windings of those narrow paths, and 
the clefts of those rocks. And thus they entered 
into those confines with an army, excellent for 
their experience in important actions, and for their 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZXA. 383 

eagle vision in war, who cut like Egyptian iron, 
and dived into rivers like crocodiles, and found 
their way into the passes and ravines of earth like 
snakes. They took therefore possession of the 
country. And the father Shdr, through the expe- 
rience of life, well knowing the end of such actions 
and the practical consequences of meddling in 
serious times, sought protection in entreating quar- 
ter, and requested to capitulate, and fled to the 
patronage of the guidance and aid of the Chamber- 
lain Altontash, and sought help against the dis- 
obedience and rebellion of his son, and declared 
that he had no part either in his active or passive 
misconduct, and requested not to be connected 
with his rebeUious and iniidel measures, and asked 
the General's conciliatory intercession with the 
Sultan, representing his sincere fidelity to his the 
suzerain empire, and the brightness of his walk 
and throne, as respects obedience to the Sultan. 
They conveyed him with the utmost honour and 
respect to Herit, and they sent a royal missive 
from the Sultan accepting his apology, and com- 
mending his obedience. Thus they took him unto 
the pledge of peace. But his son fortified himself 
in a castle, which had been their place of refuge 
during the time of the family of Simjilr, and which 
has been previously mentioned. To this place he 
transported his treasure, slaves, and furniture. The 



384 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP QHAZNA. 

Chamberlain Altontasb, and Arsl&n-Jazib came 
down and encompassed tbis foxtress (Verse) 

" All arouad this castle were iron-clothed men, 

" On all sides of the fortress was an iron-cutting circle." 

The Sultin's army levelled great and small 
slinging machines and batteries towards the side of 
the castle, and brought one side of the wall to the 
ground. And the men of the army ran up to 
those walls like deer, laying their hands to dart 
and sword, and drew abundance of red (blood) 
upon the traitor castle. But the Shdr perceiving 
that he was losing hold, sought to escape and 
requested terms, in order that by supplication and 
submission, the intoxicated retribution of that 
terrible (army) might cease, and that he might 
throw water upon the fire of the anger of those 
troops. But he discovered, that the enraged lion, 
when in the extremity of fury he has reached his 
prey with his claws, relinquishes not his sought 
object, and that the deadly snake, when in the ut- 
most rancour he determines to sting, withdraws 
not his irremediably (wounding) teeth. ' Therefore 
this devastation went on, until they seized him, 
and expelled him from the castle, and made booty 
of his treasure and property. They also took his 
Vizier, who was the depository of news, and the 
bag of secrets to him, and placed him upon the 



MEMOIRS OF TVfAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 385 

square torture instrument (i. e. possibly an instru- 
ment that tortures the four limbs) until he gave up 
his most valuable jewels and precious treasures, 
and presented the account book of the remaining 
sums due from the collectors and revenue officers, to 
obtain it from whom they deputed responsible 
persons. They appointed Abiil-Hasam to the con- 
solidated chajge of attending to the affairs of the 
country, the throne, and the imposts of those lands, 
and directed him to arrange the expenses of those 
regions, and entrusted the fortress to him as con- 
fidential Kutwal ; and an order came from the 
Sultan to convey the Shdr to the presence, and 
a strict charge arrived to use him favourably, and 
to supply him; and in delivering him up to the 
Sultdn, they conveyed him towards Ghazna in a. 
closed litter which he had (Takhti band). They 
say, that one of his confidential guards wished to, 
write a letter home, and to make known the de- 
scription of the circumstances of that joui-ney, He 
called the Shdr in the litter, and pressed him to 
compose that letter, the Shdr in his distress was 
vexed with the importunity and impertinence, of 
his inconsiderate Ghuldm, and taking the pen, be- 
gan the letter, writing thus to his wife—" Oh thou 
bad old woman, perhaps you think that I care not 
for your extravagance and wickedness in spending 
my property upon your own will and pleasure, or 
that I know not how you are passing your time 

2c 



386 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

continually in wickedness, in drinking and in 
squandering money by expending it in every way 
of iniquity and perverseness ; how you are occupied 
every day in abundance, and every night in splen- 
dour, with merriment, luxury, and art, giving my 
house to the wind, and casting away my honour. 
If I return I will give you your due, and place 
your just recompense in your bosom," He wrote 
the letter with this playfully high flown language, 
and fastened it up, and gave it to his guard, and 
when it reached his wife, she was astounded, and 
doubted not but that some enemy had made this 
frightful picture (of her conduct), or that some ill- 
willer had made it the means of spite. She left 
her house, and in alarm and disquietude fled to 
some corner, and when the Ghulam came to his 
home, he found his residence as empty as a reaped 
field, and saw no trace of his lady and servants, he 
remained in confusion, and sought from his neigh- 
bours the explanation of this matter. They an- 
nounced to him the fact of the letter, and recited 
his abusive and odious words. He cried out for 
help, and occupied himself in soothing his wife's 
heart, and in appeasing her^ and removing her 
terror and alarm, and brought his wife home again 
quiet and confiding. They told this story of the 
Shar's calumnies to the Sultan, who smiled at his 
teazing moroseness, and ordered that whosoever he 
appointed to serve the Shir, who did not serve 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 387 

him with patience and readiness should receive 
such a retribution. 

And when the Sh^r arrived at the Durbar of 
the Sultan, he ordered them to throw him down, 
and to give him a rubbing with the whip, in order 
to correct and punish him, and they imprisoned 
him ; and the Sultan gave a charge to provide duly 
for the times of his eating food, but so that the 
consent of the SuMn in that respect should be 
concealed, that it might not be a cause of boldness, 
audacity, and impurity. And he made a request 
that thev would send' to him one of his favourite 
guards, and that out of his property, hiousehold 
utensils and furniture, they would restore to him 
what was necessary for him, to which request the 
SuMn acceded. And they brought the father 
from Herkt to the Sultan's presence, who ordered 
that they should observe carefully all respect unto 
him, and the Sultan commanded that they should 
free their possessions and farms from the brand of 
disgrace, and the mark of suspicion whereby they 
had been annexed to the other royal estates (con- 
fiscated). And he relinquished the splendour of 
their wealth to their own disposal, to be expended 
upon their comfort or their necessities, and the 
Shaikh Khalil was appointed to attend to Shdr Abii- 
Nasr, who retained him under the protection of his 
encompassing care, until he departed to the neigh- 
bourhood of the mercy of Him who is Truth. 

2 c2 



388 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

Account or ihb Eteht at Nazin. 

The Sultan, Yamin-Addoulah, in the year 400, 
having taken India and proceeded into the most 
distant limits of the land, into regions where IsMm 
had never displayed her standards, and unto parts 
whereunto the wondrous verses of the Muhamma- 
dan profession had never extended, having purified 
that region from the darkness of denial, and having 
lighted the blazing torches of the Law in those 
tracts and towns, having founded mosques, and 
having exhibited the perusal of the noble book in 
the verses of the glorious Kurdn, in the audible 
prayer-summons, and in the other signs of the 
belief; wished to take possession also of the re- 
mainder of the land of those vile ones, and to bring 
ruin upon those enemies of the faith and servants 
of idols, and to subdue, by the cutting proofs of 
the sword, the deniei's of the unity and glory of 
God, to catch in the snare of IsMm that owl of 
their confidence, who was hooting in the duskiness 
of novel errors. Therefore he summoned his vic- 
torious armies and heroic bands, and covered them 
with great honour and eloquent commendation, 
erecting, as the guide of his plans and the Kiblah 
of his devoted ones, that verse of the glorious 
Kurd,n, "He hath incited the believers; God is 
able to make them sufficient (to cope with) the 
powers of those who believe not, for God is mighty 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 389 

in force and mighty to subdue." And, thus 
strengthened by the breastplate of purity and 
pardon, with the pearl of self-command, and the 
gem of confidence in the help of Heaven, he 
marched towards his business, with an army of the 
stars of this world and of the other, with a most 
lofty assembly. And when he arrived at those 
territories much snow had fallen, and the moun- 
tains and the plains were sprinkled and the roads 
closed ; and a severe frost arose, and the highways 
were obliterated ; so, by the force of necessity, he 
turned aside from those coasts and came to 
Ghazna, and displayed great zeal in perfecting his 
preparations and in exhorting the nobles of the 
empire, until the face of spring appeared, and the 
(defying) shout of frost was silenced by the dread 
of the sword of the sun, and the 'temperature 
became equable. Then he commanded that happy 
work to begin, and, like the green sea raging and 
roaring, put himself in motion and turned towards 
those accursed men. And, when he arrived near 
the enemy, be occupied himself in arranging his 
army. He posted Amir Nasr on the right, and 
committed the left to the care of Arsldn-Jazib, and 
Abii- Abdullah-Til in front, in the van, and the 
Lord Chamberlain Altontish, with his private 
guards, in the centre. But the King of India, 
terrified at that army, sat down under the protec- 
tion of the mountain, fortifying himself, and took 



390 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

refuge in a pass between ten high mountains, and 
strengthened the approaches to those narrownesses 
by niountain-hke elephants, and wrote to seek aid 
from the provinces of his country, and summoned 
the cavalry and infantry of his kingdoms, and 
embraced the expedient of delay, thinking that 
procrastination and tediousness would thus obstruct 
the army of Islfi.m in attaining their end, until 
perhaps, by length of time and long continuance in 
their position, they might be alarmed and turn 
back from that attempt at battle, and from that 
invasion. When the Sultan, dreading their deep 
and secret perfidy and fraud, incited the men of 
Dilem and the Afghans against them, stirring them 
up to occupy the declivities, and, like an attracting 
magnet of victory, to draw them to themselves. 
When, therefore, they descended from their narrow 
passes into the open plain, they picked them up 
like a bird picking up grains with a sharp beak. 
Several days passed in this manner, until the ropes 
of the deniers became collected, and a great army 
joined the infidels, so that from Hind and Sind, 
and all quarters, there was (an army) blowing-up 
fire, seeking tumult, making self-restraint to 
repose, bearing aid, and inclined to succour the 
head of destruction, the fountain of strife. They 
directed themselves against them, they raised the 
shout of battle, and joined in array, and drew 
around the army the obstruction of the giant ele- 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GfHAZNA. 391 

phants. Thus the fire of war was burning, and the 
combatants of the two armies raged like hornets in 
the heat, and seized one another by the collar, and 
pierced each other's head and breast by the wounds 
of the sword ; and heads were cast upon the battle- 
plain like balls, and wherever the elephants came 
into the engagement the Muslim army, with spears 
and arrows, cut through their throats and trunks. 
And these Kaffirs beheld the -strength and experi- 
ence of Abdulldh-Tdl, how active he was in battle 
and war, and in (shedding) blood and killing 
chiefs, and therefore they turned towards him with 
a compact band of warriors and with a number of 
heroes (Hterally, stirrers of the fire, pokers) aud 
attacked him on all" sides with severe wounds.- 
And he withstood them Hke an excited male ele- 
phant, and to obtain victory for Isldm exposed 
himself freely and offered his life a sacrifice to 
martyrdom. And when the Sultan saw him in 
the claws of that distress, he sent some stars from 
his special guards to help him, that they might 
rescue him from the claws of those accursed ones. 
And, as his body was all eyes, Hke a sieve, and his 
frame all rings, like a coat of mail, the SuMn 
ordered that they should place him upon an ele- 
phant, that the pain of his wounds might be 
healed, and receive refreshment and solace. And 
the flame of battle blazed in this manner, until 
Heaven quenched it with the water of victory, and 



392 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

at one blast of the good fortune of Mahmiid all 
their chiding abundance of men was cut up, and all 
their affairs scattered like dust, and throughout the 
extent of plain and mountain, and the land of hill 
and valley, the sword of Islim destroyed them. 
And they made prizes of their property and ele- 
phants, and nobles and people, on account of the 
advantage of that wealth, and the enjoyment of that 
plunder, became placed on an equality, and arrived 
at a high degree of satisfaction and competency. 
Thus this territory became exalted amongst the 
extent of Isl^m, and this victory was perpetuated 
in the register of the expeditions, and in the chroni- 
cles of the conquests of the Sultdn Yamin-Addou- 
lah, and this fair deed, and eminent glory became 
the buttress of his fame, and the band of his 
prosperity. 

And they brought out of the idol temple an 
engraved stone, upon which they had fastened a 
writing to the effect that it was forty thousand 
years since that building was constructed. And 
the SuMn expressed surprize at this extreme error 
and folly, for all the learned in rules, and skilled in 
guidance have agreed that the extent of the world's 
age is not more than seven thousand years, and in 
these times there is every indication of the (ap- 
proaching) judgment, and evidences of the decay 
of the world. Histories are alleged for this, and 
the Kuran's witnessing confirmation is to the dis- 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 393 

cerning intellect an essential fact, and to the far- 
seeing is a guide (to the truth). In these matters 
we must be content with the eyes of the learned 
and the explication of the wise, who all deny the 
assertion, and agree that the testimony of this stone 
is all a falsehood and untruth, and a mere invention 
of these bewildered liars. 

And the army of Islam came to Ghazna with 
that boundless wealth, and those immberless sums 
of money, so that the forces of the foot soldiers of 
Islam were retarded in proceeding through India, 
and slaves fell in value to that extent, that the 
poor and humble became lords, and possessors of 
many slaves and goods beyond computation. 
"This super-effluence (of prosperity) God causes to 
come upon whomsoever He will, for He is bounti- 
fully wise." — Kuran. 

Account oj? the Affaiks of Takishar. 

It came to the ears of the Sultdn, that in the 
country of Tdnishar there -were many of that pe- 
culiar species of elephant, which they call Sihndn. 
The prince of this country was high amongst the 
ungrateful deceivers, and of exalted relations 
amongst the rebellious and the sinful. Therefore 
he was one who merited that they should give him 
to drink a cup of the wine of the strokes of Islam's 
sword, and that by means of the flame of the onset 



394 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 

of her champions, they should strike into his es- 
sence the due of wickedness, so making him to 
know, that to drink their turns of this cup, and 
their turns of this calamity is the doom of the uni- 
versal Kaffir people, and that as other chiefs and 
deceivers of India have been sharers and partakers 
thereof, so his face could not be free, nor his path 
an asylum from the equitable sword ; the Sultan 
thought good then to design this conquest, that 
thus the standard of Islim might be exalted by 
victory, and the figures of idols might be inverted 
by success in war. Accordingly he marched towards 
Tanlshar with an army which had been educated 
in the chamber of the sacred war, and been trained 
by grace from on high, and contracted friendship 
with sword and spear, and obtained an acquaint- 
ance with infidel's blood, and in the windings of 
those marches they passed a desert so dreadful, 
that a bird would not fly over its atmosphere, and 
a star would lose its way on its expanse, a place 
which nothing traversed but the wind, and on 
which nothing cast a shade except the Sun, with- 
out a report of water, or a vestige of habitation. 
But Providence granted aid, and they came out 
from that idolatrous and disgusting place, and ar- 
rived at (the enemy's land). And before them 
they found a great river, a running stream fuU of 
water, lofty mountains, and the ground impractic- 
able stone. Now the infidel sought his aid in those 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 395 

mountains, and became inspirited by their en- 
circling assistance. The army of the SuMn. 
passed that water by two fords, and engaged 
the idolatrous forces on two sides. And when the 
king-falcon, the sun, hung his claws upon the cur- 
tain of his western retirement, (the day having 
been matured), the men of Isl^m made a charge, 
and scattered them all about the skirt of the rocks, 
and they took the path of flight and preservation 
from the heat of that battle and onset. And as 
for those stamping elephants and serried monsters 
which constituted the point of their confidence, and 
their remaining force, they left them on the spot, 
the SuMn's elephants went after them, and brought 
them all to the Sultan's halter-place. The army 
spilt so much blood that the water of that river 
was so fuU, and that stream so abundantly stained 
with gore, that it could not be used for purification 
and was forbidden to drinkers, and if the darkness 
of the night had not prevented it, not one of these 
wretches would have escaped with life, — all through, 
the blessing which is upon Islam, and the wondrous 
religion of Muhammad, unto which by the kind 
promise of Heaven victory is pledged, and for the 
manifestation of whose sayings, the standard of 
the glorious Kuran speaks plainly, " He unto whom 
He sent his Apostle to guide him, and the faith of 
trath to lighten all to religion, even although the 
idolaters hate it.'' — Kuran. 



396 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

Account or the VfziE, ABuL-ABBAs-'uN-FAZL-'EN-AiriviAD. 

This Vizier was one of the most celebrated 
book-students and one of the most eminent friends 
of F4ik, and when the Sultan had been settled 
upon the seat of authority at Nisdpiir, he was 
about (the person of) the Amir Ndsir-Addin, well 
known to him on account of his perfect intelli- 
gence, fidelity, and penetration. Therefore he 
wrote a letter to Prince Niih, demanding him, in 
order that the Sultan might be established by the 
sufBcieney of his counsels, and might be distin- 
guished by the badge of his vizir4t. Prince Ndh 
consented, and, sending a letter to Abiil-Abbis, 
directed him to proceed to Nisdpur, to be ready for 
the orders of Nasir-Addin. Thus he came to 
Nis^piir, and the Sultan appointed him steward of 
his household (although the exemplary Shaikh, 
Jalil-Shams-al-Kafat, was settled at his Court, 
whose skill in books and accounts, whose firmness, 
rectitude, and high-mindedness in directing and 
instructing he knew, and was aware that, in his 
freshness of youth and acceptable juvenility, he 
was without a rival amongst his friends and com- 
panions, whilst in acute and able experience no 
man of his circle approached him). However (as 
his father had shut the door of office upon his back, 
and the calumnies and rivalries of fraudful ill- 
willers had come to such a point that he became a 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 397 

martyr by the tand of Nasir-Addin, who, when 
the trutli was unfolded, repented, but to no 
purpose " When I saw that I had killed him I 
repented about him") he took an aversion 
to his son, and his heart was never settled with 
regard to him, and, according to the saying, 
"Good-will soon flies," became suspicious of his 
fidelity. Nor could the Sultin, in opposition to 
his father's content, distinguish him by any 
advantageous employment in his divan, or ask his 
advancement, on account of his own choice. The 
heavenly decree and divine foreordinance preserved 
and wrapped the dress of that great rank and the 
robe of that weighty business in the treasury of 
His mysteries, until the time that, from the door 
and walls of Khurasan, it was shown to him that 
they had found this robe of State to be adapted 
only for his high-statured intellect, and placed this 
seat only for his exalted qualities and disposition. 
"What mercies hath God opened to men and they 
will not grasp them." — Kiiran. 

The Sultan then followed the opinion and 
accorded with the feelings of his father, bestowing 
the office of Vizier upon Abill-Abbds, and he, fol- 
lowing the footsteps of great men and their 
greediness of gain, ext;ended his hand, and col- 
lected much wealth and treasure, and employed 
his stewardship of the world and authority in the 
kingdom only in making excessive demands, in- 



398 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

creasing and unlawful, so that right rule, justice, and 
equity were banished far from abodes, from society, 
from the people, until, by his means, all cultiva- 
tion and all abiding places in Khurdsan were 
devastated, so that, during his time, the helpless 
ryots and rich masters sat down in the dwelling of 
poverty, and became needy and pauperized, so that 
smoke arose from no chimney, and one heard the 
cock crow from no village, for the farmers and 
cultivfitors, on account of these distresses, misfor- 
tunes, and hard fate, left their homes and held 
their hand from sowing, so that the sources of 
revenue were broken off, and the collection of 
taxes, on account of the slenderness of the residue, 
were exhausted. Thus the sustentation of the 
army and the means of supporting the forces were 
diminished, and throughout the kingdom frightful 
ruin and a hideous appearance were evident, and a 
cry for help arose from all quarters, and this cry of 
the oppressed reached to Heaven. The Sultan 
began to be anxious respecting the diminution of 
the levies and the breaking up of the imposts, and 
began to open the book of reproof with the Vizier, 
and to call him to an account for the debts of this 
destruction and mismanagement. But he, in his 
hastiness and want of restraint, returned a rude 
reply and made a claim to an acquittance, and 
attributed the grounds of, the dispute unto others. 
And whenever the Sultin proceeded to extreme 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 399 

reproof upon this subject, he begged to be reUeved 
from that office and expressed a -wish to be 
redeemed from that employment, and declared his 
readiness to be dismissed and to be made to vanis?i 
(from Ufe). And the notables of the kingdom 
interposed between him and the SuMn, suggesting 
that he should oblige himself to an accommodation 
and give personal security, and should render a 
satisfactory account. But he stood out obstinately, 
so that the Sultan did not obtain one silver drachm 
from him, unless he, perchance, would do so by 
depriving and imprisoning him. Thus he spoke 
with tiresome and offensive arguments. Then the 
Sultdn appointed a landholder, Abii - Ishak 
Muhamnad-'bn-Husain, who was captain of Balkh, 
to settle the accounts of the revenue and to realize 
the residue of the imposts. And he came to 
Herdt, in the year 401, and, by his fair manage- 
ment and gentle sway, collected a great sum, and 
in a short time sent large loads to the Treasury. 
And Abill- Abbess was still settled upon the seat 
of the "Vizirat, and the Shaikh Jalil-Shams-Al- 
Kafdt sincerely exerted himself to arrange reconci- 
liation between him and the SuMn, so that pos- 
sibly the accidental harshness of the SuMn might 
have ceased, and the influence of the Vizier tho- 
roughly re-established. But he, through the bent 
of his uncompromising temperament and harsh 
nature, still obstinately persisted in disputing, and 



400 MEMOIRS OF MAIIMUD OF GHAZNA. 

of his own choice went to the citadel of Ghazna, 
and declared that he was content to be imprisoned, 
and, making a division between his furniture and 
his accumulations, sent one portion to the Sultan. 

At this proceeding the Sultin was enraged, 
and, for his traitorous injury to the country and 
impoverishment of the condition of the subjects, 
subjected him to a criminal fine of 100,000 dinars. 
He occupied himself in paying the amount, and 
discharging a portion ; but, as to the residue, he 
represented his poverty, and requested patience 
and a more extended time. But the Sult4n 
ordered that they should put him to his oath upon 
the point of his poverty, and they tortured his 
crime upon him by the effusion of his blood, so 
that whether he was dumb or spake, whether he 
said much or little, he met with no success, since 
they were determined to ruin and afflict him. 
And they closed all access to his sons and his 
friends, when they appointed to visit him, and at 
length brought him to such a condition that he 
revealed that some of his stores were with a certain 
merchant, whom they for that reason despatched, 
by various kinds of torture and misery. But the 
standards of the Sult4n were far distant, on account 
of his successive conquests, and the great space 
between them prevented him from witnessing his 
state or discovering his affairs, and thus, through 
the castigation of torture and the blows of the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 401 

club and pain, lie was laid in the grave, in the year 
404. And when the Sultdn returned they 
informed him of his affair, and the SuMn was 
oppressed at the heart, when he heard what had 
happened ; however the disposal of Heaven was 
the agent herein, and the event was advantageous. 
And, during the time of his administration, his 
son, Abiil - Kasim - Mahummad-Ibn-al-Fazl, had 
arrived at the highest degree of virtuous distinc- 
tion. In eloquence and in composition he was the 
paragon of his age, and at the head of all poets,, 
both in blank verse and rhyme. His fame spread 
through all the regions of Khurdsdn, and his verses 
and measures were noted and published. These 
stanzas are from a kasidah which he spoke upon 
his father's merit (Verse) 

" Truly the liberality of Abiil-Abbaa augments by usury, it 
increases fourfold on d.emand. 

" In one hand there is death for the multitude, in the other 
life for him who hopes," &c. 

His brother Abii-AH-bn-Fazl, sumamed Al- 
Hajjdj, was the inheritor of their accompHshments, 
distinguished by steady conduct in youth and ma- 
turity, decorated with an acute intellect, the 
garden of modesty being in hiin adorned with the 
fruitfulness of eloquence. He for some time wore 
the robe of revenue collector of Juzjan, with 
efficiency and gratification. The country of Nis^ 

2d 



402 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

had for some time the advantage of his administra- 
tion, when even Kadies were distressed at his 
noble ideas. His fidelity and care were conspicuous 
amidst officers and magistrates, and in him the 
virtues of his ancestors were renewed (Verse) 

" Men name the father and his times, 

" Men name the son, and thus both (names) are aug- 
mented (with renown). 

" And as in the father so in the son, their noble patroiir 
age is exalted. 

'' As in the prophet of God two mansions were raised on 
high" {i. e., the descendants of Fatima and Abu-Bakr, or Sasan 
and Hussain). 



ACCOTJNT OE THE ShAIKH KHALfL-ABtJl-KlsiM-AHMAB-'BN 
HtTSAIN. 

During the reign of the Sultan this Shaikh 
was Royal Munshi at Khurasan, and to him was 
confided the Divan (or Committee board) of cor- 
respondence, which is the depository of secrets. 
His powerful intellect and intelligence, &c., shone 
like the sun's rays throughout all Khurasan, and 
the fame of his elegant pen, gentle nature, penetra- 
ting intelligence and lofty views with regard to 
worldly things and money, was diffiised around. 
He rose by degrees to various ranks in the Sultan's 
service, until he was appointed to the Divan of 
Presentations {Master of Bequests), and on account 
of his preponderance, the Sultan assigned him the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 40,3 

high employment, and responsible office of collect- 
ing the revenue and levies of those regions, and in 
all affairs which in guiding those provinces came 
into his consideration, he displayed aU the evidences 
of wisdom, efficiency, care and fidelity. Thus he 
attained renown, and his humanity, bounty and 
liberality were in every mouth, so that they came 
from aU parts of the world to him, as the object of 
their hopes and petitions. He was like rain in his 
care and attention to all, the proofs of his kindness 
and generosity could be established only by the 
testimony of observation and by the eyes. And 
the Vizier AbUl- Abbas derived information from 
his enlightened sufficiency in affairs of State, and 
formed a special intimacy with him, as well for his 
sagacity as on account of his office which he held 
so near to His Majesty, and when the Sun of that 
vizerat was eclipsed by the excrescence of dismissal, , 
whilst the Sultan happened to be engaged in the 
conquest of N"azdin, he committed to the care of 
the Shaikh Khalil all the affairs of his Divan, 
charging him with the care of his Court and house- 
hold, and the outgoings of the revenue, and sending 
him a patent, whereby he was appointed to superin- 
tend all that was brought or accrued to the royal 
treasury, and although he did not receive the name 
of Vizier, yet the whole business of the kingdom 
was fully appropriated to him. And whilst the 
vizerat lay under the curtain of dismissal, the Sultan 

2d2 



404 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

issued a royal order, by wliicli he summoned the 
collectors of Khurasan to the presence, and de- 
manded their accounts, and they accordingly 
attended at the Court ; at that time the Sultan had 
resolved to turn hack, and he appointed a number 
of his army and serving followers over the head of 
the collectors to act as motives to them, that by 
the most disgraceful coercion, they might bring in 
the greater possible amount of revenue. And while 
this was going on, the Sultan placed him upon the 
seat of authority, and honoured him with the robe 
of Vizier, and delivered into his hand the power of 
binding and loosing, of imprisoning and liberating. 
This Shaikh Khalil devoted himself with prudent 
efficiency, to expedite, to enter in day books, to 
settle arid to arrange the Customs and scattered 
businefss, and compelled the collectors to zeal and 
duty, and purified the extent of the kingdom from its 
destruction and decay. He placed Abii-Ishak, one 
of the Divan over the collectors of Khurasan, and 
in conducting his office he shone like his father as 
administrator and counsellor of the throne, and 
when the standard of the SuMn returned to 
Ghazna, and he saw that by the wise and happy 
management and rule of his Vizier, the affairs of 
State were settled in a well ordered course, and all 
affairs of collection secured, confirmed and guarded, 
he sent him to the Siibah of Khurasin, that 
he might attend to the weakness which he had 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 405 

discovered there, and put in a proper way of pro- 
ceeding the revenues so much diminished and 
■fallen away, and prescribe good and acceptable 
regulations for Khurasan. The Shaikh Khalil* 
went therefore to Herdt, and the dread of his com- 
mand and rule bound the hands of oppressors be- 
hind their back, and overthrew the flags of dark- 
ness, and whatever they had acquired out of the 
receipts and expenditure by means of confiision 
and in time of tumult, and whatever they had 
collected by extortion and procuration, that he 
seized from them, and thus by his gentle vigour, 
he dispatched to His Majesty an amount of gold 
and silver, of plate, ready money, and vessels 
dedicated to pious uses, the like whereof had at no 
time ever reached the treasury of any king from 
Khurasdn. 

And the people of Khurasdn sent statements 
and notes to the Court, discovering the evil prac- 
tices of the Divdn lord (*• e., whom the Vizier had 
sent thither). The Sultdn issued an order to 
toquire into the truth of this, and sent commis- 
sioners to realize and sell his property. They 
obtained much wealth from him : he gave up 
whatever ready money and furniture and vessels 
he possessed, and sold the residue of his slaves, but 
was excused the payment of the rest which he had 
sold. And whereas the Vizier Abiil-Abbds pos- 
sessed no capital stock in the business of writing,; 



406 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

and profited not at all in handling the pen, and in 
lecturing on good manners {i. e., belles lettres, 
humanities) so that, in his time, they translated the 
• State tmtings into Persian, and thus the market of 
the excellent was ruined and the splendour of elo- 
quent authors became slender, so that the learned 
and foolish, the virtuous and insignificant, were 
reduced to the level of the same rank. When the 
Shaikh KhaKl adorned the Mnsnud of Vizier he 
brought the stars of authors from the gulphs of 
declination to the zenith of glory, so that the rose 
of ingenuity and distinction budded in the breeze of 
his favour, and the countenance of the clever was 
exalted in his fostering abode. He commanded 
that the State writers should avoid Persian, and 
that as an estabhshed rule aU diplomas, orders, and 
preaching, (or public proclamations) should be 
vsrritten in Arabic, except where the proclaimers 
did not know or understand Arabic. His orders 
and intimations were famed throughout aU parts of 
the world, as current proverbs, and circulating 
poems, and all tongues commended his beautiful 
models and ornamented examples. The ingenious ■ 
ones of the world in their verses and rhymes 
decorated the title pages of their volumes with his 
praises and commendations, and came with song, 
like nightingales into the garden of his presence. 
He took all ranks under his beneficent and kind 
favour, and by his blessed equity united all the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 40 7 

community under the shadow, veil, and canopy of 
his virtuous security, so that the world became 
peopled, and hearts wounded and diseased by 
sorrow, were healed by the medicine and plaister 
of his attention and knowledge. By his counsels 
he incited the Sultdn to be firm in the principles of 
rectitude, and to seek the reward of the other 
world. Thus the state of the world and the 
empire became regulated and fixed, and all being 
settled upon the basis of knowledge and foresight, 
became firmer by lapse of time. May his (memorial) 
columns become higher as days advance, and may 
the building (of his fame) become stronger and 
firmer unto the fated end of time (Verse) 

" Oh may the foundation of the good work thou hast 
constructed ! may thy structure endure unto the judgment- 
day ; may no enemy approach its boundary, even to attribute 
to it the name of injury." 



AOOOUNT OF SHAMS-AL-MUALI-lCABUS-'BN-WASnAMGiH AUD 
THE EEMAIWING PoKTION OF HIS ArFAIBS, AND OF THE 

Accession to the Theone of his Son, PALK-AL-MtTALf. 

Shams- Al-Mu41I, on account of his penetrating 
acuteness, and specially restless mind, when it was 
necessary to endure with patience, was harsh 
tempered and overbearing, and from his austere 
conduct and perpetually passing round the cup of 
his violence was never at peace with any one. If 



408 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

mildness of disposition liad been in him as weighty 
as a stone mountain, he would have summoned it 
from its summit, by his light sword as by lightning, 
and if any sedateness could have been ever 
attributed to him, through the slappings of the 
billows of his anger it had become a myth in the 
^reen sea, for the smallest offence he inflicted a 
harsh punishment. He had no compassion or fear 
of shedding blood, he punished and corrected only 
by the cutting sword and raised spear, and his 
prisons were but cavern sepulchres fitted to receive 
bodies {catacombs). 

Hence the people were destroyed by him, so 
that hearts were broken by dread of him, and 
breasts shattered by hatred of him. For if by 
various means of execution and coercion for casual 
errors and accidental slips, one must die, or be 
distressed, what purity from aU sin and corruption 
exists in prophets, so that spirits retained no 
strength, and souls were furious. And there was 
a worthy man, his Chamberlain, a man of gentle 
and guileless nature, known and remarked by all 
for a peaceful disposition, to whom the guardian- 
ship and controlling of the taxes of those places 
had been entrusted. Him they accused of rebellion, 
and the prince ordered him to be killed, and he, 
declaring his innocence sought succour in abscond- 
ing and flying. He remained some time in his 
place of refuge, when his retreat was discovered, 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 409 

and although he at the time then present showed 
his fidehty and stability during time past, he ob- 
tained no favour. His execution increased the 
disgust of the army, and all hearts resolved to 
draw off the bridle of obedience, and openly to em- 
brace the word of rebellion and of freedom of their 
lives from the obnoxious moroseness of His High- 
ness, And whilst this was going on, he went out 
from Juzjdn, and by reason of the aid of absence 
the fuel was renewed in the troops, and through 
the arrangement of the army and their malicious 
ill-will, he remained without intelligence of their 
movements until they seized upon his castle, and 
plundered his goods, arms, horses, &c. His nobles 
stood up to repel them, and protected him from 
the malice of their enmity. And when the design 
of these people failed in the object they had in- 
tended to attain, they went to Juzjdn, and took 
that city by force and perseverance into their 
possession. And they summoned the Amir 
Manuch-har from Tabaristdn, and he, on account 
of his vexation and the ruin of this event to his 
father, and the deep treachery of those people, 
hastened on, in order to take the direction of this 
affair. But when he arrived at Juzj^n, he saw 
the army broken up into mutiny, and the affair out 
of his hands. The regiments of the army then 
sent a message to him, thus : — If you will agree 
with us with respect to the deposition and dismissal 



410 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

of your father, we will bind up our loins with faith- 
ful zeal to serve you, and wiU be obedient, but if not, 
we will inaugurate some other man, or go to some 
other place. And the Amir Manuch-har saw no 
remedy but to obliterate aU, and join them, for he 
thought that the curtain of respect was torn, that 
the fountain of strife and hatred might augment, 
and his old house fall from his hands. As to 
Sham-Al-Mudli, when he understood the coalition 
of their words in rebellion, and their agreement in 
all kinds of iU-wUl, he removed himself to Bastam 
with his light and heavy furniture, the royal seals, 
and the rest of his property, and awaited the end and 
boundary of the affair. And when the army re- 
ceived intelligence of this event, they compelled 
Manuch-har to attack him and remove him from 
that place, and by dint of necessity he went Avith 
them, and repelled wrong by wrong, and put fire 
upon fire. When, then, they came near Kabiis he 
summoned his son, and Manuch-har coming to 
wait upon him, kissed the ground of respect, sate 
before him with the utmost submission, tears flow- 
ing from his eyes, and they began to enter into 
deep reflexions and complaints respecting recent 
events, and on both sides much passed between 
them on a son's duty to his father, and a hundred 
pledges were given that the former should protect 
the latter from their violence. And the Amir 
Manuch-har said to his father, if you will permit 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 411 

me, I will risk my head in repulsing these forces, 
and freely yield up my life, and offer myself as the 
guardian of your existence, and sacrifice myself for 
your safety. Upon this Shams-Al-MudK gave 
Mm. the expression of his gladness of heart, and. 
drawing 'iiim towards hinaself, kissed his face and 
said, I am now at the end of aU my history, and 
the conclusion of my adventures, and you are the 
inheritor of my kingdom and my house. But this 
conduct of yours will merit distinction during my 
life and after my death. Upon this he consigned 
to him the seal of State, and delivered to him the 
keys of his treasures. And it was determined 
to place Shams- Al-Mudll in the castle of Klhaba- 
shak, and make him engage himself in piety and 
devotion, and that he should resign royalty, and 
the right of binding and loosing to Manuch-har. 
They therefore removed Shams- Al-Muall, to a 
dwelling within that fortress, with all his furniture, 
and servants, which they had preserved to him, and 
Manuch-har came to Juzjdn. 

And Kabiis occupied himself in taking pos- 
session of his property, and in conciliating the 
chiefs, and courting the commons. But notwith- 
standing all his attentions, and his earnest desire 
to be of service to all, hoth high and humble, time 
passed, and they found themselves not softened 
with regard to his errors, nor was their detestation 
of the past oppressions and horrible crimes of 



412 MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZHA. 

Kabiis diminished, and they examined every avenue 
of contrivance or treachery, in order to set their 
minds at rest concerning him. And as their wish 
was so it was fulfilled ; for when all had arrived at 
peace and quietness, they perverted his secretary 
that in order to extinguish and end his life, (he 
should permit) that his bed makers should enter 
his sleeping chamber, and they drew sheet after 
sheet, (or cloak after cloak) so as to be closely 
glued upon him,* and thus saw him dead, (or drew 
cloak after cloak from the furniture of his bed- 
chamber (upon him) and thus beheld him dead). 

Thus they obtained their wish, and became at 
ease from the dread of the thunderbolts of his sword 
and spear. They interred him in a domed sepul- 
chre outside Juzjdn, on the road to Khurasan. 
His fate is intimated by the elegant poet (Verse) 

" It was announced of thee that a fire was burning after 
thee, 

" And the little dogs of society railed after thee ; 

" Thej published abroad and narrated the great affair. / 

" If thou hadst witnessed them therein they would not have 
mentioned it" (i. e., they would not have been living to do so). 

* Abulpharagius, in his "History of Dynasties," seems to 
imply that Kabus was assassinated, by stripping him of his 
cloaks or blankets, and so leaving him to perish (from ex- 
posure, it is to be presumed, to cold). But it would appear 
more probable that he was suffocated. Notwithstanding the 
very ingenious conjectural emendations of M. Kasimirski, 
which the translator thankfully adopts, he has not been able 
entirely to satisfy himself, with regard to this sentence. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 413 

And the Amir Manuch-har completed three 
days upon the seat of mourning, and after three 
days took his seat upon the throne, and being 
inaugurated by the army forgot Kabiis. "There 
is no converse between Hajiin and Safi" {mountains 
of Mecca). "There is no night gossip at Mecca." 
And a diploma arrived from the Chancery of the 
Elhaliph Al-Kidir-Billah to the Amir Manuch- 
har, containing condolence and sympathy, con- 
ferring upon him the surname of Falk-Almudli, 
and wishing him Heaven's grace and happy 
guidance. And he was also protected by the 
mountain of the Sultdn's friendship and requested 
the support of being admitted one of the peers and 
followers of the Empire. Thus the fracture of 
his father's circumstances became filled up by the 
weight of the interweaving friendship and pity of 
the Sultan, and by putting on the cloak of his aid 
and (seeking) utihty under his dread shadow. And 
he sent several distinguished men of the Court to 
his presence, and he 'offered to the Sultdn liberal 
presents, precious gems, and no scanty valuables, 
and assured him of his sincere wish and pure in- 
tention as respected his allegiance to His Majesty. 
The SuMn looked upon these gifts with an eye of 
favour, and returned a corresponding reply to h,is 
desire and petition, and marked the weights and 
measures of his regard with the standard of his 
good-will. And he gave a royal letter, ordaining 



414 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

that in the Amir's country, the public prayers and 
the coins should be edged with the embroidery of his 
august surname. And he sent his signet-bearer 
Abii-Muhammad upon that journey to him, with a 
proper robe and perfect caresses. And the Aiclr 
Manuch-har, received this order with the ear of 
assent and obedience, and carried it out to the ut- 
most, so that in the pulpits of the kingdoms of 
Juzjdn, and Tabaristin, and Koms and Ddrughdn, 
the insignia of tlie Sultdn's style were displayed. 
Also, he was bound to pay five thousand dinars by 
way of tribute, which he sent every year to the 
treasury, and when the Sultdn marched forth to 
fight for religion, he requested an army from him, 
and he sent to battle from the choice and flower of 
the men of Dilem, forces, who in ascending were 
like clubs {or maces), and in descending like a 
torrent, all fully equipped and provided with 
necessaries to the satisfaction of the exalted tem- 
perament, and he established confidence and faith- 
fulness in supplying his necessities and furthering 
his measures. And when the atoms of his happy 
disposition towards His Majesty arrived at 
(coalescing) unity, and the sincerity of his allegi- 
ance was confirmed, and the clearness of friendship 
emerged from the dusky ashes of suspicion, he sent 
to His Majesty Abii-Said-Sawal, a chief of Juzjdn, 
an eminent man, skilled in genealogy and etiquette, 
to propose that the bonds of friendship should be 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 415 

strengthened by the ropes of alliance. And he de- 
manded the honour of a marriage with one of the 
noble ones of His Majesty's chamber. This Envoy 
with his usual modest virtues and innate laudable 
gravity, proceeded to this business, and succeeded 
so well in advancing his desire and prospering his 
wishes that the Sultan gave a loose rein to the 
promotion of his request, and the success of his 
hopes, so that the claims of Falk-AlmudH became 
attached to consent. And when this great man 
returned to the Amir's Court, and represented the 
favours and honours which he had received, he 
mentioned the ready inchnation of the Sultan to 
reply to his plea, and satisfy his request. Upon 
this, Falk-Al-Mudll sent him again to the Court, 
and joined with him the Kadi of Juzjdin, a senator 
of learning, a corner stone of theology, and a pillar 
of experience, that by his perfect forethought and 
skill he might bring the union in prospect to the 
bond of marriage and girdHng together. These 
two accordingly went to the Court, and offered 
their respects and requested that the marriage 
might be finally concluded. Then the SuMn 
bound the Satans of wickedness by the Divine Law's 
decrees, and gave to Falk-Al-Mudli a precious 
one, who was a corner of his heart, and the Yenus 
in the heaven of his kingdom; a gem, fit only to be 
attached to the pinnacle of the hat of the sky, and 



416 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

a pearl of pearls only fit for the rolling heavens, and 
a bridal bed of queens, worthy only of the chamber 
of princes. At these nuptials such gifts, presents, 
gratifications and jewels were diffused and distri- 
buted that they would fill the record of time, and form 
a decorated border for the roll of all the acts of 
generosity. Ambassadors were sent to inform him 
of the accomplishment of his wishes, and Falk-Al- 
MudK sent a dowry of such an amount, that the 
renown of his magnanimity and generosity spread 
throughout the world, and none of the lords and 
princes remained without his share of noble grati- 
fications and keepsakes. The Sultan reciprocated 
his homage by various noble acts, and fulfilled ail- 
that might respond to the expression of his allegi- 
ance, and was due to the claims of kindred. And 
he managed the principal chiefs and eminent men 
of his Court with precious honours and valuable 
robes, so that he became the model of Kings, and 
example of Sultd,ns in the world, and by his 
alliance with the pearl-producing shell of royalty 
and illustrious jacinth of sovereignty, his wealth 
advanced until it exceeded aU that in any age had 
been stored up by the confluence of all the pens of 
book-keepers, or of those wise in understanding 
accounts. And as the moon's disk becomes illu- 
minated by the sun opposite to it, and the womb 
of the gem-bearing sheU is moistened by the gift 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 417 

of the sea, so the treasury of Falk-Al-Mudll 
became as full of riches, as the Ocean repository of 
brilliant pearls, or as a mine of jewels. 

And when, by the support of that alliance, and 
by reason of that affinity, the affairs of the Amir 
were placed upon a firm basis, he began to arrange 
the affairs of his army, and to take vengeance upon 
the parties who had been concerned in the blood of 
Shams- Al-Mu411, and by various methods of guile 
and kinds of pretexts, he made a breach between 
those parties and their allies, and killed them all. 
But the son of Kharkash, who had been the source 
of the dissensions, fled from among them, and 
became a wanderer in the world, distressed and 
cast away, and no trace of him remained. And in 
all the odiousness of that sin, and the accusation of 
that wickedness, Abill Kasim was implicated, who 
was Commander of the army, and in the highest 
position of the kingdom. He remained wavering 
between hope and fear, looking for grief and tor- 
menting anxiety. And Falk-Al-Muili tore out 
his eyes, and (then) adopted the expedient of pro- 
crastination and delay, and deceived by feigned 
indifference and neglect, in order thus by stimula- 
ting his eagerness and longing for safety to draw 
him into the catching-trap, so that in the meeting 
of questioners (examiners) his tales were stopped, 
and the way of escape closed. However, the time 
of every affair is foreseen, and its issue defined, and 

2 E 



418 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

its end known to the Disposer, and He in guiding 
affairs, can hasten or retard in a manner that is 
not imagined. Abill Kasim fled through a strata- 
gem from prison, and wandered in various regions, 
until he came to Nisdpiir to the Sultan's Court, and 
sought an asylum in his protection, thinking that 
he should thereby obtain safety from the con- 
sequences of his serious deeds of shame and odious 
actions, on account of the intimate alHance and 
connection that existed, as well as by the expanded 
discrimination, and the unity of counsel that was 
established between their Highnesses. He how- 
ever knew not, that people slay those who slay, 
and that retribution like the bent bowstring, 
circles round the evil doer, and although the time 
be slow, finds a place to hit him on at last ; and 
although the time was postponed, he at length fell 
into the trap of sorrow and the snare of misery. 
Doubtless the picture of his vile deeds was made 
known to the Sultdn, for he commanded that 
he should be bound and delivered up to Falk-Al- 
Muall, and Ibn-Rilml hath composed these two 
verses of pure counsel and elegant admonition 
(Yerse") 

" Grood 13 worked for him who fulfils it : if thou doest good 
it will make thee happy ; 

" And evil is done for him who perpetrates it : if thou doest 
evil it will ruin thee." 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 419 

AccoTJST OP DisA, Son op SHAMs-Aii-MulLi-KABtJS. 

After Ddrd, from the party of Abu- AH, had 
translated himself to that of Prince Niih, he 
became attached to his service and a candidate for 
his munificence ; and when his father^ Shams- Al- 
MuaH, came to the head of affairs he stiU remained 
in contented obedience to his father, observing and 
preserving before him the affection, intimacy, and 
union of a son with his parent, until the latter sent 
him to Tabarist^n. Here he was settled for some 
time, retaining his allegiance, governing well, and 
able to answer those who disputed his father's autho- 
rity, until he, on account of some suspicion that beset 
him, recalled and sent him to Ast^r^b^d. He obe- 
diently proceeded thither, and illuminated the royal 
diploma (and grant) of the country, so that his father 
accepted all his excuses and delighted to honour his 
advances. After some days he again summoned 
him, and Ddra became thoughtful. He took his 
seat to go to his father, but on the road he 
repented, and, seizing the reins, went into the depths 
of the forests of Tabaristdn, towards Khur^sdn. 
They intimated this event to Shams-Al-Mudli, who 
dispatched cavalry after him. He proceeded the 
whole distance, and when he arrived on the 
frontiers of Khurisdn, being safe from the vehe- 
ment winds of the fury, and the blasts of the fiery 
rage of his father, he attached himself to the 

2 E 2 



420 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

SuMn, and found with him a settled home and 
sure abode, and was honoured with every atten- 
tion. But, through the giddiness of youth and 
want of gravity, he in the assembhes. of the Sultdn 
made light of Mahmiid's kindred and rank. He 
thus became obnoxious to the rancour of the 
Sultin, and had cause to be alarmed at his jea- 
lousy, and therefore escaped under the star of the 
border of night. The Sultdn sent persons in quest 
of him, but they attained not the place of the 
setting orb, for he came to the land of Gharsh, to 
the Shar-king, who, influenced by the long 
friendship which had existed between them, gave 
him an asylum at his Court. The Sultdn sent a 
royal letter, in which he demanded him, and reite- 
rated promises and threats. The Shar, in alarm 
and terror at consequences, sent the Amir Dard to 
the SuMn. He was for some time in prison, 
enduring the harshness of fortune. Upon one 
occasion, by some unknown means, he escaped, 
and if the destined duration of his sorrow had been 
accomplished he would have attained safety. 
However the rawness of his days of misery and the 
fated residue of the season of his calamity seized 
his collar, so that the spies of the Sultin laid hands 
on him and replaced him in a closer prison, with 
increased severity and hardship, until the force of 
the Sultin's severity diminished and he forgave 
him, and he revivified him with fresh existence and 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 421 

new life, and issued an order to console and release 
.him, and again conferred upon him his wonted 
benefits and favours, giving him the land of Taba- 
ristdn and Juzjdn. And he nominated ArsMn 
Jazib to assist and aid him. And if the sagacity 
of Falk-AlmudH, in displaying allegiance and per- 
sisting in his contented good affection towards the 
Sultdn had not put his- affairs in a right train, his 
house and his kingdom would have fallen from 
his possession.* However, when that affair was 
arranged, the Sultdn recalled Ddrd, who then 
remained as one of the lords of the empire and 
associates of the Court. And, at aU social 
meetings, hunting shows, private audiences, and 
every assembly whatever, he was neVer away from 
the Sultin's eyes, until the time when the Amir 
Abill - Fawards 'bn - Azduddoulah came from 
Karman, on account of the dispute with his 
brother, before the Sultan's throne, in the hope of 
assistance against his brother's oppression. One 
night Ddrd and this Amir met in the Sultdn's 
presence, when some discussion arose respecting 
the dignity of their families, the precedency of 
their chieftains, and the depth of their genealogy, 
when Daia spoke words which were inconsistent 
with the reserve due to his majesty and the wide 

* i. e. By losing Tabaristan and Juzjan, which were 
included in the grant to Dara, Falk-Al-Muali would have lost 
a considerable part of his kingdom. 



422 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

reverence owing to royalty. And wten the denial 
was given him he repeated the words in a more 
quarrelsome and insolent manner, and the matter 
came to such a point that the Sultan caused him 
to be removed from the company, and the next day 
imprisoned him in a certain fortress, confiscating 
all his property, real and moveable, until the Vizier 
interceded for him, when, in the month Muharram, 
in the year 400, his estates and lands were deli- 
vered to his agents, to be expended for his advan- 
tage. 

Account of MAJDUDBoriiAH-ABrj-TlLiB-'BH-- 

FAKHE-ABDOXriiAH. 

When HisS,m-Addoulah-Tash arrived at Juzj^n 
Fakhr-Addoulah wrote to him by the hand of a 
messenger, and, amongst the contents of that 
letter, expressed his gladness at the birth of Majd- 
uddoulah, discharging the duty of thanks to God 
for that gift. And these words were contained in 
this letter: "God hath graciously given me the 
bounty of a son ; I have surnamed him Abil- Tdlib, 
as his Mussulman appellation, but I have named 
him Eustam, for he is of the sons of that stock and 
of that origin." And when Fakhr-Addoulah 
migrated to the other palace (died) the army inau- 
gurated him into his father's lordship. And his 
mother, Mary ( ?) was a sister of Asphabad, a lady 
mainly confident in the greatness of her kindred 



MEMOIliS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 423 

and in her august tribe. She began to employ 
towards the army of Dilem, in an authoritative and 
dictatorial manner, language of binding and 
loosing, commanding and prohibiting. For this 
cause bitterness arose between him and his mother, 
and she sent a person and transferred Badr-Hasan- 
awyat to herself, and seized upon Rai and 
weakened the authority of her son's Nawwdbs. 
For this cause much strife took place, and effusion 
of blood and tumults universally drew on, and the 
army of Dilem and people of Rai were hereby 
reduced to distress, and lost strength, and fresh 
commotions continually arose, and the bands of 
peace were cut, so that by the lights and revolu- 
tions of those confused calamities, whole battalions 
of the army were destroyed, and through this 
miserable state of things the hardship of all classes 
and the ruin of the subjects increased, the country 
approached desolation, and all men were scattered. 
And Majduddoulah became wearied with the 
burning of these times of tumult and with these 
flames of iniquity. He therefore retired from his 
office of Amir, and arose to avoid the perverseness 
of his mother, and conquered the passion of his 
inclination, so as to obey her, and thus delivered 
the people from that precipice of undoing, and 
occupied himself in reading books, and in the 
society of pen and ink. And his brother, Shams- 
Addoulah, possessed Hamadan and Karmistdn, as 
far as the frontiers of BagdM. 



424 MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OV GHAZNA; 

And, during their lives, Badr-'bn-Hasanawyat 

amassed great wealth, and property, and goods, 

and in various ways of good feeling and humanity, 

dictated by his warm and great intellect, expended 

it. And thus, in like manner, Ibn-FuMd, during 

the days of the family of Boyah, obtained great 

power, and so high did his authority arrive that 

the chiefs of Dilem and the principal persons 

amongst the Kurds, Arabs, and Persians joined 

his army. And he wrote a letter to Majduddoulah 

and to his mother, the manager of the kingdom, 

demanding an increased share of territory, that he 

might expend the revenues thereof upon the amiy, 

and appropriate it to the exigencies of the 

kingdom, in defending the frontiers of the empire 

in current necessities, and in repelling enemies. 

And they returned an answer, alluding to the 

diminution of the area of the kingdom, and to the 

decreased glory of the empire, and excused 

themselves. And he rebelled against them, and 

turned towards the frontiers of Rai, and plundered 

them, and seized the lands bordering upon his own 

region, and took possession of their revenues. 

Hereby the roads were closed, and the means of 

abundance and food intercepted. Majaddoulah 

and his mother therefore wrote to Asphabad, 

imploring assistance, and he came with a whole 

division of an army of cavalry, and he frequently 

gave battle to Ibn-Ful^d (^. e., the son of steel) and 

many perished on both sides. And he wounded 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 425 

Ibn FuMd, and he retreated, and went out towards 
Damghan, Here he tarried some days, repairing 
his losses and to be healed of his wounds, and 
wrote to Falk-Almu^li for aid, requesting him to 
obtain possession of Rai for him, and surrendering 
to him the public prayer-distinction, the coinage, 
and the settled duties, by way of encouragement. 
And he sent to him two thousand chosen men, 
who deemed it a noble end to die gloriously, and 
regarded battle but as wine-drinking and sport. 
And, in order to gladden Ibn-Fuldd and to seal 
the truth of his good inclination, he sent abundant 
wealth as a loan. He went then, with this army 
towards E,ai, and began to rob and plunder. The 
army of Dilem, therefore, suffered great distress 
and frightful scarcity., so that Majuddoulah and the 
royal troops were compelled to come. And they 
conciliated him, and gave Isfahan to him, and he 
was then appeased, and restrained himself from 
injury and wrong ; and he brought the army to 
the high road of restraint and the ways of recti- 
tude, so that the pretext of oppression and desola- 
tion was cut off; and, in the year 407, he went to 
Isfahan, and there displayed the insignia of empire, 
as belonging to Majduddoulah. And Nasrat- 
Hasan-'bn-Finizdn, for the reason stated above, 
proceeded towards Rai, and, from alarm at the iU- 
will of Kibiis and at the complaints respecting his 
army,, came by the way of the wilderness. And, 



426 MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

when he arrived at Rai, he passed the space of two 
years amidst the people of Rai and with the most 
perfect respect, referred to with confidence in 
matters of State, and regulating all before and all 
behind. Then, for some offence, they arrested 
him and sent him to the fortress of Istonawand. 
Here he was confined for some time, until they 
drew the pen of pardon over his offence and 
brought him to his promised seat in the midst 
of the kingdom (promised) in those days when 
he had committed wickedness towards Majdud- 
doulah. From his bad government rectitude was 
diminished, and the army of Dilem threw off the 
bridle of allegiance, and began to oppress and 
attack. And since they threw off the halter of 
obedience he could not restrain them, so that every- 
one did as he liked, as to murder, rapine, and 
plunder, except those who were hindered by com- 
passion and the fear of God, through piety and the 
dread of retribution. Nasr (Nasrat ?) indeed 
attempted to punish them, killing several and 
expelling some. At length all joined hands and 
made an assault upon Nasr, and took the sur- 
rounding (outer) defences of his palace ; and he, 
with a select force, repulsed them for awhile, but 
at length he was put to flight, and aU his property 
and possessions passed to them ; and afterwards he 
remained in deep indignation at this calamity, and 
distressed until he was deposited in the grave. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 427 

AoooTTurx OF Biha-AbdouIiAh-'bn-Azdtjddotjlah and his 

CONOEENS. 

When the country of Slst4n was surrendered 
to the Sultdn, Bihd-Addoulah began to express 
some desire that he should be admitted to share in 
the Khutbah, since, on account of the proximity of 
the two countries, they had been connected in 
public writings and Khutbahs, and the Sultdn, on 
account of his noble descent and peculiarly high 
birth, was inclined to an alliance of love and affec- 
tion ; also for the advantage of the kingdom. 
Noble words passed, and messengers came and 
went upon the subject. And they sent to Pars 
(Fars) the Kadi of Nisipilr, Abii (Abr ?) Bastdmf, 
a man celebrated throughout the whole world, for 
his virtues, eloquence, and gravity. And Biha- 
Addoulah behaved, in expediting that honourable 
design and favourable position, as became the 
glorious eminence of the Sultdn. Subsequently to 
his arrival Biha-Addoulah inclined to a new 
arrangement, and the affair was delayed. And 
again, as Fakhraddoulah, uncle and heir of his 
father, governor of Dudman, and a great lord, was 
settled at Bagddd, the affair could not be conceived 
without his advice and permission. So he sent 
the Kadi to Bagdad, to bring this affair to his 
ears, and to obtain his pleasure upon this proposal. 
And when he returned from Bagddd Biha Addou- 



428 MEMOIRS OP MA.HMUD OF QHAZNA. 

lah had left this world empty and found extinction. 
And his son Abii Shajd was heir of his father, and 
there arrived a royal letter from the palace of the 
Khildfat, to establish him in the dignity, and 
giving him the surname of Sultdn Addoulah. 
And his feet were firm in his kingdom, and the 
army placed their head upon the line of obedience. 
And, with respect to the proposal of marriage 
which had been made in that mission to his father, 
he knew not how he ought to answer it. How- 
ever he committed the duty of communicating and 
corresponding entirely to the Kidi, on account of 
his sincere and faithful affection to the Sultan, and 
his inclination towards the alliance, and his wish 
that he would imitate his father in his friendship. 
And he produced, accordingly, a satiety of sincere 
correspondence and many letters. 

But Amir Abill-Fawdris, his father's brother, 
was settled at Karmdn. Between them the open- 
ings of hatred appeared, and increased so much 
that Sultdn Addoulah sent an army to Karmdn, to 
dispossess him. He earnestly devoted himself to 
repel it, and a severe engagement took place 
between them, in which Abul-Faw^ris was 
defeated, and went to Sist^n, to seek an asylum 
with and to obtain aid from the Sultan. The 
latter sent to the Amir Nasr-'bn-Nasir-Addln a 
special message, enjoining that he should honour 
his arrival, and that he should consider it his 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP QHAZNA. 4-29 

bounden duty to take pains in arranging his resi- 
dence, and providing for his retinue. He was, 
moreover, to give the Amir two thousand dinars, 
by way of an oflfering (of welcome) and send the 
Prince to him. And the Amir most fully carried 
out his wishes, so that all the world wondered, and 
confessed that at no time had any kings or Sultdns 
taken such pains concerning other kings and 
princes, or, by the rain and sea of remarkable gifts 
and generosity, had displayed such special thoughts 
and humanity ; and the renown of this act and the 
echo of these benefits reached the extremities of 
the world. He went out to meet him, treated him 
with splendour and magnificence, and gave him 
gold, silver, horses, and other presents, such as the 
imagination could not embrace, and such as could 
not come into the human mind — (into the mind of 
any mortal) except the royal mind of the SuMn, 
before whose eyes wealth was like gnats, which 
are not weighed ; or dust, which is not of any 
account. He remained six months at Court, 
more esteemed than the SuMn's sons and more 
honoured than his brothers. And after six 
months he felt inclined to return to his own 
country, and requested succour from the Sultin. 
The latter provided him with many troops, well 
equipped and armed, and dispatched, to attend 
upon him, Abii-Said-Tdin, one of the most emi- 
nent learned writers of the Court, with an army 



430 MEMOIES OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

whicli had contracted an affection for war and 
contest, and become accustomed to a recurrence of 
victories and supremacy of strength, the very edge 
of rapine and plunder (Verse) 

" Troops like these would carry off a mountain-fort, as if it 
were (only) of the length (size) of that which is fastened on the 
crupper." 

With this army the Amir Abiil-Fawdris arrived 
at Karmin, and the army posted there, knowing 
that they had not strength to cope with them, 
retreated, and he was re-established in his king- 
dom, upon his promised throne. And Abii Said, 
having accomphshed this affair, returned, accom- 
panied by his army. Some time passed, during 
which he preserved the respect and due reverence 
to the Sultdn, and nothing happened that might 
destroy the structure which he had founded, or 
render useless the seat which he had arranged for 
him. At length the SuMn determined to return 
to Ghazna, and his terrible standards were far 
distant, and the Amir Abdl-Fawdris remained 
without shield or protection. Hereupon SuMn 
Addoulah sent another army against him, which 
defeated him. He fled to Hamadin, to Shams- 
Addoulah ; and he, on account of the claims of 
kindred, and with the idea of being keeper of his 
property, and of gain, displayed zeal for his advan- 
tage. But afterwards an imagination flew before 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHA.ZNA. 431 

him, and he thought that the Amir Shams- 
Addoulah would display treachery to him, seize 
him, and send him to Sultdn Addoulah. For 
this cause he went from Hamaddn, to Bagdad. 
The rest of his adventures shall be given in their 
place, please God. 



AOCOTJNT OE IlEK-KhaN AJSTD CONOLrSIOH OF HIS AFEAIES. 

Tlek Elhdn, after his defeat at Balkh, returned 
to his own land, sad from the anguish of that 
weakness, and the disturbance of that debility. 
He continually blamed his brother Togan-khan for 
his delay and slackness in succouring him, until 
througli this affliction, he fell upon the bed of 
death, and marched from the world unto the home 
eternal. Thus the hunger of his covetousness was 
fattened by the dainties of dust, and his ambition 
which was on a level with the rolling vault and 
orb, was worsted by the hand of fate, and destiny's 
decree (Verse) 

" The mill !* the streaming waters flow to it, 

* i. e. Providence acts by means secret to us. The great 
fall, if they are destitute of Heaven's wings, which are 

sometimes vouclisafed to the humble. Axis, , J ^;, seems 

here to be used for the power which causes revolution or motion 
arotmd an axis. The poet implies that the power which causes 
water to turn a mill is like the Divine causation unknown to 



432 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

"And ttere is no (moved) axis whereby they make it 
revolve. 

" Truly the abundance of feathers enables the sparrow to 
rise in flight, 

" And the featherless vultures fall." 



His decease took place in ttie year 403.' His 
brother obtained the principality of Miwarannahr, 
and adopted the course of peace and mutual regard 
towards the Sultin, and obtained protection from 
the effects of his brother's faults by his sincere 
attachment, and the influence of kindred. 

And an army of a hundred thousand tents 
came from the frontiers of China to attack him, 
and the fairest of the lands of Isl4m, such a num- 
ber that no trace of them had ever been seen 
during the existence of Islam, with a design to 
extinguish the light of Islam, and to raise the 
palace of idols, knowing not, that the stability of 
the Muhammadan opinions will not be subverted 
by the flags of any rebel, and that it wiU cast the 
head of the oppressor into the dust. Togan-khan 
summoned, from all kingdoms of Isld,m, troops to 
repulse them, and from those who would aid re- 
ligion, and help Isldm, collected 100,000 men. 
This terrible proclamation and agitating announce- 
ment caused great fear, and considerable stir and 
sympathy took place, so that in worshipping- 
houses and mosques, hands were raised in supplica- 
tion, and they committed their anxieties (to 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 433 

Heaven.) And Togan-khan marched to the sacred 
war against this people, placing his heart upon 
meeting fate, and fortifying his resolution to pro- 
ceed towards the dignity of martyrdom, hoping in 
the promise of heaven respecting victory to religion, 
and the exaltation of the convicting word, as the 
standard of the glorious Kor4n alledges, " We 
have sent them to victory, they believe in the life 
of the (other) world." And for several days, 
during the struggle of that engagement, and the 
blessedness of that fight, and the fallings of that 
battle field, there dropped from the edge blows of 
those noble natures, and the sharp (swords) of 
those brave ones, and from the striking of the 
scimitars of those warriors upon the throats of 
those ass colts, from the compassion of those 
warrior swords in cutting up those vile people, and 
from the flashes of those lightning blades, from the 
seizings of those propitious thunderbolts, from the 
victory over these rebelhous races, and from the 
blows of cutlasses upon their necks, (streams) like 
raining hail, or the moist honeycomb. But God 
took his sacred servants into the fort of security, 
and strengthened them with sure victory and 
power, and exalted his word relating to Isldm's 
victory, and the stoning of devils, until one day, 
when the fire of war came from above, and Mars 
disclosed his girdle, and granted to the two parties 
'a, friendly circulation {of the cups) of swords and 

2f 



434 MEMOIRS OF MAttMUD OP GHAZNA. 

spears. Then the troops intoxicated with the 
praises of God, with the sweet odour and fragrance 
of the breezes of Paradise, and with a passion to 
obtain an abode in the mansions of mercy, like 
wild colts, or the foaming sea, played {the game of 
battle) with their hot horses, from the first gleam 
of the sky until twilight fell, and with the assistance 
of the exalted Agent performed most mysterious 
(acts.) Doubtless opportune aid came from the 
Holy Majesty, and the breeze of victory blew from 
the merciful holder of the winds. They cast to 
the ground upon the battle field, nearly 100,000 
dead bodies of infidels, heads bade farewell to 
bodies, and souls were divided from forms. The 
vulture swords inflicted full pain upon the livers of 
unbelievers, and the hyenas and lions were glad- 
dened by gleaning from that plain. Nearly one 
thousand captives, their damsels and children fell 
into the hands of the people of Isldm, equal in 
beauty to the Moon, and in brightness excelling 
the all-diffused rays, and incalculable wealth and 
plunder besides, the residue of the army gnawed 
destruction and took to flight. This important 
victory and great success was universally reported, 
calming hearts, soothing souls, and inducing 
tongues to praise heaven. After this victory his 
last hour arrived for Togan-khan, and his soul 
removed to the lodging of Paradise, to dwell amidst 
the martyr spirits. And the kingdom descended 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 435 

to his brother, who in piety, fear of God, and zeal 
for the affairs of religion, was a like-minded and 
suitable successor to his throne. He like his pre- 
decessor was settled in allegiance, in acting libe- 
rally to the commonality, in smoothing the carpet 
of equity and comfort, and in avoiding pride and 
arrogance. On account of the association that 
existed betweenhis brother and the Sultd,n, he went 
and built up former hospitable relations by means 
of adhering brotherhood and friendship. And in 
the time of Ilek-Khdn, the Sultdn had betrothed 
one of the casketed gems of Ilek-Khdn's children 
for Amir Khalil-Abii-Masiid, and at the present 
time he resolved to complete this match of alliance 
and bond of marriage. And several of the confi- 
dential counsellors of the Sultdn departed to convey 
this precious pearl in order that they might securely 
deposit this keepsake. Several of the eminent 
nobles of the kingdom and eloquent Imams came, 
having arranged this, to Balkh, and deposited this 
trust, and discharged all that they conveyed both 
in words and wealth. The nuptial evening was ex- 
tremely grand, and the Sultan ordained that they 
should, before their meeting arrange ceremonies 
at Balkh, and decorate the city, and nothing 
was left wanting in various kinds of glory. 
And in order to raise the position of his son, and 
to exalt his rank, the SuMn gave him Her4t, with 
great riches,, abundant property, and royal orna- 

2f2 



436 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

merits and furniture. He departed in the year 
408, and came to Balkh. He held the mirror of 
equity before his face, and by upright conduct, and 
just guidance of the path of the people, kept that 
land in the gardens of safety, and the Paradise of 
peace. 

AcCOXriTT OF THE AmIr ABU-AHMAD-'BN-TAMfN-ADDOTJLAH. 

The cream of our descriptions and the flower of 
our words, in pourtraying the qualities and dis- 
playing the brilliancy of this Prince, reminds us of 
the poet's words (Verse) 

" The generosity of that Prince is as the blessings given by 
the dawn;" 

" The generosity of this Prince is as the blessings given by 
the midday." 

Heaven had adorned him with specially good 
morals and with inclinations to high dignities. Of 
this the virtues of his disposition, his pure and 
gloriously conspicuous nature, were a cutting evi- 
dence and clear proof His mind, in nobleness, 
was parallel to the sign Pisces and on a level with 
the sky, and from the chamber of education, the 
canopy of care, and the guardianship of the 
Sultan's training, he came forth pure as gold tried 
by the touchstone of fire, and walked proud as the 
moon on her throne of increasing light, and arrived 
at the door of exaltation through the influx of 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 437 

merits. He profited much in the exercises of 
swords and spears, and was gemmed with generous 
morals, when he emerged from the shaping of 
childhood to the age of youth, and an hero's 
strength was founded in him. The Sultdn, as the 
consummation of his rearing and training, by the 
full effect of manhood and the duties of paternity, 
demanded for him, from amongst the princely 
children of Abii-Nasr-Feriguni, a noble lady, 
adorned with brilliant qualities and accomplish- 
ments, and appointed him Receiver-Governor of 
Juzjdn, a seat of the family of Ferigiinl, who in 
greatness resembled the Creator, in graciousness 
Heaven, and in bounty the Jihiin. He distin- 
guished then his son, with the viceroyalty hereof, 
who proceeded thereunto, and, with his showers of 
liberality and comprehensive justice, revivified the 
subjects of those regions, so that hearts became 
strong by his virtues, and aU with pure affection; 
and sincere friendship, presented the service of 
allegiance. And the Sult4n, when he saw the 
indications of his bent, and the lights of his glory 
increasing day by day, augmented his proofs of 
favour, his kind preference, and his eagerness to 
raise the degrees of his position, and the steps of 
his rank, and increased his kindness and benevo- 
lence, with special regard and peculiar benevolence. 
The remaining adventures of the two brothers 



438 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAXINA. 

shall be mentioned in their own place, please 
Heaven ! 

Account of the Tahieite Entoy. 

The Sultfi.n, on account of his genius and capa- 
city, his upright conversation, and his zeal in 
subduing the towns of infidels, became a followed 
guide in expounding the law and in defining works 
of merit, and a great investigator and explicator of 
questions stirred up respecting settling views and 
assiduous disputes, and upon the knots of divines, 
and the sects of the followers of novelties. He 
was gloriously perspicacious in grounding religion 
and in goading heretics ; he was solidly confident 
in interpretation and hermeneutics, and the due 
measurement of doctrines, and the proofs of 
repealing and repeated (verses)* and in verifying 

* The Koran of Muhammad does not consist of regular 
historical narratives or of a code of precepts arranged ia any 
order. But it is made up of a number of unconnected portions 
or chapters, of various lengths, consisting of precepts or prohi- 
bitions, wildly and obscurely blended with historical, or rather, 
legendary allusions. The dates of the appearance of these 
portions are not known, so that they cannot be classed in order 
of time. And as some of the signs or verses of these portions 
are repugnant to or supersede others, it cannot be known which 
is the earliest and repeated verse, and which the latest and the 
finally enacting one, which appertains to the nascent and 
which to the developed religion. Innumerable differences have 
arisec, in consequence, and it has been a main object of 
Mutiaramadan doctors and interpreters to settle these contro- 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMTJD OF QHAZNA. 43 d 

or reprehending traditions and hints, and, by 
reason of his clear-sightedness, a perfect refuter of 
all kind of false allegations and heretical sectaries, 
for he watched that the ordained statutes should 
be pure from the dust of innovation. It came to 
his ears that a sect had recently appeared amongst 
his people, who professed to adhere to the Lord of 
Egypt, and, although their outward profession was 
but heresy, their words within were pure infideKty, 
and they interpreted the standard of the revealed 
book according to their own heart, which was the 
cause of the destruction of the foundations of reli- 
gion, and a removal of the bulwarks of proof 
They, moreover, were zealously engaged in 
making void the science of the law and the rules 
of the faith, and showed the way of going aside' 
from the determination of the Divine statutes and 
decrees. The Sultdn commissioned spies, to 
investigate and spy out their places of meeting, 
and they brought to his hand a man who com- 
manded amongst them, and who knew all their 
names and appellations. He, by dint of punish- 
ment and torture, surrendered them all to his 
power. They brought them all from diiferent 
places and from successive cities, to the Court. 

yeraies. Mahmiid of Grhazni is said, by TJtbi, to have displayed 
skill and ingenuity in these matters. Even the prohibition of 
wine is not quite free from uncertainty, and one sect at leas^ 
has disregarded it. 



440. MEMOIES or MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

They were impaled on the tree or stoned. He 
followed after the whole company, until he had 
seized them all and annihilated them, and thus 
obtained the mastery. And Abd-Bakr-MamshM, 
a venerable divine, a virtuous and religious noble- 
man, in this matter coincided in opinion with the 
Sultan. And as to every one who was connected 
with this assuming body or people of sinful 
novelty, and who had turned aside from the 
highway of the established religion and settled 
strait path, he made them all an example. By 
reason of this his reckoning (with these heretics) 
and his zeal herein his reputation increased, and 
he became the object of men's eager wishes, and 
that which their hopes craved, and all his decisions 
upon religious points, from his piety, knowledge, 
and safe acuteness, arrived at the highest estima- 
tion, and were placed at the summit of Arcturus 
and on the pinnacle of Heaven's vault, as is noted 
and commemorated in the announcement of God 
to the world : " He who serves me I will serve 
him, and he who serves thee I will follow him and 
make him serve" (Kdr^n). And, during these 
events, there rose up a man, in the province of 
Ir^k, who professed to be derived from the tree 
(family) of All, who showed as if he were proceed- 
ing from the Lord of Egypt unto the Sultdn, and 
were about to present unto him a written letter 
and well-filled packages. He went as far as to 



MEMOIRS OF MAMMU'D OF GHAZNA. 441 

Nisapiir, and made great vauntings, on account of 
his family and of his proud nobility, and exhibited 
boastings and pretensions. But at Nisdpiir they 
made him stop, and intimated the matter to the 
Sultin. But he, in his falsehood and self-suffici- 
ency, moved on, and came to Herit, with the 
intention of going to Ghazna. The SuMn, how- 
ever, sent a royal order to convey him to Nisha- 
piir, whilst his letter could be decided upon by the 
chief examiners, so that all might be cleared and 
evident to the Sultan's privy council, as to receiv- 
ing his embassy, and that the dust of suspicion 
should not be placed on the edge of the purity of 
his introduction. And, when they brought him to 
Nishipiir, and began to unfold his words and acts, 
they found on him some writing, taken from the 
volumes of the people of the interior, full of deceit 
and eri'ors, such that the words of the licentious 
and the diabolical suggestions {of fire-worshippers, 
followers of Manis f ) were better founded than 
they, which proceeded not from any intellectual 
perception^ or from the information or deductions 
of intellect, and which were not referable to proof. 
The Master, Abii-Bakr, investigated his iniquity, 
and found that his weights were unable to bear 
the standard of examination, and that his words 
did not tally with fact and truth. At the begin- 
ning of this altercation he himself comprehended 
his own position, and knew that in this journey he 



442 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 

had cast himself into the noose of destruction, and 
had aimed at himself the arrow of ruin. They sent 
him to the Siiltdn, and made him appear before 
the select assembly of chief Imdms and Kadhis, 
eminent divines and faith-champions. And Hasan- 
'bn-Tahir-'bn-Musallim-Alawwi (one of the family 
of All) was a witness of that trial and present at 
that Court. He says : "The story of that digni- 
fied Sayyid^ was this, that amongst the lordly race 
of T^ib and the sons of Husain the younger, no 
one was more noble and eminent than his grand- 
father, who surpassed all in rank and wealth ; 
that Muiz (Addin) Khalif of Egypt, sent one to 
him to demand his daughter for his son Aziz, in 
marriage. That the cause which indttced him to 
seek this alliance was as follows : he had found in 
his palace a piece of paper, on which was written 
the following quatrain (Verse) 

" If thou be of the family of Abu-Talib seek in marriage 
one of the children of Tahir, 

" Even if people look at thee with aversion to them 

" At the beginning of the matter or at the end. 

" Truly his mother is one who is railed at as a native of 
Susa, a woman from whom, in fine, they bite carbuncles."t 

(For this poet had called his mother a native of 

* Dignified Sayyid, ironical. 

t Carbuncles or warts, &c., excrescences proceeding from 
scrofula or leprosy, which diseases are thus intimated to be 
common at Susa. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 443 

Susa, because the mother of his grandfather Mu- 
hammad-'bn-AbduUah-'bn-Maimiin was of that 
■place.) " That he had declined this alliance and 
affinity with Muiz on account of scorbutic (maladies) 
and that he considered him not equal to himself, 
and gave answer, ' Both my daughters are engaged 
in the marriage knot.' J^uriz on this account im- 
prisoned him, and seized whatever of his worldly 
goods he could discover, and at length he suffered 
death under his hand. But the exact nature of that 
which happened to him was not known to any one ; 
some said that they killed him and buried him 
secretly, several said that he fled from prison, and 
was cut off from the regions of the Hij^z. And 
Td,hir the father of Hasan went to Medina, and be- 
came lord of that city. And T^hir his uncle's son, 
and (his) son-in-law, was in great intimacy with 
him, and upon the demise of Tdhir, Abii Ali was 
heir presumptive to the lordship, and after his de- 
cease, Hani and Muhanni his sons obtained the 
lordship. But Hasan on account of his decayed 
circumstances as regards- wealth and dignity, be- 
came of no account, therefore he came to Khurasdn, 
and sought an asylum at the Sultan's Court." And 
when Tahirti in this explanation began to mention 
his mission, Sharif Hasan drew out the tongue of 
opposition,- and denied that he had any connexion 
with the matter as Envoy, or with the genealogy of 
the prophet, and gave sentence, authorizing the 



444 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

shedding of his blood. And the Sultan cast the 
judgment against Tahirti upon the responsibility of 
Hasan, and Hasan killed him. And the Com- 
mander of Believers Al-Kadir-Billah sent a Royal 
letter upon the subject of Tahirti, and signified his 
pleasure that he should be seized as a troubler of 
the devotion, and he made an example of, and 
punished. And when the news of his execution 
reached Bagdad, and the firmness of the Sultan's 
rehgion became known, and the tongues of objectors 
and reprovers were tied, the Commander of the 
faithful regarded him as singularly paired with 
him, i. e. in religious authority, and he stood in a 
position of acceptance. And the punishment of 
Tahirti accords with the saying (Verse) 

" He who gives to drink a poison that kills suddenly it is 
just that he suffer a death that streams with blood" (i.e., a 
violent death, but of a kind different from that by poison). 



Account or the AmIe Abul-Abbas-MImIjn-Khwaeism;- 
ShIh and the CoNciTrsioir of his HistoeT, and how 

HIS KlN&DOJM DETOLTED TPON HIS SoN. 

When the kingdom of Khwarism came from 
Mamiin to his son Abii-All, and the country of 
Khwarism and Jurjdn was ceded to him, he took 
the Sultan's sister in marriage, and by that affinity 
became powerful, and the families became one, 
and this stability was smoothly settled until the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 445 

end of his life. And when the period of his life 
was cut short, his brother, Mdimin-'bn-Mdmiin, sat 
in his room, who sent to the Sultan, and demanded 
his brother's wife in marriage, and offered evi- 
dences of greater purity and sincerity of obedience. 
The Sultin returned a favourable reply to his 
request, so that the affairs of those two kingdoms 
became duly regulated by an interwoven and asso- 
ciated unity, until the Sultan demanded that, 
throughout his kingdom, the public-prayer ac- 
knowledgment should be made and the coinage 
struck in his name, and sent an ambassador to stir 
in that matter. He called his chiefs, followers, 
and principal courtiers, to consult on this affair, 
who all twisted out their necks from this command, 
and exhibited averseness, dislike, and disdain 
thereat, and said, ''WhUst your kingdom has 
endured as it was delivered to you, that is elevated 
and autocratical, and whilst it remains preserved 
and indivisible, we gird up the loins of service ; but 
if you choose to become the subject of another's 
will, we will draw our swords to resist, and, 
depriving you, will propose the sovereignty to 
another." The messenger' returned, and reported 
directly to the Sultin the words which he had 
himself heard. But the people of Khwdrism 
afterwards began to think of the consequences of 
their words and of the wrong which they had done 
to their Supreme Sovereign, and began to be ter- 



446 MRMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

ribly alarmed at the issue thereof. And the 
foremost of all was Inaltagin, Commander of the 
Forces of Mdmiin. They were engaged in 
arranging that affair, and, by craft and treachery, 
they arrived at this conclusion, that one day, 
unexpectedly, when they went to offer the usual 
salutations at Court, intelligence of the king's 
demise was brought out from within, although 
they know not how it had occurred, and all the 
people assembled to inaugurate his son. And they 
put him in his father's place ; and they knew that 
the Sultan would enquire into this event, and take 
vengeance for this offence. They therefore entered 
into an oath with one another, to oppose the 
Sultdn, and entered upon a covenant of mutual 
fidelity and support, that if, on the Sultdn's part, 
there should be any proceedings against them, 
they would be all one hand in hand, and resolutely 
answer him. This resolution affected the fortune 
and the empire of the Sultd,n, and such a determi- 
nation nearly concerned the happiness of his life, 
since, by reason of the opposition of that kingdom, 
opposition would increase in his own, and other 
lands be drawn in thereby. The Sultin, therefore, 
with a perfect army, marched to Khwarism ; and 
Inaltagin made an attack, by night, upon his 
advanced guard, and Abil-Abdallah-Tii, who was 
with the advanced guard, stood up to fight with 
them. Intelligence of this engageuaent reached 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZSA. 447 

the Sultdn, who turned towards them with his 
forces, and from the time of the unfurling the flag 
of morning until the equalization of the sun (noon) 
the battle endured. And the Khwdrismians firmly 
kept their footing, in the hope of victory and 
conquest, not considering that treachery is a collar, 
on one side of which is transitory shame and on 
the other eternal fire, and that ingratitude to 
benefactors is the cause of ruin and punishment, 
and invokes destruction and misfortune. And 
when the day began to decline, through the blows 
of horses and the wounds of elephants an innu- 
merable multitude of the army lay lifeless upon 
the piain of that battle-field ; the regt took to 
flight and became dispersed in the midst of the 
forests, on the shore of the Jihiln. Nearly five 
thousand men were made prisoners. And Inalta- 
gin (or Nihaltagin) made an effort, if perchance he 
might pass over the Jihiin and save his life, but 
knew not that to the deceitful the dark path of the 
narrow valley of treachery blocks up the road of 
safety, and stops up the means of preservation and 
the egress of salvation, and that the retribution, of 
evil designers inevitably arrives. For, when he 
was seated in the boat, a dispute arose with 
another man for some cause, and he joined in the 
altercation between them, upon which he seized 
InaMgIn, and gave him to a sailor, at the prow 
of the boat, to deliver him up to the army of the 



448 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

Sultin. The Sult^u ordered that he and the other 
prisoners should be presented before him, when he 
questioned them upon the cause of their heat 
against their benefactor. And when Inaltagin saw 
that he could not escape he gave an insolent reply, 
and the rest of the prisoners threw their heads 
before him {were reckless and defied him) and 
returned blush-causing and shameless replies, so 
that they carried trees opposite the monument 
of Mdmiin, and drew (impaled) them all upon 
trees, and wrote this inscription upon the columns 
(or cloister) of the monument : " This is the grave 
of such a one, son of such a one, one of his 
dependants, who rebelled against him, and one of 
his servants who made his blood flow ; but God 
took by the hand Yamin-Addoulah-wa-Amin-Al 
Millat, until he obtained vengeance upon them and 
miserably punished them, an example to all who 
behold and a sign to all who understand " As to 
the other prisoners he tied halters round their 
necks, and sent them to Ghazna, and retained 
them in dungeons. After some time he released 
them all, and sent them, with the other troops in 
his service, to the regions of Hind. He committed 
Khwarism to the great Chamberlain Altont^sh, 
that he might follow after the rest of those wicked 
people, and dig them all up by the root. Thus the 
land of Khwarism was tranquillized and civilized. 
Such was the decree of mighty Wisdom. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 449 

Account of the Conquest ob Mahhah and Kanijj. 

The SuMn, having concluded this transaction 
respecting Khwarism, and having annexed that 
land to his other kingdoms, desired to give the 
rest of the year to repose, and thought that he 
would undertake a third (sacred) conquest, when 
the face of the spring was smiling. This thought 
he perfected, and commanded a movement towards 
Bost, until the time when the sun should direct his 
course towards the quarter of the North and arrive 
at the equinox, when the world would be decorated 
and adorned, and when he should find the tracts of 
the earth in full splendour. And, arriving at 
Bost, he employed himself in examining the 
accounts of the collectors, and in renewing the 
duties and affairs of the subjects, until Heaven 
granted him a union between stability and glory, 
and prospered his power over the kingdom. Then 
he betook himself to conquest from that place with 
good mind and regulated thought, and Heaven, 
according to the accustomed decree commanded 
respecting confirmation of the Muhammadan reli- 
gion and aid to its law, fulfilled in his behalf the 
promise, and joined to verification the wonder of 
that glorious word which is quoted on this subject, 
although the distance was extended and the way 
long. For the conquests of the Hindil territory, 
so as to become the territory of Isldm, were over- 

2 G 



450 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

flowing. All had been adorned with the insignia 
of that profession, and the veil of infidelity- 
remained nowhere except in the interior of 
Kashmir. And whereas in those regions there 
was a long desert, in the atmosphere of which a 
bird could not fly, and in whose expanse the falcon 
would be lost ; yet, in those days, nearly twenty 
thousand men had come from the plains of Mawa- 
rannahr, through zeal for IsKm, and they sat down 
waiting the time for the Sultdn's movements, 
striking their numerous swords, and uttering the 
shout of the holy war, " God is great !" They 
deliberately placed their lives in the palm of their 
hands, and as to their bodies they held them by 
his enhancing bounty, in the market of the verse, 
" God hath bought from the believers their lives 
and their property" — (Kiirdn). Their craving zeal 
and stirring ideas inflamed and excited the purpose 
of the Sultan, and he desired to proceed with those 
troops to Kamij. This was a country quite 
unknown to any foreign kingdom, except to 
Kashasab, who was Chief of the Kings and Head 
of Emperors. From Ghazna hereunto was six 
months' journey, but the SuMn, on account of the 
excellence of his design, determined upon the 
measure, and severed himself far from delicious sleep 
and security, that with this numerous army, who, 
full of a passion for happiness and a craving for 
martyrdom, would put fear into their cheeks and 



MEMOIKS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 451 

pluck out the hair of their mouths (beards) he 
went down. And, from the rivers Jihiin, and 
Jilam, and Chaud (Chendb ?) he went the straight 
way to Tibet, and passed Iskandar, walled around 
by the protection of God, who watched over him 
in the deepest of obnoxious (perils). And, wherever 
he came envoys came to meet him, girding up 
the loins of obedience, offering the belt of submis- 
sion and allegiance. And, when they arrived near 
Kashmir, Habali-'bn-Sh^snl, General of the Army 
and Lord of Kashmir, joined his service. But he 
was given to understand that there was no remedy 
for the effects of the Sultan's superabounding 
power and awful sword except Isldm and its pro- 
fession. He therefore bound up the waist of 
service, and took up his position with the robbers 
(or advanced skirmishers ( ?) Kiilawazi) of the 
army, and went before the troops. It passed 
valley after vaUey, and every night before 
the crowing of the cock the sound of fife and drum 
arose. The earth trembled from the motion of the 
Sepoys, until they passed the last day of halting on 
the march ; for, on the 20th of Rajib, in the year 

409, they left ( ?) behind, and took possession 

at their will of the fortresses of refuge and the 
munitions of that land, until ihey arrived at the 
castle of Barma, in the country of Hanin. The 
King of this place (Hariin ?) was the greatest of 
all the sovereigns of India. But when he became 

2 G 2 



452 MEMOIRS or mahmud of ghazna. 

aware of the multitude of the champions of Isldm, 
and saw the army- sea which was striking out its 
billows, he came down with nearly ten thousand 
men, and represented his willingness to display the 
insignia of the symbol of the profession of Isldm. 
He became blessed with the happiness of true 
guidaJice. From hence they went to the fortress 
of Kaljand, the chieftain of which was of the 
number of those Pharaoh devils and accursed 
princes. He passed his life in infidelity, and, on 
account of the fear of his kingdom and of the 
extent of his authority, lived in safety from the 
attacks of heroes and the conflict of trenchant 
swords. No one had an opportunity of obtaining 
the mastery over him, and the chief lords and 
eminent men of kingdoms turned the face of 
weakness away from him and from his powerful 
state, his immeDse riches, his strength in cavalry, 
his grand armies, from the inaccessibility of his 
dwellings, and from those commanding munitions 
which for long records of days and events of time 
had been guarded and preserved. And when he 
saw that the Sultan would direct against him the 
cry of the holy war, he arrayed his warlike prepa- 
rations, his army, his horses, and his elephants, 
and awaited his stpproach in a wood, into whose 
intricacies a ray of the sun could not penetrate, and 
from whose leaves and branches a needle would 
not reach the ground. The Sultdn then com- 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 453 

manded Ms advanced guard to force themselves 
into the midst of the forest. They found a road 
(which led) from the upper castle, and when the 
green sea struck out, " AUah Akhar," they stood 
against the head of the Kafirs, and twisted them 
round their scimitars, and cast the troops upon the 
ground. They stood firm for a time, and made 
charges from their own position, when the rain of 
swords reached them, and the heavenly decree 
preserved the people of IsMm from the edge of 
their scimitars and the point of their spears 
(Verse) 

" The swords of Hind were blunted by their strokes, 
"And when thev cut our necklaces saved our lives." 

At length it became known that all events 
are in the grasp of destiny, and that the well- 
formed scimitar, although its force may be 
extreme and its edge sharp, is but a subject of 
the command and vassal of the decree of fate, if 
it penetrate to the Mushm's blood ; and herein 
destiny exhibited its usual blessedness, but if it 
had been weak it would have been the cause of 
some wonder-working providence, and for the 
display of some miracle. These despicable ones 
were astonished ; and, when they saw the indica- 
tions of the power of these champions of religion, 
and were witnesses of their arms and appurte- 
nances, they said one to another, " This body of 



464 MEMOIES OP MAHMUB OF GHAZNA. 

men is not of the race of mankind or of the human 
family ! Our swords which in breaking could pass 
through a rock, and rhake a mere tale of brilliant 
lightning, are cut off from cutting them, and 
glance away from their shoulders." Perhaps these 
wretches had placed themselves in the straight 
road to destruction, and recognized not the truth 
that such (fatuity) is the sign of rebels and 
deniers, and the marked path of their wickedness 
and undutifulness. They threw themselves then 
simultaneously into the river, in order that the 
abundant waters and powerful current might be 
the means of their preservation and safety ; and 
they knew not that, although water is the germ 
of life and the principle of vivification. Heaven's 
decree can render it the cause of destruction and 
ruin. This, however, the warrior comrades and 
eminent army of guides (to truth) made them 
know, by cutting off the fountain of infidelity 
and intercepting the rivulet of idolatry, so that 
some came to the sword and some were drowned 
in the water. Five thousand perished and went 
to hell, and Kaljam drew his dagger, killed his 
wife, and then, ripping himself up, became a 
partner of his forces on their road to hell. Of 
their wealth 185 head of elephants, with other 
kinds of profit and plunder, came to the SuMn. 

In that place, in the city, there was a place of 
worship of the Indian people ; and when he came 



MEMOIUa OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 455 

to that place he saw a city, of wonderful fabric and 
conception, so that one might say, this is a building 
of Paradise, but its accidents or qualities could only 
come by the aid of the infemals, and an intelligent 
man would hardly receive favourably the account 
of it. They had brought immense stones, and had 
laid a level foundation upon high stairs (or steps). 
Around it and at its sides they had placed one 
thousand castles, buUt of stone, which they had 
made idol temples, and had (cemented) fastened 
them well. And in the midst of the city they had 
built a temple higher than all, to delineate the 
beauty and decoration of which the pens of all 
writers and the pencils of all painters would be 
powerless, and would not be able to attain to the 
power of fixing their minds upon it and considering 
it. In the memoir which the' Sultdn wrote of this 
journey he thus declares, that if any one should 
undertake to build a fabric like that he would 
expend thereon one hundred thousand packets of 
a thousand dinars, and would not complete it in 
two hundred years, with the assistance of the most 
ingenious masters (architects) . And amongst the 
mass of idols there were five idols made of pure 
gold, of the height of five cubits in the air ; and of 
this collection of idols there were (specially) two, 
on one of which a jacinth was arranged, such a one 
that if the SuMn had seen it exposed in the Bdzdr, 
he would have considered as underpriced at fifty 



456 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

thousand dinars, and would have bought it with 
great eagerness. And upon the other idol there 
was a sapphire (hyacinth) of one solid piece, of 
azure water, of the value of four hundredweights 
of fine miskals {five weights of a dram and a-half) 
each, and from the two feet of an idol they 
obtained the weight of 400,400 miskals of gold. 
And the idols of silver were a hundred times more, 
so that it occupied those who estimated their 
standard weight a long time in weighing them. 
They devastated (all that city) and passed there- 
from towards Kaniij, and the SultS.n took an 
augury thereon from the Korfi,n, and left behind 
much of his army, in order that, perchance, Haipal 
(or Jaipal) Rajah of Hind, when he saw the small 
number of his chieftains, might return, and 
consider it disgraceful to paE in resolution, before 
first engaging in battle or conflict, for he was the 
chief of the princes of India, and all submitted 
their necks in obedience to him (bowed their heads) 
and acknowledged his high rank, and great power 
and dignity. And, throughout all the extent of 
this expedition, at whatever region he arrived and 
whatever fortress the SuMn saw, he took posses- 
sion of it, and devastated it, plundering and taking 
captives. Thus, on the eighth of Shaabdn, they 
arrived at Kamij, where a mountain rose before 
them, and the army passed the Ganges. This 
water possesses glory and great dignity with the 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 457 

chiefs of India. They know it to be a spring .of 
the springs of eternity, and when they wash their 
dead they purify them in this water, and are per- 
suaded that it is the means of clearing all their 
accounts, and of cleansing from all sins and evil 
inclinations. And from far distant roads Brah- 
mins come, and wash in this water, thinking it a 
cause of salvation and of obtaining a higher hea- 
venly rank. The Sultan then opposed the for- 
tresses of Kamij ; and he beheld seven castles, 
placed upon the margin of the water of the 
Ganges. Nearly ten thousand temples were built 
in these forts, and these dotard and lying idolaters 
declared that the date of the commencement of 
those fabrics was two or three hundred thousand 
years, and from this confident belief derived pride 
and pretension. Their trust in them was continu- 
ally recurring, under aU circumstances, for they 
were desirous to deposit money therein, and in 
time of need made processions around them, 
humbly imploring aid. The greater number of 
the people had deserted their homes, from terror 
at the Sultdn, but some remained. The SuMn in 
one day took all those fortresses and plundered 
them, and thence turned to the fortress of Manaj, 
called the Brahmins' Castle. The people of this 
fortress stood up to resist him, but when they 
knew what is the power of confidence and the 
strength of salvation from non-existence, they cast 



458 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

themselves down from the summit of the castle, 
and some of them struck themselves with darts 
and the edge of swords, and sent their impure 
souls to the mansion of destruction. From hence 
the Sultan came to the fortress of Aster, held by 
Jandbal the Violent, one of the most furious of the 
Indians, confiding in the extent of his territory 
and his numerous army. The Rajah of Kamij 
was annoyed by him, and several times marched 
towards his province, but returned without being 
able to effect anything. This castle was situated 
in the midst of forests, upon an eminence, and 
deep moats were drawn around it. And when 
Jandbal saw the wounding blows of the SuMn's 
legions and the strokes of his riders, and was 
aware that Fate was reaching out her claws to 
seize him by the neck, and that the angel of death 
was sharpening his teeth to flay him, he broke up the 
earth of his castle and took to flight. The stars of 
religion, the stoners of devils, and the champions 
of the Sultan went after them, killing and plun- 
dering, so that Jandb^ and his comrades were 
deceived, for the Sultin's men made them know 
their awful power and dreadful might. And when 
they witnessed the serried ranks of his warriors 
and the fury of his men, they knew how long an 
interval there is between the heat of play and the 
ardour of the brave, and became aware that their 
business was to engage with those who were 



kEJfOIES OF MAHMUD OF 6HAZNA. 459 

determined to shed blood, not with the play of 
cotton-threshing tables. And the Sultd,n, having 
reached Jandbdl, and surrounded him, directed his 
course towards Chandrarajah, who was owner of a 
very strong fortress, and who sfjid (Verse) 

" I snort my long nose and display my marshy plains, and 
am a foe to any other claimant." 

He had never owned submission or allowed 
superiority as to any one, and knew nothing but 
boasting and pride. Between him and Jandbdl 
balls of contention had passed, and great wars had 
occurred, in which many had perished on both 
sides, but by their distresses (they were compelled 
to arrange) so that the spirting of blood and the 
defence thereof came to a compromise and to 
peace. And Jaibdl offered his daughter to him in 
marriage, and to cut off the subject-matter of 
dispute and perpetuate the opened friendship, 
sent his son to him, to conclude that alliance, 
that the means of their mutual participation in 
the equipments of the household and in fortune 
might be smoothly settled, and the distinguished 
families be united. And when his son-in-law 
thus fell into his hand he seized and confined 
him, and demanded of him an equivalent for the 
money and property which had been laid waste by 
his father's power. And Jaibdl was helpless in 
this matter, and knew not by what means he could 



460 MEMOIRS OF MA.HMUD OP GHAZNA. 

obtain the deliverance of his son. And, in the 
midst of this affair, the Sultdn arrived at these 
regions, and the chiefs of the Courts of India were 
up and down (overthrown) by his power, and, in 
their terror at the Sultdn, sought refuge with 
Haibal, from the most distant parts of India. He 
became dispirited; and Chandrardy, confiding in 
the repelling power of his castles' and forts, and in 
his numerous army, determined to oppose the 
Sultan, and sought aid therein. Then Haibal {or 
Bahamal) sent to him, saying, Mahmiid is not like 
the race of Indian chiefs, that one can play with 
him in war as upon a (chess) board, or think to 
meet his standards. He hath taken many forts 
stronger than thine, and hath subdued many forces 
more unyielding than thine. One may regard the 
opportunity of flying from him as a gain, and one 
should pray for escape from him and his comrades. 
This advice was favourably received, and he col- 
lected his property, horses, treasure, and posses- 
sions, and sought an asylum in a mountain, which 
could fight at butting with the constellation of the 
Bull, and in a forest which concealed the surface 
of the earth from the eyes of the stars, and drew 
the veil of concealment over the traces of his 
march, and it was not known to any one what 
course he had taken and where he had halted. 
And the view of Haibdl, in giving this advice to 
Chandrardy, respecting absenting himself and 



MEMOIRS OP MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 461 

flying, was this, that he was in great alarm at the 
stars of the Sultdn, and the stern imposition of the 
words of Isl^m, and thought that when the people 
and his kindred had been tied by the rope of 
Muhammadanism, and the SuMn had arrived, he 
would seize that fortress, and alone possess its 
wealth and plunder, and that his army would, in 
the productions of that country, find the pasture- 
field of their will and the quarters of exaltation. 
But the Sultdn found no deliciousness in that vic- 
tory, except in overcoming the design and flight of 
those rebellious infidels. He therefore proceeded 
to reap all the results (of that victory) and went 
nearly fifty parasangs, pursuing their footsteps. 
Upon the fifth of Shaabdn he reached them, and 
he stirred up the chiefs of his army to hunt up and 
take vengeance upon them. The despicable ones 
cast away their baggage and fiirniture, that they 
might be, perchance, the preservation of their lives 
and their safety. But the people of Isld,m turned 
not at all thereunto, and were content with nothing 
but those worshippers of fire, those wicked infidels, 
and with industry in tracking them to vengeance. 
They went after them for three successive days, 
and killed them, and seized their arms and accou- 
trements. And they took some of their elephants 
by force, and some came (wUhngly) under the 
SuMn's yoke, to whom they gave the name of 
" God- guided." And the SuMn praised the mer- 



462 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

ciM acts of God and His accustomed generosity, 
because an elephant, which cannot be brought 
under except by the agency of horses, by the aid 
of chiefs (trainers) and by the sternness of men, 
was thus, by supereffluent kindness, cut off from 
the service of idols and placed in the service of 
devotion (Verse) 

" Say to the Amir, ' Hast thou been served,' until the ele- 
phant came to thee, serving. 

" Praise to him ia whom are collected all blessings, far and 
near." 

They obtained from the treasures of Chandra- 
rajah three thousand packets of gold and silver, 
precious gems, and valuable sapphires, and so great 
an abundance of slaves that the price of each never 
exceeded from two to ten dirhems, at the utmost. 
This victory fixed the embroidered border of the 
Sultdn's prosperity and good fortune, and its 
renown extended from the East to the West — 
Salutation. 



AOCOTTJST OP THE COUSTBUCTION OF THE JaMA MaSJID OF 

Ghazna. 

When the Sultin returned from Hind in vic- 
tory and hght, with abundant wealth and no 
scanty amount of gems, and so many slaves that 
the drinking-places and streets of Ghazna were 
too narrow for them, and the eatables and 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHA.ZNA. 463 

victuals of the country sufficed not for them, and 
from the most distant parts tribes of merchants 
betook themselves to Ghazna, bringing so many 
slaves from Khur^sdn, and Mawarannahr, and 
Irdk, that their number exceeded the free, and a 
white freeman was lost among them, the Saltan 
began to feel an earnest desire to expend the 
plunder of those princes upon some liberal work 
of piety and lasting benefit ; and, before he 
marched forth on his expedition, he ordered that 
they should make a choice of a site for the 
Jama Masjid of Ghazna, since they had con- 
structed the old mosque in bygone times and for 
a smaller number of people, at a time when 
Ghazna was but a narrow territory, and was infe- 
rior amongst civilized lands and renowned cities. 
And when the Sultan returned the enlarged site 
for the mosque had been fixed, and the foundation 
and corners completed, and the walls of the 
building were rightly arranged. Then he com- 
manded that they should disburse abundant sums, 
for the purpose of completing this fabric, which 
was directed by faithful architects and ingenious 
overseers, and, from the confidential counsel of the 
Court, full power of forced requisition and of 
hastening the building were entrusted to them, so 
that from morning to evening superintendents were 
raising the building, and enquiring respecting 
verifying the work and repairing any injuries. 



464 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

And when the halo of the sun touched the pin- 
nacle of the horizon they produced scales, and their 
stipulated wages appeared, so that all went home 
with a good bargain of copious wages and complete 
reward, one with ready money from the Sultan's 
Treasury, and another with promissory notes from 
the treasury of Heaven. And they brought trees 
from Hind and Sind, and used these trees in the said 
works, for strongly constructing all belonging 
thereto, in the most complete and just proportion, 
and in solidity like the earth's centre, preparing 
and sealing the quantity necessary for every day. 
And they brought from distant places mighty 
stones (marble) square and hexagonal, all shining 
(and polished) ; and in front of the body of the 
elevation they drew out the domed porticoes so , 
perfectly spherical that the measured arch of the 
sky was but a myth in comparison, and the beauty 
of the throne (i. e., the golden throne of Persia) 
and of Karnfi.k lost their renown ; and they worked 
it exquisitely, with various hues and colours, like 
the plains of the garden of spring full of enamelled 
(flowers) so that the eye became dim and the 
intellect confused in contemplating it ; and they 
executed such gilding with paper and metal that 
the work of the artificers of all time was nothing 
in reference to the delicate execution of these 
mosaic artists. They spared not the purest gold 
in their painting and gilding, nay they employed 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUn OF GHAZNA. 465 

lumps of gold ; and they crushed the body-like 
idols and corporeal images, and fastened them into 
the doors and walls. The Sultdn commanded a 
closet to be constructed, for bis own use ; he com- 
manded, also, the fabric to be square, with 
expanding porches and with interlacing curvatures/^ 
and the walls of the gates lofty and projecting. 
They collected white marble, to cover the pave- 
ment, and on the sides of every court they deline- 
ated golden paintings, shaded with lapis lazuli. 
So great was the splendour, gilding, decoration, 
and colouring of this mosque that everyone who 
saw it took the finger of wonder into his mouth, 
and said, " Oh thou who hast beheld the mosque 
of Damascus, and art maddened thereby, and dost 
profess that no building like that is possible, and 
that no one can imagine any other specimen like 
that fabric, come and witness the mosque of 
Ghazna, that thou mayest see the vanity of thy 
boast and direct thy speech into the words of 
praise, and know that of the confluence of all plans 
this is the most beautiful, and of the conception of 
aU examples this is the most elegant." In front 
there was an immense nave, for great festivals and 

1 slktl LlioJuiJ. If these words be rendered " the 

interlacing, intertwining, or interweaving curvatures" they 
would appear to express the grand distinctive feature of 
pointed architecture. One of the meanings of ^_ iUr given b^ 
Golius is " fonus ceu potim' eurvatura arcus." 

2 H 



466 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

congregations, in which six thousand servants of 
God might fulfil their duties, and be engaged in 
worship without inconvenience to one another ; 
and he built near the precincts a college, and 
supplied it with valuable books and rare volumes 
of theology, and to those pure walls of writers and 
masters of profitable instruction professors, im^ms, 
divines, and students directed their course, occu- 
pying themselves in obtaining and chanting 
knowledge ; and from the endowments of the 
college they received daily a maintenance, and all 
necessaries, and a salary, yearly or monthly, was 
duly paid to them. They contrived a passage from 
the royal palace to the closet in the mosque, that 
he might be covered from the gaze of eyes and 
meeting the view of the people, and that the 
Sultd,n, at needful times, might, with full quiet and 
repose, proceed by that passage to accompHsh his 
devotions ; and every one of the nobles and great 
men had his private closet, so that it would be 
impossible to arrive at an idea of its beauty and 
perfect construction except by the evidence of the 
eye. And, during the empire of the Sultan, the 
extent of Ghazna exceeded all cities in spacious 
buildings and solid edifices ; and amongst other 
fabrics there were a thousand walled inclosures, for 
the purpose of keeping the trained elephants, in 
each of which there was a spacious lodging and 
wide precinct for the elephant-grooms, the sup- 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 467 

pliers of food, and the managers of maintenance. 
It was God who was the promoter and designer of 
this prosperity of the land and increase of His 
servants, in His bountiful providence and decree. 
He is supreme Ordainer of all things. 



Account oe the Affair of the AF&H-iKs. 

When the pimples of the disgrace and infamy 
of the puritans (lit., Tahirites, heretics so called) of 
Tabaristin had passed away the Sultan occupied 
himself in repelling the nation of the Afghans, 
who made their homes in the acclivities of cliffs 
and the summits of mountains, and for a long time 
had been accustomed, with violent success, to 
stretch out their hand (to attack) the extreme 
bord'er of his territories. He departed from 
Ghazna, with the wish to turn upon them, and, by 
giving their nest to the winds, cut oflP the germ of 
that annoyance. He therefore made as though he 
were marching towards another place and had a 
design against some other people, and suddenly 
fell upon them and, fastening the sword upon 
them, gave many people to destruction (Verse) 

" Knocking down after knocking down, as if their skins 
■were anointed with shame and bruises." 

He then returned to Ghazna, and was unde- 
cided whether he would remain still for the rest of 

2 H 2 



468 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 

the year, for the purpose of repose, and enjoying 
tranquillity for that winter, then determine Upon 
his victorious design and cast out the residue of 
the infidel wretches, from the cities and dwellings 
of India, and annihilate those swords which were 
moving like a stream in the remoter provinces. 
His jealousy for Isldm and regard for the faith, 
however, prevailed, and his progressing sword 
could not be content in its sheath, but, charmed 
with his power and courage, flew and escaped from 
its dwelhng. And thus he marched towards India, 
with men as eager and excited as neighing colts, 
with the delight in battles felt by males in mea- 
suring swords and points, whose rose-bed was the 
battle-field and plain, whose violet-bed was daggers 
and spears, whose gardens were deeds of swords, 
whose fishponds were the streaming dead, whose 
scimitars were their stars, and to ford through 
dust their boats, whose companion and soothing 
mistress was victory, whose confidant was their 
dagger, and glory their echo. Thus they passed 
the desert, and left behind those fords and passages 
(of the river) and from the rest of those lands, from 
the plunder of encounters, and the injury of the 
army, a shout arose and a cry was raised to 
Heaven. And the Sultdn gave quarter to whom- 
soever followed his religion, but if any one twisted 
his head from his decree he cast hia head upon the 
ground.. They ravaged the country, and collected 



Memoirs of mahmud of ghazna. 469 

so great an amount that water and fire could not 
consume it, and it could not be reduced to the 
compass of calculation or to the order of account- 
books, until he arrived at the river named Rahib, 
where the waters were great and where was a dif- 
ficult channel-passage, and whose whirlpool could 
carry away horsemen and footmen, and in whose 
fords great and small are drowned. Here, as in a 
fitting place, Jaibdl had halted, trusting in the 
copious (streams) and stood to repulse the Muslim 
army ; and he would not permit any one to pass 
the water. But, when night arrived, he took to 
flight, under the canopy of darkness. And when 
the Sultdn knew his craftiness and his design he 
called his guards and prepared hides, and ordered 
them to inflate them, and tie them to their bellies, 
and thus pass the water. Eight of the guards, 
self-forgetfiil, ran and tied the inflated skins 
around them, and threw themselves into the 
water. And when Jaibal saw them on the 
surface, he sent five elephants with a body of 
men to resist them. But God, to verify His 
word and promise to the Apostle and Prophet, 
by the success and accompHshment of this saying, 
" The earth hath been referred to me, east and 
west, and wide regions have been brought near to 
me ; my people have been offered to me there- 
from," inspired those eight, so that they held on 
with firm hands and unmoveable resolution, and 



470 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHA^NA. 

pierced those elephants through and through, on 
the sides and flanks, with arrows, and bore men to 
the ground. And so kind was the Sultdn that he 
encouraged eveiy one to swim powerMly (by 
saying) " We ought to endure the toil of a day for 
the sake of the rest of a whole life." And the 
army, from the kind words of the Sultdn and their 
eager devotion, pressed ou, jostling one another. 
Some passed by the skins and others firmly held 
their horses' manes, so that all came forth safely 
and stood on the shore, without loss or suffering, 
and pressed upon their rear, and thus put many of 
these accursed creatures to the sword, and made 
the greater number prisoners. They brought 
seventy elephants to the Sultdn's yoke, by the 
bridle of force and the noose of compulsion. And 
the infidels fled, leaving as booty their treasures' 
and property. And the Sultdn, before he engaged 
the Kafirs and conquered these false fugitives, had 
taken an omen from the glorious Kur^n, " Your 
Lord hath contrived that you should destroy your 
enemies, and he will appoint you to succeed them 
in (their) land, so He sees how you act." This 
true promise was fulfilled, and Heaven freely 
granted victory and accomplished (success) in order 
to respond to His covenant and confirm His 
surety. Thus he was raised on the effectual set- 
tlement of the seat of justice, and on the well- 
ordered carpet of equity, and, thanking the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 471 

bounty of Heaven, felt assured of extended pros- 
perity and empire, and happy support, and help 
for the course of successive years. And what is 
numbered and prepared for him in the palace of 
eternity and the everlasting Paradise is more 
valuable and preponderating. In the other world 
is good, and in blessing is the abode of the assured 
ones. 



AcCOriTT or the KADHf ABUL-ULA-SAID-'BH'-MrHAMMAD 
AND THE MasTEE ABU-BAKE-'BN-MrHAMMAD-MAMSHlD 

— Heaten be MebcieuJ; to him ! 

The Master Abil-Bakr-'bn-Muhammad-Mam- 
shdd, during the days of the Sult4n's empire, was 
regarded with the eyes of veneration, highly cele- 
brated amongst the imd,ms of Khurdsdn. His 
father was an eminent scribe and doctor, a pillar 
of the monastic life. His son followed his father 
in the cowl-dress of self-restraint, and abstinence 
from the pomps of the world, and in Hving by rule. 
And when the Amir Nasir-Addin saw the loving 
ascetism of his comrades and the pure monasticism 
of his followers he persisted in commending him, 
and an upright confidence was knit up between 
them, and he looked at him with the glance of 
honour and esteem, and regarded highly his 
regular followers (called Kerdmites) so that their 
market and sale (^. e., their value and honour) 



472 Memoirs of mahmud of gha^na. 

reached the sky. Abiil-Fath-Busti would say, 
with regard to their excellence, "The divinity of 
divinity is that of Abii-Hanifa alone ; the religion 
of religion is Muhammad-'bn-Kirdm.* If I see 
those who do not believe in Muhammad-'bn'Kir^m 
them I honour notj" or they must believe in another 
Kirdm.f 

Now when the army of the Turks came to 
KhurSrSan and the Sultdn was engaged in the 
conquest of Multln they seized Abii-Bakr, because 
they mistrusted his high attachment to the Sultin 
and the influence of his followers. And when the 
standard of the Sultan dawned again (returned) 
they carried him with them, so that he had no 
opportunity of deliverance, and came to Nishapiir. 
This state of things was imputed as a merit and a 
desert, and he was distinguished by increased 
reverence, so that his exile and vexation was the 
cause of peculiar favour. And, in the midst of 
these affairs, the shame of the followers of novelty 
and leaders of crime appeared, and filled the people 
throughout the house of Isldm with anxiety, on 
account of the wicked profession and inclinations 
of these followers of inward (religion) and heretics. 

* Eouader of the Kerdmites, which sect Mainshad fol- 
lowed. 

t This double meaning arises from a play upon the word 
Kiram, which signifies Jionowrable, and also the proper name 
Kiram. 



MKMOiaS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 473 

And the Sultdn looked upon it as an obligation to 
unfold this affair, to arrange to bring out this sect 
(to light). Then the Master Abil-Bakr, from the 
soundness of his understanding and the acuteness 
of his conclusions in these matters, was an earnest 
instrument in seeing to this despicable sect, in 
cutting off this calamity, and in applying a remedy. 
And he killed many for this crime ; and parties 
arose of the pious and the wicked, and many 
perished for truth or for vanity. And, from dread 
of these besetments, men became averse to the 
Master Abii-Bakr, and fled ; for awe of him was 
established in the heart of noble and plebeian, and 
they subsequently declared that under the habit of 
the Sufi rule, the doctrine of the descendants of 
Ali (the Shiite) was shown forth. For their sec- 
taries and populace took men captive, and patched 
up (filled) their own purses by them, and acquired 
much wealth firom them. And if any one hap- 
pened, by accident or on purpose, to oppose them 
they regarded him as related to heretics and evil- 
doers. Things proceeded thus for a long time, and 
no one had power to extinguish this tumult or to 
change this position. But time trains us to 
change of circumstances and to substitute altera- 
tions. Thus affairs had the pledge of times, days, 
and hours. But every one who would wait 
patiently for the vicissitudes of time he will behold 
the proud enslaved in depression and humihty, and 



■474 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

he will find the enslaved placed under the canopy 
of peace and repose. And it happened that the 
Kadhi Abiil-UM-Said-'bn-Muhammad, in the year 
420,* determined to fulfil the Pilgrimage. He 
was a most eminent doctor and great scribe of 
imams, and from his solid excellence and copious- 
ness in poetry, expended the days of his precious 
life in teaching and lecturing, and, from his scien- 
tific and abundant excellence, had robbed the 
horns and chiefs of time of the guiding-staff of 
direction. He was famed for his monastic living, 
for abstaining from concupiscence and desire, and 
bodily acts, and for occupying himself in great 
devotion, and in his stern authority would oppose 
the decree of kings and sultans. When he came 
to Medina he was extremely honoured at the 
abode of the Khilafat and seat of Im^mship, and, 
returning therefrom, they gave him a letter to 
convey to the Sultdn, and sent a message through 
him by word of mouth, upon the affairs of the 
kingdom. And when he came to the Sultan, to 
fulfil his commission, the Master Abil-Bakr was 
in the presence, and a conversation upon the 
doctrine of Kiram happened between them, and 
they displayed their confidence in the corporeality 
(of God) His similarity or resemblancef (to created 

* If this date be correct Utbi must bave survived to a later 
date of the reign of Mahmlid than has been supposed, 
t &« Translator's Introduction. 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 475 

things) and such of His errors, and their tales 
about this similarity, their shps of the feefc, and 
their deceptions as the most evident texts, fell 
sidelong on the Sultdn's mind, who was disgusted 
with their references and their words. He called 
the Master Abii-Bakr before him, and commanded 
him to unfold the real principles of his followers. 
He disclaimed adherence to this sect and denied 
this imputation; but he was for this reason 
expelled from the Sultdn's establishment : and the 
Sultan, in the matter of his followers, commanded 
that a royal supreme decree should be issued to 
the Naww^bs and magistrates, directing them to 
seize the superiors of the sect, that if any one of 
them disclaimed innovation and these vile sayings 
him they should release, and dismiss him to his 
position in the college as professor, or to his pulpit. 
But that if any one should persist in his blindness 
and errors to expel him from the city and 
discharge him from his college privileges, and cor- 
porate rights, persecuting his schismatical course 
and wicked separatism, and imprisoning his 
household with him. But the Sultan caressed the 
Kadhi Abiil-Ula, and honoured him with a robe 
worthy of his glorious dignity, so that all marks of 
outward reverence were paid to him from His 
Majesty's sovereignty (Heaven glorify it !) and 
from regard to the - glorious Law drew the two 
imdms (Othman and Omar ?J to complete autho- 



476' MEMOIRS OF M\.HMUD OF GHAZNA. 

rity. The mortification, however, and annoyance 
of the accusation, respecting his beHef of an Incar- 
nation and the possibiHty of the Deity assuming 
similarity, stirred up a tumult in the breast of the 
Master Abii-Bakr, who sought an opportunity for 
making an oration and the power of making an 
apology, and, by various craftinesses, managed that 
a trial should be ordered to set him right, and, for 
the purpose of testimonials and evidence, collected 
together many persons, who were forward ones in 
the troop of his inclination-seconders and agents 
for effecting his prosperity and credit. Thus a 
troop of ugly and ill-conditioned people assembled 
before the Court. Then the Sultdn was enraged, 
and desired the Kadhi of Kadhis, Abii-Muham- 
mad-Nasib to be present, and issued an edict to 
stir up the truth of this affair, and commanded an 
exposure of this feigning and colouring (doctrine). 
This. Kadhi was remarkable amongst those in the 
Sult4n's service, for his merits and discrimination, 
and both on account of his mighty knowledge and 
his perfect piety had been honoured with the chair 
of professor and the chief seat of determining 
doctor (Mufti) at Ghazna. His learning was 
exalted like a column and his rank for piety so 
great that the destinies of kingdoms were confided 
to him. And when he summoned the Kadhi 
Abiil-U14 and the Master Abii-Bakr, Abii-Bakr 
knew that his seat was broken, and that the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 477 

building of his tower upon that boasting, and 
obstinacy in those assertions would be the cause of 
disgrace. He said, therefore, such is the malignity 
to which our mutual dissensions, respecting learn- 
ing, and our mutual envy as to rank have arrived ! 
The cause of it amounts to this, that he imputes to 
me the doctrine of Form, and I declare that he is 
involved in the heresy of the Mutazilites ; and 
thus both of us have punctured one another with 
words of malice, quarrelling and anger. Let him 
be acquitted of this charge, and let him free me 
from the imputation of this crime. Hereupon 
several persons present gave their testimony as to 
the responsibiUty and regular good conduct of 
Abil-Bakr, but others cast before the Court the 
drink of shame and attached the garland of the 
wreath of disgrace, and so that harsh revelations 
and savage cross-questionings ensued, and if the 
awe of His Highness the SuMn had not prevented 
it, the violent uproar and unpleasant proceedings 
would have been renewed. But the Kadhi of 
Kadhis reported all this contest to the ears of the 
Sultdn, in mild terms, and conveyed the represen- 
tation thereof to the presence, in an agreeable way. 
And the Amir Nasr-'bn-Nasir-Addin sought an 
opportunity, and in a diploma expressed a high 
opinion of the remarkable piety of this Kadhi, and 
advised the Sultdn to examine into the opposition 
and indignity which hiad resulted to him in the above 



478 MEMOIRS OF MAIIMUD OF GHAZNA. 

affair. The Sultan acknowledged his disinterested 
remarks, and treated the ill-wishers of the Kadhi 
Abiil-Ul^ with indifference. Thus this Kadhi re- 
turned to his presidency and reposed in the abode of 
abundant respect, and declined all squabbling and 
fighting, and was occupied in the daily wages of 
devotion and in diffusing the M'ealth (of religion) 
well knowing that the residue of life was too 
precious to be wasted in the service of high-raised 
desires and malicious word?. His two sons, Abiil- 
Hasan and Abii-Said, were his deputies, and he 
thus lived in settled comfort and dignity, occupied 
in arranging learned points and in rectifying, by 
sight and measure ({. e., hy acuteness and judgment) 
the discussion of questions, so that, instead of 
vanity, his life attained abundant affluence, as- 
Abii-Busti says (Verse) 

" Heaven Hath accumulated upon me four things, amongst 
which are honour and respectability in station, the science of 
easily swallowing wine, affluent means of enjoyment, and a 
happy mind." 

As to Abii-Bakr and his followers, through his 
penetrating judgment, his high rank, his overflow- 
ing credit with all classes of the people, and his 
obstinacy towards the chiefs of the State, he passed 
the hne of rectitude, and tongues uttered his 
conduct to the Sultan's Court, and a cry arose from 
men on account of that which they endured from 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF QHAZNA. 479 

his sectaries. The Sultan for some time severed 
himself from these sayings, and abstained from the 
cognizance of this vain course of proceeding, and 
from destroying its grounds, not wishing to render 
ineffective the respect which he had arranged for 
him, from estimation of his merits, or that the 
fabric which had been founded upon the good 
pleasure of God should be demolished, until when 
the matter exceeded all bounds, and the wicked-, 
ness of that party came to its height, then he 
committed the dictatorship of Nisapiirto Abii-Ali- 
Al-Hasan-'bn-Muhammad-'bn-Abbds. He was a 
man nobly born, whose ancestors, during the time 
of the family of Sdmdn, had been remarkable for 
abundant wealth and esteem. His father, at the 
outset of the SuMn's history, whilst he was Com- 
mander of the Forces, entered into his service, and 
was particularly intimate with him, and, on 
account of the suitableness of his youth, was 
enrolled in the troop of his comrades and friends ; 
but his life attained not maturity, jand he departed 
young ; and with respect to his son, inasmuch as 
he had possessed so confidential an intimacy with 
the Amir Abd-Nasr, and had been modelled by 
his character, and had found the utmost profit 
from the natural lights of his glorious disposition, 
and had imitated the deep intellect, generous 
feehngs, and noble nature (of that Prince) they, 
when Abd-Nasr deceased, represented to the 



480 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

Sultdn's consideration his eloquence, dignity, ele- 
gance, and agreeable manners, the Sultdn sum- 
moned him before the throne and placed him on 
the seat of private friends. He came to be the 
first object of the Sultan's eyes, and was selected 
by him remarkably for friendship and honour. He 
arrived at high posts and attained to the place of 
the category of vizirs, amidst the nobles, the 
generals, and the high officers. The Sultan's view, 
in investing him with the collar of this dictator- 
ship, was, that with reference to these people, who, 
by reason of their devotional and monastic way of 
living, had acquired such authority, and who had 
made the grandeur of their position vie with the 
grandeur of religion, and had imagined that the 
moon could not support her claim compared with 
their place, and that the stars would be unable to 
inflame their high devotion, he should put them 
all to their proper labour and extirpate their errors, 
and tie their hands from coveting high positions 
or from ambitiously craving for the world. And 
when he came to Nisapiir he began to break them 
in, so that if you obtained the testimony of the 
majority they would declare themselves satisfied 
with his government and benefited by his exact 
efficiency. Thus, through dread of him, Nisapiir 
became calm, and the hissing of these scorpions 
and noise of these locusts of self-will was appeased, 
and no one possessed the power of disputing about 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 481 

their ways (of religion) or of quarrelling about 
their party standards. Thus these people of con- 
fusion and chiefs of innovation drew their heads 
into their collars, and folded up their skirts from 
the quest of eminent things (Verse) 

" The servant of God hath dispersed the dread of vengeance, 
in the night, when the scorpions were hissing." 

And although, in appeasing this uproar and 
extinguishing this outcry, he displayed commend- 
able marks of industry, all bore the impress of the 
blessed resolution, and aU was the eifect of the awe 
felt for the Sultin, by whose power a mountain 
would quake, and from dread of whose scimitar 
the dust would arise from the depth of the sea. 
And although the tears of the clouds be the cause 
of the beauteous sheen of vegetation, and the 
stones of the brave the proximate reason of the 
flight of devils, the intelligent know that the first 
cause of aU is that Providence who fans the stars 
of his gift by the breathings of his mercy, and that 
Almighty one who lights the lanterns of Heaven 
by the flame of the sparks of His bounty. He is 
the adorable necessitator of the produce of the 
clouds, not the clouds, and He is the causation of 
the periods (times) of the stars, not the stars. 
Thus this governor made this mob follow their 
bread-winning, and whatever, during the time of 
confusion, they had seized in their impurity, he 

2i 



482 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

seized from them again, and confined them all in 
prison. He wished to give a rubbing, also, to 
Abii-Bakr, but he withdrew, and sat down in the 
corner of secrecy. And, because the Sultan did 
not wish to molest him further, or issue a writ 
demanding money from him, he turned away his 
eyes from him, that he might occupy himself in 
devotion at home, and change his disposition from 
its custom of exciting tumults and deceiving the 
people. And as to the party of Sayyadites, who 
had withdrawn their foot from the circle of 
uprightness and the direct object^ he settled them 
in the right path, by various punishments and 
fines, and assured them that the ample veneration 
and supremacy of their body was founded upon 
their obedience to the Sultan, upon pursuing the 
path of rectitude, and upon withdrawing from all 
measures of falsehood and malice. And all 
expressed submission to him, and took the road of 
sincerity and modesty ; and then appointing as 
his deputy, with the confirmation of the Sultdn, 
Abii-Mansiir-Nasr-'bn-Ramus, who was his other 
self, he returned to the presence. The Sultdn 
entertained great regard for him, on account of his 
expedition in that affair, and for having managed 
the preservation of his honour. 

Moreover he issued rigid orders to the great, 
eminent, and noble men of his Court, respecting 
assiduous obedience and steady service, obUging 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OP GHAZNA. 483 

them all to attach themselves to the Div^n, for 
two parts of the day, and to render an indication 
(or evidence) of their labour, and if any one 
twisted his head from his commands and reproofs, 
he gave them a noble rubbing, so that all placed 
their necks beneath his authority, and became 
submissive and attentive to his orders. Tn a short 
time his affiiirs reached the Pleiades, and his 
government went on in such a manner that, in the 
land of Khuras&n, no one had ever conducted it in 
such order and beauty. However he passed a long 
life,* with abundant wealth, with numerous 
servants and troops, in liberality and plenty. 
During his administration the aftairs of Nisapilr 
were brought to thorough order. His displayed 
the face of level equity between the widow and the 
wealthy, and the door of boasting and oppression 
was closed. And he charged a faithful Muhtisab 
(examiner of weights and measures, and censor) to 
go amongst the market people and workmen, in 
order to guard the standard of weights and 
measures. He made each street a clear road 
for asses, crowds, and stalls, so that the people, in 
the mutual transaction of business, were enabled to 
refrain from extremities of impatience. Formerly 
the streets of the bazars had not been covered, and 
from the marks of dust and the annoyances of rain 

* This expression would imply that TJtbi lived during a 
great part of Mahmud's reign. 

2i 2 



484 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

the market people and men of business had been 
vexed ; but, during his government, he ordered 
that the roofs of the bazars should be connected 
together, and in the space of two months the city 
was entirely covered, roof by roof,, with clean roofs 
and light-affording interwoven (leaves) so that all 
might everywhere be gladdened by the penetration 
of the rays of the sun. He expended nearly one 
hundred thousand dinars, through his goodness of 
soul, in promoting justice and gladness for th© 
people, in honourable and pious liberalities, and in 
building bazars ; and the city was so finished that 
the eye was never satisfied with contemplating its 
paintings and pleasant objects, so that, in the 
midst of Nisapiir, there appeared another Arcturus 
and an eighth heaven. His conduct, both regard- 
ing the city and its administration, was fuUy recog- 
nised by the Sultan, and rewarded with corre- 
sponding praise and satisfaction. 

Account or Nase-'bn Nasie-AddIn-SabaktagIn'. 

When the Sultan took the kingdom of Khurd,- 
san and the Amir Nasr-'bn-Sabaktagln, being of 
confirmed sincerity and mature age, discharged 
the duties of allegiance and withdrew his skirt 
from the Amir Ismael, and resolved, with evi- 
dences of faithfulness and fidelity, and with the 
fulfilment of service, to follow perseveringly the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 485 

sovereignty of his (brother Mahmild), the SuMn 
gave him his own place, as Commander of the 
Army and province of Nishapiir, where .he ful- 
filled that office for some years, usefully and pro- 
fitably, and in repulsing Muntasir and efficiently 
completing that matter attained the reputation 
which has been described, and used great diligence 
to cut off those who would return to confusion or 
invoke the days of tumult, by means of his excel- 
lent administration and success. And afterwards 
the Sultdn summoned him to the service of the 
throne and enjoyed his society. He served him in 
his expeditions and at home, and in his wars and 
victories over the infidels, being, with sincere bro- 
therly love and pure aflfection, the nearest con- 
nexion of that generous and noble nature. The 
Amir was a strict adherent of the school of Abii- 
Hanifa (Heaven be compassionate to him), and felt 
blessed in associating with the partizans and parti- 
cipating in the affairs of that doctor. He went to 
the neighbourhood of the college of the Kadhi 
Abdl-Ul^-Said, and spent great sums in building 
it, and endowed it with considerable real and per- 
sonal property, so that this precinct remained a 
perpetual memorial of him and a lasting alms. 
These revenues were a good thing for the college 
of the doctors and divines. So noble, pure, kind, 
and liberal was his disposition that a harsh word 
was never heard from him during his whole life, 



486 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

and he offered no wrong or violence to any one. 
But the Providence of God gave him no time, for 
he died young and left the world stripped of his 
virtues, generosity, and inward (goodness). Utbi 
wrote this letter in his praise (Yerse) 

" Alas for the journey without a bait ! Alas for the sigh 
over the goocl! for Nasr, son of the Amir Wasir-din-AUah, 
Centre of Wars and Warriors, General of the Army, Precious 
Pearl, Crown of Glory, Eefuge of the Noble and of the 
Learned!" &c. 

And at the time of this affliction about him 
(may Heaven sanctify his soul) as tears were 
divided amongst aU universally, it could not be but 
that the Kadhi Abiil-Ula, with all his order, and 
all who drank of the clear water of the Law, should 
be abundant in their grief as individuals, and 
intense in their sorrow as a community. But God 
made known to them the perpetual fountain of 
His guidance towards His extended shadow, His 
perennial drink. His asylum to which they were 
tending, and His standards, assuming victory to 
religion. And (they would have been in despair) but 
that God (may His glory be renowned !) stopped 
the fracture of their affliction and the diminution 
of their advantages, by the glorious empire of the 
lord of the poor, the pleader of God's cause upon 
earth, the Sultan of the world, Yamln-Addoulah- 
wa-Amln-AlmiUat — Heaven prolong his existence 
and eternize his grandeur in this world and in the 



MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA, 487 

next, as aa equivalent for his sorrow and a com- 
pensation for his distress, by gladdening his words 
after this sad announcement. Truly he was a 
bright warrior and a talented pious man (if) there 
was ever another whose endowments to the praise 
of God were as a flowing robe. He was a flou- 
rishing plant, the tutelary (power) of the caravan 
of his successors. May Heaven perpetuate (the 
Sultdn's) greatness, exploits, and goodness ! For, 
on the earth, no one will succeed that incomparable 
one ; that mind (pleasing to) God in preponderat- 
ing patience. For He hath made him renowned 
in illustrious victories and hath imparted to him 
the fulness of the earth's gifts, so that he hath 
stripped the world, in adding kingdoms to his 
thread {or stringing kingdoms) and carrying out 
the destiny of necessary truth, in taking possession 
of them. Heaven, then, have mercy on the Amir ! 
bereaved (of life) illustrious, glorious, deprived (of 
existence) exemplary, devout ! May Heaven pity 
him, by cooling his spirit and sanctifying his soul ! 
and recognize his zeal for the protection of the 
faith and his earnestness in God's way, and his 
generous gifts of property to (religious) chiefs. 
Heaven, also, recompense the Shaikhs of the 
Sayyads {descendants of Muhammad) in their 
intellect and in their opinions, by preserving them 
in the faith, and making their weights (merits) 
heavy in the equitable adjustment ! And Heaven 



488 MEMOIRS OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNA. 

make us all of the happy ones the day of 
judgment, when God's decree calls the company of 
his people (to that place) wherein there is the 
straight road (of truth). For the last follows the 
first {the last hour necessarily follows upon the 
first.) 



PERSIAN TEANSLATOR'S PERORATION. 



Since this Translation hath arrived at its conclu- 
sion let us now (if the one God will) bring forward, 
succinctlyand briefly, some passages of historical 
events, of various tumults and confusions which 
occurred during times of remissness, of the sur- 
prising incidents of the chief eminent men, who 
exercised the sovereign power^ and of the condition 
of Jarbdzak^n. 



ACCOTJNT OF OOOTJBEENOES OF THAT TiME. 

In the year 582 the sign Libra had assembled 
within itself the seven planets ; and it had been 
for a long time reported in men's mouths, and in 
their books the astrologers had averred their 
judgment, that at this time there would be a 
deluge of wind three kos long, and as some said 



490 PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 

ten kos wide, which would extend over twenty kos 
of ground, which would carry off high mountains, 
so that neither men or beasts would remain, and 
that this time would be the season of the 
judgment, which, according to the glorious KurSn, 
to histories and by investigation is to come. This 
opinion obtained a mastery over the mind, and a 
great terror seated itself in the conceptions. And 
one of the learned of Khurisan brought forward the 
story of a tradition (and there was great confidence 
in this tradition) that the Prophet was asked, 
" When is the judgment ?" He replied, " It is the 
appointed" (Al-Kimat), {i. e., Al Kidmat, the 
judgment day, is Al Kimat, settled, a/ppoirited, (&c.) 
They reiterated the question; he returned the 
same answer. Hereupon the ingenious, considered 
this word {Al-Kimat, Sec.) and sought its force in 
calculation. And they found that from the letters 
of this word resulted the number 582, which 
number coincided with the judgment of the astro- 
logers, and corresponded with the years of the 
Hijra. By this their fancies became more con- 
firmed, and many people of distinction and wealth 
and opulence were resolved to take refuge and to 
dwell in caves ; and some acted upon this deter- 
mination, and constructed fortress-houses, in the 
water-courses and passages of the earth. And, in 
the month Rajib, of the year 20 of this pecuhar 
conjuncture predicted, the order of Providence so 



PERSIA.N TRANSLATORS PERORATION. 491 

fell out that for one month not a leaf nioved on 
the trees and the harvests remained in the fields, 
because the wind gave no assistance in winnowing 
them. Whereupon aU the world were persuaded 
that the words of the astrologers and their hurri- 
cane were wind from end to end. All, however, 
were deficient in knowledge and ignorant of the 
exquisite truth of His operations, and knew not 
that when God makes the affairs of peoples decay, 
and sends punishment upon them none of the 
learned can obtain an entrance into the ideahty (of 
that dispensation) and that (the declaration was 
ftilfilled) which was announced in His glorious 
words, " Upon whom I wiU not cause vanity to 
come, either before or behind." This, moreover, 
reminds us of that passage upon Ad and Thamild, 
,and other people, " We have sent upon them a cold 
blast, in the day of their misfortune, and we have 
made it high, we have made it low." These 
examples we have alleged, by way of analogy, and 
the meaning of these Divine words is that the 
Divine rule ordains, that He always displays 
himself as near to people, and gives support and 
heavenly aid, that they should be friendly to all 
portions of the world, and that He it is who 
confers authority and royalty, and government 
over those inhabitants. And such is the wisdom 
of God, in this matter, that the inhabited world 
might dwell undisturbed, that they (kings, &c.) 



4:92 PERSIAN translator's PERORATION, 

should maintain their flocks and subjects on the 
broad way of justice and right, so that by their 
dread and government, the road of enmity and 
tyranny might be closed. And, whilst they 
observe this straight path, and tranquilhty accrues 
through them to God's people, day by day, victory, 
conquest, success, and respect will be united for 
them, and Heaven will defend them from their 
enemies and evil-willers, and the hearts of all who 
are in the grasp of their power will be confirmed 
in their allegiance and love, and so continue. 
And when Eternal counsel inclines to diminish 
them, and a time of ruin and humility arrive (and 
these vicissitudes have occurred to the descendants 
of many kings, sultdns, and chiefs, who have been 
exposed to the harsh anger of Heaven) then com- 
passion started up in hearts ; but if they make 
friends with oppression towards their subjects, and, 
employ severity and harshness towards the ryots 
who are God's trust tO them, then the hearts of the 
people are heavy towards them, and aU turn their 
thoughts to impair their royalty and authority, and 
in their prayers and times of private devotion 
make supplications for evil. Thus it is that the 
cold blast of tumult blows upon them, and the 
scorpions of the text, " We have made it high and 
low," appear, and the miraculous verse, " We have 
exposed them to injury and disgrace," and the 
word, " We have surely written to them, that they 



PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 493 

should kill your lives and expel you from your 
houses," were all verified, as we have witnessed in 
our age with the understanding eye, and for the 
space of one's life have seen that, for these twenty 
years, which was the period of this conjuncture of 
affairs, the army was of one word and one soul, 
ready to exalt the Sultdn's standards and support 
his throne, and thus he was powerful in the midst 
of Irdk, that essence (or 'o/ji.(f)a\o^) of the earth and 
flower • of the world, so that, from the terror of 
their strength and awfulness, the royalty and 
august sovereignty (of the rulers) was firm in all 
minds throughout Riim, Hind, and Turkistdn, 
unto the utmost parts of the west, and the crown- 
possessors of the world and army-leaders of earth 
submitted to their sway, and all inclined to obey 
and follow them, all being in the firm bonds of 
confidence, that no decrease could take place in 
that sovereignty until the eve of the day of 
judgment. But the decline and setting of their 
stars of majesty and greatness arrived, by the non- 
existence (death) of him who was the arranger of 
the ties of their power and the basis of their emi- 
nence, the Atdbeg Azim-Mulk-Muzim-Muham- 
mad-'bn-Atd,beg-Assaid-Ildigiz, Heaven sanctify 
his blessed soul ! who was the guiding guardian of 
the State. Then the kingdom remained as a body 
without a soul, and comrades, all minions, and 
fellow-companions, all eating and sleeping, united 



494 PERSIAN translator's peroration. 

their swords, when great treachery and foul 
conspiracies were established amongst them, and 
gentlemen became negligent of the attention 
due to subjects, and subjects forgot the benefits of 
superiors. Friends changed friends, their own lost 
all affection for their own, beloved came to the 
fight against beloved. And if I had resolved to 
unfold all the insurrections, slaughters, and wars 
of that period, my books would not be bound 
volumes except in the next world. One remark- 
able point, however, is to be noted, that with 
respect to every one of these great men, chiefs, 
and lords, in whatever quarter they sought an 
asylum and in whatever path they sought refuge, 
from that place started forth their destruction, so 
that, like the moth, they threw themselves into 
the fire. Hence it was with them as the proverb 
says, "The small crows work the mischief," and 
" He stirs up sand with his nails," and " Whom 
we trust, of him be cautious." 

The explanation of all this is as follows : the 
Sultin Togrul, who was sovereign and emperor of 
all, wrote letters, step by step {i. e., with increasing 
earnestness) to the Sultdn of Khwdrismshdh, 
respecting repulsing the army of the Atdbeg, 
imploring aid and using humble supplications; 
until, when he came to Irak, affairs had assumed 
-another hue, and the adversaries of the kingdom 
took refuge with him, and an army, numerous as 



PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 495 

mice or locusts, came to Rai. The SuMn, with 
some supporters, made head against them, and 
threw himself into the midst of them, and, 
advancing from the front, called out his name and 
lineage, when they surrounded and took him, and 
lamentably slew him, and tied his headless body to 
a tree, in the market-place of Rai, so that men saw 
with their eyes that which had never been arranged 
in their hearts (to conceive) . This, amongst many 
verses, was published in his praise (Verse) 

" The dove never ceases her cooing, 

" Whilst playing with her broken heart." 

" I would not see the face of day ! 

" For it limits not my burning sorrow," &o. 

The Atdbeg Muzaffir-Addln-Kazil-Arslan, after 
the decease of his brother, came to Ir^k. He was 
a young man of virtuous disposition, gentle nature, 
and upright family ; and they said to him that he 
should strike at the root of opportunity and seat 
himself upon the throne of empire, for that, on 
account, of his royal and abundant troops and 
allies, there would be no door (opening) for 
violence. He listened to their words and, in order 
to strengthen the means of empire and fasten the 
ties of his rule, he took in marriage his brother's 
wife, a royal lady, a guide of the State, and a 
mother of princes. He believed that this alliance 
would be a means of supporting and perpetuating 



496 PERSIAN TEANSLATOR's PERORATION. 

his sway. After some days, on a certain night, he 
was killed by some sacrificing (assassinating) hand, 
and his enemies, whatever may have been the 
passion of their inclinations, were enabled to 
exemplify (realize) it, but report said that this 
calamity proceeded from this house (Verse) 

" It was said, whether true or false : 

" "What blame attaches to thee from a thing that is (only) 
said?" 

And Khwdjah-Aziz-Addin, who was Chief 
Vizir in the days of the Atdbegs, had obtained 
great authority, and arrived at the highest point 
and at a dignified position with those princes, and 
the Atd,beg Muzafiir-Addin had confirmed him in 
the seat of office. But when he entered into his 
project about Azarbijdn he became rebellious 
without cause and went to Hamadan. And in 
the hope (of the aid) of certain nobles, who at that 
conjuncture conspired with him, rose up in opposi- 
tion to his lord. The Sultdn Togrul treated him 
kindly, and he became Lord of Koms, placing him 
at the head of the State, until (at last) he put him 
and his sons, who had been Secretaries of State, in 
chains (Verse) 

" I taught him to shoot every day, 

" Until, when his arm became powerful, he shot me." 

^nd Jam^l-Addin-Abi-Samarml, and Saif- 



PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 497 

Addin-Rils, and Jamdl-Addin-Azbah, who had 
been private officers of the Atibeg Said-Muham- 
mad, who by his patronage had been raised to rank 
and to the command of 1,000 horse, made an 
outbreak against the sons of their lord, and went 
to His Highness Togrul, and in a short time all 
three were killed by his hand. 

And Sharfaddln-Albarhill, agent in the Amir's 
Court and for the lords of the Atdbeg, in like 
manner came with provisions and delicacies, by 
night, to their abode, and*. . , . (them). . . , came to 
the Sultdn, and he was killed by his hand. 

And. Prince Kotul-Itang (or Itabkh) who was 
the corner of the liver of the empire and the light 
of the reUgion of the State, requested assistance 
from the SuMn of Khwdrismshah. This SuMn 
intimated his sincere wish to aid him and to repel 
his enemies ; and when he came to Ir^k, Kotul- 
Itang went out to meet him, unaccompanied and 
unguarded, and when they met he killed him, so 
that it was with him according to the saying, " He 
sought refuge from the sun-scorch in the fire." 

And Sir^jaddin-Kirndz and Nilr-Addin-Kir4, 
two viceroys and columns of the State, upon whom 
the sphere of affairs revolved, went to the capital, 
and appeared before the army of the Vizir Maw- 
wayyad-Addin ; and some evil suspicion had 

* MS. confused. 

2k 



498 PERSIAN translator's peroration. 

occurred between them, and at Dardbah, by the 
hand of five Turkomans, ignorant that they were 
as vicegerents (or lieutenants) of the Vizir of the 
capital Darabah, came to slaughter. 

And Niir-Addin-Kuran-Khan, who was the 
leavening principle of all, the column of the confu- 
sion of the times, and the centre of the orb of 
strife, constructed a notable fortress in the midst 
of Irdk, and sent all his property there, imagining 
that the vicissitudes of fortune would never reach 
its elevation, and that, with such a castle, he need 
not fear the sidelong attack of unforeseen occur- 
rences. And they told the news of this castle of 
Nur Addin to Muhammad- Wishdk, and it became 
the cause of an enmity between them, and he took 
back the castle into his own hand, and gave him 
an (harsh) answer, of which vexation he died. 
Subsequently two sons of Kurdn, who were 
shaking the chain of the supplication of revenge, 
came eagerly and earnestly to the base of his 
castle, and he drew them into a noose by a man- 
oeuvre, and, carrying them both into the castle, cut 
off their heads. The end of the affair was, that he 
who had caused this calamity, without cause or 
commotion, voluntarily relinquished all, and came 
to Khurdsin, where he established himself for the 
space of two years ; and on the day when he came 
with the army of Khur^sd,n to the frontiers of 
Irak, he perished in an attack, bearing this ill-will 



PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 499 

to the dust with him. And the Amir Sayyid- 
CJla-AddouMh, Chief of Hamad^n, who was Khalll 
of Ajaml (Irak) who excelled in noble and high 
rank, rose up in opposition to the SuMn. And 
his end, also, was not happy. 

And Sadr-Addin-Muhammad-'bn-AMulattlf- 
Khajandi took refuge with the army at Bagdad. 
He conveyed them to Isfahd,n, but he was mar- 
tyred by their hands. 

And when the army of Khdrism came to Irak, 
the first who rose in their favour was Az-addin, 
Murtiza (chosen) of Eai. He also obtained the 
degree of martyrdom from their hands. 

And Azaddln-Farj-Sultani, who in reading and 
cleverness was equal to Mercury, fell like an intel- 
ligent bird into a trap, for he, with a small troop, 
threw himself with the greatest avidity into the 
midst of the army of Bagddd, at Isfahan, 
who in the twinkling of an eye put his head 
on the head of a spear, and carried it about the 
world. 

And Niir-addin-Kaljab, who, at the close of 
bis life, found the extent of Irdk deserted, and 
took possession of the kingdom, and thus peace- 
fully obtained tliose lands over which heroic heads 
had gone, and for the sake of which mighty princes 
and furious lords had perished (he obtained them 
crying) Pardon ! Forgiveness ! and, because he 
had no other weapon but the sword and knew not 

2k 2 



500 PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 

the rules of sovereignty, he impaled some, but in 
the end was killed by them. 

I have adduced this narrative that it may be 
known that all human arrangements are vain 
before God's predestination, and that every one 
upon and to whom the sealed decree descends, and 
the known last hour arrives, must go as chosen for 
the stated hour of death and ever-recurring 
destruction, as is declared in the glorious Kurdn, 
" Say if you be in your houses on the day when 
those who are written down to die go out to battle 
(you would die) upon your beds." Upon this 
there is a well-known saying of the Lord of the 
Law (Muhammad ? peace be with him) When 
God wills to carry out His decree to the utmost He 
deprives the intelligent and the wise (of their qua- 
lities) that He may fulfil His purpose and His 
decree. And every one knows that if he would 
fly and seek refuge he must do so to the holy 
presence and mighty Court. There he must seek 
protection, and must hold fast by a good mind, 
and right rule, and pleasing conduct, like the 
Emperor, the just Milld-Muzaffar-Mansiir, holy 
warrior, perfect uniter of the State and rehgion, 
victor for IslS,m and Muslims, Ulugh-Barik 
(Heaven magnify his power !) whose deeds in 
these times give forth perfume, by reason of his 
justice and equity, in the good ways of Heaven. 
And Heaven has guarded him and his house from 



PERSIAN TRANSLATOR'S PERORATION. 501 

misfortune, and with generous Kberality hath 
brought him out from the deluge of this blood- 
eating conjuncture and cloudy fortune. May his 
days be prolonged and may he find support, if 
God will. In verification of the words of my 
introduction I will narrate one of God'3 mercies to 
him, that his goodness may not perish or his 
bounties be unfruitful, as the Kur^n speaks 
plainly, " As to ye who believe and do good works, 
ye shall not lose the reward of the good ye have 
done." In the days of the difference and strife of 
SuMn Togrul with the army of the Atdbegs this 
king was taken prisoner. All his longed-for 
liberty was cut off, all hope of liberation and deli- 
verance intercepted. His family and dependents 
had not a glimpse of hope, and in cautious and 
confused apprehension their breath went out of 
their bodies, and strength from their hearts. The 
troops killed his son-in-law, Sharfaddin, a young 
man purer than the moon and more handsome 
than the cypress, and carried his head before his 
dependents, upon a spear. The SuMn having 
obtained possession of the citadel of Farzin and 
sent a governor there, this king became the hostage 
for this fortress, and all were in despair, At that 
time I was at Court and saw that the just Lord, 
Chief of Vizirs, Abiil-K^im-'bn-Al-Husain, 
during this sad calamity, sought to wash himself 
(with weeping) like a fish, and poured tears from 



502 PERSIAN -fRANSLATOR's PERORATION'. 

his eyes, like the rain. Day and night he 
lamented and grieved before Heaven, and gave 
alms at his door, throwing himself on the ground 
in the mosques and temples, and imploring the aid 
of the prayers and meditations of the worthy, until 
the Lord, the changer of hearts, and causer of 
causes, caused it to be intimated, in the Bazar of 
Hamadan, by the tongue of one of the ryots of 
Kashdn, as follows : The Atdbeg Muhammad 
bought" Jamal-Addln (father of Ulugh-Barik) for 
two or three hundred dinars ; — Oh, that the Sultan 
would sell' him to us for an hundred thousand 
dinars, then men wotild with accord collect 
droppings of gain (small collections) by mentioning 
it in the lanes and houses, during their gossiping 
conversations, so that they would redeem him, 
since we have seen much good in him, and it were 
pity that distress should come upon such nobleness ! 
By good chance one of the Sultan's private 
household passing by heard this, and informed the 
SuMn, and the Providence of God aided, and 
when the Sultan's eyes were sleeping like poppies, 
but his sight awake, he thought, what a life such 
a one has passed amid his subjects ! It would be 
a perfect disgrace to set a value on such a man, or 
for worldly considerations to injure so pure a soul ; 
he therefore, after a few days, liberated him, and 
caressed and honoured him. And the people 
observed his day of release as if it were his birth- 



PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 503 

day. Let the men of the world take example from 
this aifair and understand the truth of this senti- 
ment, " If God take you in hand for evil let not 
your passions be displayed to Him, and if He take 
you in hand for good (be equally resigned) for He 
is mighty over all things. He is supreme over His 
servants, He is the wise Eevealer of novelties." — 
(Kurin). During these confusions the misery of 
the people was inconceivable, and throughout all 
the regions of Ir4k not one old family remained. 
Palaces upon which thousands had been expended 
were demolished and their ruins sold for eight 
brass coins, and an incomparable (dwelling) &c., 
which in times of quietness was worth ten or 
twenty gold coins, through the straitness of provi- 
sions, and the many taxes and extortions of the 
army was given gratis. And no one was bold 
enough to go out, for there was no security against 
the dread of hyaenas and lions, who made their 
dens in the dwellings of husbandmen and farmers, 
and no one had an idea of going out except with 
comrades and weapons. In several places an 
hideous scarcity ensued, wherein the poor perished, 
and the revenue of the rich and powerful fell, and 
the sons of men became foolish and oppressors, and 
all turning aside from the dress (habits, customs, 
&c.) of parents and ancestors, relinquished the 
sword and pen, and rested all their eagerness upon 
dagger and sword, so that the destructive and ill- 



504 PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 

disposed obtained the superiority, and affairs 
became unsettled and wise men wished to die. 
And amidst this confusion Jarb^zkdii shared more 
than other cities in trouble, for two reasons ; one, 
that it was midway between two capitals, and in 
the neighbourhood of some fortresses which had 
sprung up, so that it suffered in every new cala- 
mity of Irdk, as the hues express it ^Verse) 

" I have been at Jarbazkan and I have complained of a 
restive horse, after a vicious one," &c. (*. e., 1 suffer from both 
parties.) 

And the second cause was that every year 
three wicked divisions (of banditti, &c.) came, who 
ceased not to injure Muslims, both in life and pro- 
perty ; and the rulers of the interior were worthy 
of the time and oppressed mankind, so that even 
great men thought safety and their lives a gain, 
and neither dumb or speaking beings remained in 
their palaces, so that in the confusion most pre- 
ferred to exile themselves from their homes, and 
to depart and to be content with absence, until 
God gave help. And the SuMn appointed Ulugh- 
Barlk and the Khwdjah JihS,n, Sayyid of Vizirs 
over the finance. And they, seeing the helpless- 
ness and distress and misery of the country, gave 
it the sceptre of compassion and considered how to 
rectify its affairs. They revived the population, 
restored the revenue, and established equity. 



PEESIAN teanslatoe's pbeoeation. 505 

They annihilated with the sword those gushing 
fountains of iniquity which' had appeared in times 
of weakness, so that the people of vanity drew 
their h©a,ds within their collars and placed their 
feet upon the skirt of good manners, ceasing from 
violence, and betaking themselves to letters- and 
handicrafts. And they resolved that the adminis- 
tration should be confided to none other than to 
the Amir Eais-Jam^l-Addin, Mayor and Lieute- 
nant of the city, a young man of remarkable 
abihty, who won the love and fidelity of aU. He 
had in youth the experience of age, was generous 
as the rain or the sea, in anger like an enraged 
lion, in liberality he would displace Hatim-Tai. 
When he was settled he began, like a physician, 
to search the causes (of the disease) and cut up by 
the roots aU that caused the injury of the people. 
He restrained his two brothers, oppressors and 
evil-doers, and as to their followers, the fountains 
of wrong, some he slew with the sword and others 
he impaled. When he saw worthy people he took 
them to himself. He hved upon his own property 
and oppressed none, and removed the fires' of con- 
fusion which had existed some years. Hence 
peasants and workmen gladly returned to their 
different employments, and the fugitives sought 
their homes j and tranquillity and peace resulted. 
Therefore all were well inclined to their king and 
assigned themselves to his rule, foj his moderation 



506 PERSIAN TRANSLATOR S PERORATION. 

and self-restraint and feeling gave confidence to 
the subject. They redoubled their love and 
regard, and, when on the X3arpet of prayer, their 
supplications arose from the heart to Heaven, for 
the just King Ulugh-Beg and the Lord of Vizirs 
Azz-Nasir. Their renown is spread throughout all 
regions of the earth, and in mansions eternal there 
will be a home for them in Paradise, a recompense 
for their good deeds will be there assigned, and 
apportioned to them on the day of judgment, when 
their rank will be very great amongst that 
assembly of jubilant guests (if it be Heaven's 
will). 

The author,. after some final encomiastic verses, 
thus concludes : — 

This short history has been written in the 
heroic bosom (private residence, &c., or patronage) 
of Tdj-Addin-Muin-Al IsMm, Sayyid Al-Am^thal- 
wa-AssadTir,Ah-'bn-Muhammad-'bn-AbTil-Ghayth, 
Grand Agent of the empire and centre tie of the 
State, and this book is concluded by his assistance. 
The Persian verses which have been composed and 
annexed are more than was enjoined by the lucid 
mind and obedient nature of him who can 
compose rhyme and blank verses, and make up 
a history with lawful magic (fascination) and clear 
'water (beauty). His glory, his ancestors, and the 



PERSIAN translator's PERORATION. 507 

virtues of his father, who was the Ibn-Amid of his 
time, and the Abdul-Ahmld of the age, are 
broug-ht forward in this complete book, entitled 
"A gift to the universe upon the merits of Ir4k."* 
I will demand, as in marriage, from thy love, 
the falling away from blarning (this work). I will 
endow what I demand with all that I have freely 
and liberally. If those who are fully equal to this 
difficult work be desired we (Heaven prolong the 
remaining years of the high Court !) are in afflic- 
tion, of the humblest of his people, and poor, and 
(even) the nobler are but suspected amongst his 
tribe, chiefly on account of two wants and sorrows, 
want of talent and distance from our country. 
But the officers and the high assembly (Heaven 
perpetuate its greatness, and the greatness of his 
accomplished comrades and guests, and of his 
ministers in guiding and consoling !) [still 
remain^.f When, however, the dove is cooing his 
excellent notes one does not make the pigeon fly 
(in rivalry) and when the cymbals warble no 
responsive strains can aid her sweetness ; and if 
he would be willing to superadd heaviness (im- 
portance) to my Hght weight he in wisdom is 

^\ jtll ^lsy< (tfS J)^^^ AiajJ'. It may also be ren- 
dered " upon tte benefactors of Irdk," or jUl may be 
derived from jy, Conj. iv, J^\, to exalt, restore to health and 
strength, Sfe. 

t Still remain, i. e., to compile this translation better. 



508 PERSIAN translator's peroration. 

adapted for the highest place (function) (beyond 
me). Unto him will I be attached, morning and 
evening, and wiU serve him as spiritualized bodies 
serve. Hereby I shall attain great glory and 
happy blessedness, and augmented exaltation to 
my mind. 

The Arabic text concludes thus : — 

May God have mercy upon his servant who 
saith Amen. Now is completed the Kitab-AI- 
Yamini, upon the explication of the history of the 
Sultd,n Yamin- Addoulat-wa- Amin- Al-Millat, Abul- 
Kasim-Mahmild-'bn-Sabaktagln, and the commen- 
dation of the assemblies of his contemporaries and 
comrades, with the annexed histories of the princes 
of the provinces in his vicinity, as collected by 
Abii - Nasr - Muhammad -Abdul -Jabber- Al - Utbi, 
wonder of scribes. May God illuminate his grave 
and gladden his glory ! 



NOTES. 



P- 14. — The meaning of the Persian Translator apparently 
IS that he excelled both in Persian and Arabic compositions, 
but chiefly in the latter. 

P. 36. — ^Effervescing fountain. The following is from the 
JDahistdn (Translation of Shea and Troyes, Vol. II, p. 167) : — 

" There are many miraculous things in Kashmir, one of 
them is Sandebar, and they relate : — In ancient times a holy 
Brahmin dwelt in a cavern of the mountain, where he devoted 
himself to the worship of the Almighty God. Once every year 
he went to the Ganges to bathe. After having passed several 
years in that way Ganga said to the Brahmin, Thou measurest 
always such a length of road, on which thou dost set aside the 
worship of God ; my convention with thee is this, that, when 
the sun reaches the constellation of the Bull, I will three times 
a day come to thy resting-place. Erom this time, when the 
great luminary throws his effulgence towards the constellation 
of the Bull, the water of the river springs up boiling from the 
basin of the fountain, which is near the place of his devotion. 
Sundeberari, in the cavern of the mountain, became celebrated. 
It is a square basin, and has on its eastern wall an open cavity, 
from which, as weU as from several other vents and holes in 
the sides of the basin, the water springs up. However stead- 
fastly one may look the bottom cannot be discovered, and in 
the middle of the eastern side there are seven holes, which the 



510 NOTES. 

people of Kashmir call Saptarshi, ' the seven Eishis ;' on the 
northern side there is an issue, which they call dama bhavani. 
When the world-illuminating sun begins to enter the constel- 
lation of the Bull the water appears there in the following 
manner : it springs up first from the large cavity, then from 
the SaptarsM, so the Hindus call seven rakshasas and give 
their name to the constellation of the Great Bear. Further 
the water comes up from the dama bhavani, that is, the mansion 
of Bhavani, the wife of Mahadeo. When the cavity is filled 
then the water, passing over the borders, runs out, the Sanyasis 
and other Hindus, who had come from distant places, throw 
themselves into it, and the people who find no room carry 
water from it. Afterwards the ebullition declines, in such a 
manner that there remains not the least trace of the water. In 
this month the water boils up three times a day, namely, in 
the morning, at midday, and in the afternoon, at the hour of 
prayer. After the lapse of this month no more water is seen, 
until the sun enters again into the sign of the Bull." 

Perhaps, however, the efiervescence of the fountain in the 
text may have been caused by acids or acid wine. 

P. 45. — Adhad Ad Douiat or Ad Doulah. Ad Doulat is 
the Arabic form. Ad Doulah the Persian. The Translator has 
inadvertently confounded them occasionally. 

P. 225, line 22nd. — Bektuzun, or Bektuztim, or Begtuzlin, 
or Tektuzdn, or Bekturun. In a work of such antiquity as 
the Kitabi Tamini it is sometimes diflBcult to ascertain the 
precise orthography of proper names, on account of the paucity 
of MSS. and the difficulty of historical coUations. The Trans- 
lator finally adopted Bektuzun. 

P. 302. — "Drawing his eye over his rough standards" (in 
the text erroneously printed standard) i. e., Surveying his 
standards carried by hardy warriors. 

P. 318. — The idea which has become a quality of the 
Muhammadan character is apathetic patience. Muslims appear 



NOTES. 511 

to regard it as a crime to suffer deterioration from hope delayed, 
or even (as here) to entertain aspirations beyond their present 
circumstances. 

Pp. 431, 437. — Although Utbi promises additional informa- 
tion respecting these personages, yet little or nothing is subse- 
quently recorded by him respecting them. This omission and 
the abrupt conclusion of his work would imply that he left it 
incomplete, although he no doubt designed to complete it. In 
p. 437 he alludes to "the two hrothers," sons of Mahmud, 
although he is narrating the history of but one. Probably a 
sentence may be wanting in the MS. 

Pp. 459, 460. — Jandbal appears to be a different person 
from Jaipal, but the latter may be identical with Haibal or 
Bahamal. 



ERRATA. 



P. 5 and elsewhere, for " Nabobs" read " Nawwabs.'' 

P. 21, Une 8, for " they" read " he." 

P. 47, for " An Naan" read " Al Amir." 

P. 144, for " Armir" read "Amir." 

P. 203, for " Religious" read " Religion." 

P. 207, for " past" read " passed." 

P. 256, for "Gascin" read " Garcin." 

P. 292, for " Ibrahun" read " Ibrahim." 

P. 295, for "Dhul Karanin" read "Dhul Karnain." 

P. 302, for " standard" read "standards." 

P. 382, for "Anslan" read " Arslan." 

P. 478, line 18, dele " amongst." 

Vizir occasionally replaced by Vizir or Vizer. 

Rai inadvertently printed as Re, in several pages.